C'est encore en cours, mais c'est d'une incroyable richesse! Ms Photos : Rodney Decker. Usage non commercial uniquement. Pour la critique textuelle du Nouveau Testament , deux outils en ligne sont indispensables :. Textual Criticism of the Semitic New Testament. Un classique ou. The Study of Textuel Crticism : quelques notions de base anglais. BA de critique textuelle. The Brethren of the Lord - J. Lightfoot The Development of the Canon of the New Testament.
Nunn : p, 6,2Mo. Greek in a Nutshell. The art of Papyrus Making - La fabrication d'un papyrus. Lightfoot sur la transmission des Ecritures. First published SPCK First published Oxford University Press First published by Collin's Bien suivre les instructions! Hemmer, Lejay, Oger et al. Godet et C. Oeuvres de Justin. Oeuvres de Tertullien. Early Christian Fathers par Cyril C.
Ante-Nicene Fathers, par A. Roberts et J. Apologetic, II. Anti- Marcion, III. Volume 10 - Original Supplement to the American Edition. Vigouroux Trallin, Migne , 2 vol. PDF p. Les livres apocryphes par Neil R. Comment ils en sont sortis. Ebionites, Nazaraens, Laodiceans Introduction to the Apocrypha, B. Pourtant les travaux scientifiques en histoire font une impasse notoire sur la chronologie.
Et surtout qu'ils permettront la naissance d'une chronologie scientifique en France et dans le monde. New Bible Atlas John H. Nazareth, Babylon, Laodicea, Ephesus Antioch, Sardis, Pergamum The Jewish Encyclopaedia. Conrdance NT entre 1 et Concordance AT entre 1 et The Catholic Encyclopaedia. Hitchcock's Bible Names Dictionary. American Tract Society Bible Dictionary.
Holman Bible Dictionary. Smith's Bible Dictionary. Synonym of the New Testament - Richard Trench. Westphal ou : module Bible Online , ou Bible Parser. Glossaire de l'Eglise catholique. Esposito Ph. Ici au format iSilo! En tous les cas, un travail magistral.
Luc Ici au format html. Avec accent anglais, c'est le moins qu'on puisse dire Pour l'instant: Matthieu , Marc , Luc et Jean. Brooke, N. McLean, H. N'est-ce pas merveilleux? De nombreux fichiers audio. Excellente ressource. Moi je les trouve excellents. Formats PDF.
Certains livres du NT ont des notes. Un travail monumental! Elle emploie Yahweh pour le nom divin. Du bon travail! Cependant, dans son introduction, J. Darby, en anglais. The New Simplified Bible is unitarian, monotheistic one God biased. John , 18; ; ; , 17; ; Exodus , 15 and many other references give evidence of this. The doctrine of the Trinity was established by the Roman Catholic Church in the fourth century after Christ.
After the Reformation the Protestant churches continued to teach about this mysterious Trinity. It is not a part of the origional teachings of the Holy Scriptures and therefore should not be considered when translating from the origional language. Apocryphes inclus. Soucieux de fournir aux francophones un texte bien meilleur, il entreprend la traduction du Pentateuque. Goodwin PDF, p. An Arabic version of the Testimonium Flavianum and its implications.
Jerusalem, Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Josephus , vol. In the Loeb Classical Library. Lecture enrichissante. Ce sont les deux premiers chapitres d'un ouvrage plus complet sur les versions de la Bible. Pour chaque livre biblique, il y a le texte et de nombreux liens vers des commentaires. Clark, A ou ici. C'est en quelque sorte un requiem en faveur du dialogue interreligieux. Moderne avant l'heure. Le christianisme est comme un grand fleuve grossi et nourri de multiples affluents. L'essai est donc tumultueux lui aussi, un peu comme Hislop, Les Deux Babylones. John ou deity Gesenius ou ici en un seul fichier PDFp.
Quels en sont les auteurs? De quand datent-ils? Bauer en allemand : ici en traduction anglaise de With an appendix, By George E. Ellis : la controverse unitarienne n'a pas fini de faire couler de l'encre. Ici les Confessions en latin avec commentaire. Voir le Dictionnaire du copte de W. The Gospel of St. John according to the earliest Coptic Manuscript. The Religion of Babylonia and Assyria. Rhetorical criticism and Zechariah : analysis of a methodology for determining chiastic structures in biblical Hebrew texts.
McDaniel , PH. A-K et L-Z. Remarks on the Use of the Definite Article in the Greek Text of the New Testament containing many new proofs of the divinity of the Christ from passages which are wrongly translated in common english versions. Il y a comme cela de nombreux passages, et d'autres sont plus ambigus: ils font l'objet de l'article de Sharp. Bibliographie sur le sujet :.
A Reexamination of the Granville Sharp Rule ou word. Ed Komoszewski , Th.
Wallace, who accepts Sharp's rule as having some validity , has this to say about the man whose name it bears: "His strong belief in Christ's deity led him to study the Scriptures in the original in order to defend more ably that precious truth He noticed further that this rule applied in several texts to the deity of Jesus Christ" Wallace, page Daniel Wallace however demonstrated that the claim of this rule is too broad. Instead, a phrase that follows the form aticle-noun-"and"-noun, when the nouns involved are plurals, can involve two entirely distinct groups, two overlapping groups, two groups of which is one a subset of the other, or two identical groups Wallace, page ".
Elle se formule ainsi : "a definite predicate nominative has the article when it follows the verb; it does not have the article when it precedes the verb. No longer should Colwell's rule mislead us into thinking that an anarthrous predicate nominative preceding the verb is just as definite as the articular predicate nominative following the verb and that "there need be no doctrinal significance in the dropping of the article, for it is simply a matter of word-order. First, Colwell's rule cannot be applied to the verse as an argument for definiteness.
Colwell's rule says that definite predicate nominatives preceding the verb usually are anarthrous. The rule asserts nothing about definiteness.
It does not say that anarthrous predicate nominatives preceding the verb usually are definite. This is theconverse of the rule, and as such is not cessarily valid. Second, on the basis of the contrast with where the humanity of Christ is stressed , and on the basis of the comparison with the first two clauses in where two eternal qualities of the Logos are laid out , we conclude that theos is c stresses quality. Dont les conclusions sont les suivantes : 1 First, it establishes objective criteria for determining whether a noun is either mass or count 2 Second it establishes that qualitativeness Q can exist independent of any other semantic tag 3 Third, it restricts the area of disputable texts to singular count nouns 4 Fourth, it pre-empts the post hoc fallacy, i.
Wallace : Syntaxe de l'article. Introduction B. Origin C. Function D. Regular Uses of the Article E. Absence of the Article D. Absence of the Article pp. Plan : a. Historical Background 1. The development of punctuation in the West 2. Punctuation in Hebrew 2a. The Jewish Academies - Mishna and Talmud 2b. From Talmud to Masoretic Text b. Hebrew Orthography and the Punctuation System 1. Pre-Masoretic signs 2. Masoretic points and accents 2a. Vocalisation: Hebrew Vowels 2b. Other non-punctuating Masoretic signs 2c. Masoretic punctuation signs. Et sur Amazon.
Metzger quelques coquilles dans le fichier pdf. Wikipedia - cf. Metzger, The Text of the NT Voyez par ex les p. Oui sans doute. Voir aussi les figures des p. Burnouf sur Gallica. XI, p. De nombreux exemples originaux. Gow et S. Amphoux trad. Nous ne le savons pas.
C'est elle que C. Et de citer Courcelle : la cause principale de la disparition, au cours du premier Moyen Age, de tant d'ouvrages grecs ou latins. Paul, dans sa lettre aux Colossiens Col. Ici une autre traduction anglaise par M. Paul's First Epistle to Timothy , H. Russel soit pour les deux groupes une figure historique importante.
The Messiah Jesus , tr. Did Jesus Live B. London: Theosophical Publishing Society, Exodus , folio 32 verso, page William Hendriksen and Dr. Simon Kistemaker , 12 vol. Paul to the Galatians. Paul Epistle to the Philippians. Paul Epistles to the Colossians and to Philemon. Liddell et R. Reed : extrait de l' Anglican Theological Review vol. Even though the avant-gardes of the first half of the twentieth century did not operate in a global environment at least not in the sense the term is currently understood , their aims and practices were characteristically extra-national — or, in a word, transnational.
Transnational literatures challenge historical ways of thinking, which in literary history are often based on the terms of nations and linguistic regions such as Sudeten Germans. Such literatures may also establish a cross-cultural system where speakers of many languages share a common literary idiom.
Yet, avant-garde literature may be considered inherently transnational in character, even though its study has mainly been based on national languages. Rather, it was supposedly a cosmopolitan way of thinking that was meant to be appropriated in and by a variety of literary cultures. This was the aim of the Romanian-born Tristan Tzara with his project Dadaglobe , an anthology that would have displayed various Dadaists from across the world. This aim of crossing borders also resulted in various strategies to counter othering, evident in the history of the avant-gardes, especially in a colonial context.
In Europe, the cross-border exchange between France and Romania in the field of avant-garde literature represents a transnationalism that resulted in a body of works that are not French per se but are nevertheless essential for the French avant-garde canon. However, such an argument overlooks the fact that, for instance, Dada was launched in Switzerland by German, French-German, and Romanian artists, with Sophie Taeuber-Arp being the only Swiss native in Cabaret Voltaire.
Such circumstances constitute a multifaceted transnational space, because a fair number of these people were ethnic Jews. However, Zurich cannot be regarded as an inter-war artistic centre akin to the aforementioned centres: it did not spur further avant-garde movements; nor had it previously done so.
Neither can Bucharest be considered an inter-war centre, even though it gave rise to the unique Romanian integralism. As noted, one of the features facilitating cross-border exchange is language, and the Romanian francophilia of the early twentieth century is well documented. Firstly, French was not the first language of the writers I will examine even though it became the primary language of their literary expression — early on in some cases while somewhat gradually in others.
In fact, Yiddish was the mother tongue of at least Tzara, Isou, and Luca, but at the time French together with German functioned as a European lingua franca and had a firm standing in Romanian intellectual circles. On account of their linguistic abilities and aesthetic sensibility, Romanian Jewish writers were not as a rule to be found on the margins of such French avant-gardes as Dada, surrealism or lettrism.
Tzara and the brothers Janco, for instance, were prominent Dadaists. Brauner, Voronca, and Sernet were renowned surrealists, and Isou founded the lettrist movement, which became one of the more influential movements in post-war France together with situationism. This article investigates how the ethnic-cultural background of these writers was reflected in their transnational avant-garde activity. The Kabbalah emerged around the late twelfth century in southern France and Catalonia as a method, discipline, and school of thought for unconventional Torah study. Therefore, the topos was first and foremost a poetic endeavour where religious allusions were mainly secondary.
The sporadic but recurring uses of the Kabbalah in avant-garde literature were anachronistic, representing a certain medievalist inclination in the avant-garde. Yet, there is no simple and straightforward answer as to why the avant-gardists chose the Kabbalah, because the reasons for the newly awakened interest of authors such as Yvan Goll, Luca, and Isou remains unclear. The most likely interpretation is that the avant-gardists found in the Kabbalistic corpus a repository of original and idiosyncratic conceptions of language, meaning production, and textual techniques, which went hand in hand with the avant-gardist tendency to subvert common sense and normalized logic.
There are two aspects that support this interpretation. Firstly, the avant-gardists, especially those of Jewish origin, were familiar with the use of the Kabbalah in the avant-garde, for instance its use by the neo-Kabbalist Oskar Goldberg in the Neue Club early expressionism, by the artists evoking the Russian Jewish renaissance of the s and by the Polish Yiddish avant-gardists during the s. It should be noted that the poetic interest in the Kabbalah was typically — but not exclusively — francophone, especially after the early s when the Nazis destroyed much of the German- and Yiddish-speaking Jewish population of Europe.
Even though the focus of this article is on Jewish ethnicity and its manifestations in the literary output of certain avant-gardist writers, it would be inappropriate to talk about diaspora rather than transnationalism. Transnationalism, for one, addresses more recent migrant flows and bilateral cross-border exchange: it focuses on mobility and active networks. In literature, transnationalism defies cultural affiliations. Transnationalism in the Franco-Romanian avant-garde is often connected to mobility, self-realization, and the utilization of the Jewish textual tradition.
In fact, the history of the Romanian avant-garde is by and large a history of emigration. The cultural history of Romania, which is explained in more detail below, first facilitated and encouraged emigration and cultural exchange, but during the late s emigration was accelerated by anti-Semitism. One of those fleeing from communism was Luca, who joined the Romanian expatriate community in Paris in The adoption of Kabbalistic elements was logical: the Kabbalah was created by people in diaspora and included inventive manipulation of texts.
This Jewish people was culturally transnational and the Kabbalah — written in Hebrew — preceded national languages. In other words, the themes and textual techniques of the Kabbalah were transnational in character even though they were applied in avant-garde writing in national languages.
Moreover, the original Kabbalah was doubly beyond the reach of the major European gentile population: the Hebrew language was relatively unknown outside the religious sphere, and the modes of thought present in the Kabbalah were equally unfamiliar. Hence, even though the avant-gardists presented Kabbalistic elements in national languages such as French, the resulting poetic style and the rather idiosyncratic modes of thought were still considered awkward.
Kabbalistic rhetoric does, however, carry with it latent religious influences. Voronca echoes the works of these predecessors when stipulating the necessity for a new approach to words, which would establish a new logic. Similar specious neophilia proved to be an overarching feature of the various avant-gardes, together with various utopian and political aims. In the light of such extensive neophilia, the complete omission of religion and its rhetoric would seem to be necessary.
While Voronca promoted his new avant-gardist logic, he concurrently suggested that Judaism had created a new logic as well, which perhaps refers to monotheism amid polytheistic or pagan religions. He writes: You have dragged me away from courts drenched by rain, And you have discarded me in December from the stoves with redhot crackling fire, I wander away from the streets that are filled with noise, And you have whipped me in market places as you whip old horses.
Voronca refers to a novella, Peter Schlemihl , written in German by the exiled aristocrat, Adelbert von Chamisso. Overall, Jewish participation in the avant-gardes is noteworthy because it can be seen as an alternative path to modernization. The avant-garde provided an alternative world view to those uninterested in religious orthodoxy or bourgeois assimilation. Both terms are essential for an understanding of francophone transnationalism, especially its Jewish variant.
The terms reflect the potential of assimilation, that is, how easily a person could become a member of the local majority. Assimilation usually occurred according to the educational, occupational, and cultural conditions established by the middle class, which is why assimilation may not have been very attractive to many young avant-garde artists.
Such a definition applies to local manifestations of the avant-garde in East Central Europe but not to Franco-Romanian bilateral artistic exchange in the avant-garde. Instead of remaining outside the centres in the relatively small Bucharest or the Eastern European shtetlekh, Jewish artists often formed alternative undercurrents manifest, for instance, in their adoption of the Kabbalah in the metropolitan centres of the avant-garde. In other words, they represented otherness in these centres, but this otherness occurred in the same transnational space with other French avant-garde production.
Yet the existential situation was altogether different for the French-speaking Romanian Jewish avant-gardists than it was for Einstein. This is evident in their explicit accounts of their Jewishness. The most renowned Kabbalistic techniques are gematria , temurah , and notarikon. Gematria is based on the numerical value of letters in Hebrew, which does not use distinct numerical symbols. The technique explains a word or group of words according to the numerical value of the letters, or by substituting other letters of the alphabet for them in accordance with a set of rules.
Maxy pen name of Max Herman were successful in claiming their civic rights, He tells it like it is—a dose of raw, refreshing, honest truth that is sorely lacking today. In a wild, remote corner of Alaska, the Allbrights find a fiercely independent community of strong men and even stronger women. Gematria is based on the numerical value of letters in Hebrew, which does not use distinct numerical symbols. Aucun des descendants actuellement vivants de G.
The temurah , for one, expresses the belief that non-existent letters are as meaningful a part of the verse as those that already exist. Finally, notarikon is the method of interpreting the Hebrew Scriptures by making words from letters taken from the beginning, middle, or end of the words in a sentence. The Kabbalistic topos manifests itself not only in poems but also in theoretical texts relating to poetics. One should also notice that during this period many Jews across the continent knew the Kabbalah, at least on a very general level, so such thinly veiled references were no doubt recognized.
In most cases, the audience had to have at least a fair grasp of French. It is noteworthy, however, that nowhere does Brauner limit the interrelation of the poet and Kabbalistic material to Jewish ethnicity. This suggests that the Kabbalistic topos influenced more the form than contents of avant-gardist poems. The phenomenon seems to be too widespread among the avant-gardists of Jewish origin for it to be a case of mere mystification.
He adopted not only Kabbalistic techniques, but the whole notion of language being based on unfixable rather than stable meanings. Indeed, hereby the Kabbalistic topos becomes a cultural identifier. The poem destabilizes meaning by means of stuttering that bears both a homophonic and a visual aspect: the repetitive approximation of words in the opening line binds the grammatical elements together.
This results from a recodification of a Kabbalistic technique into French, because Hebrew script is abjad — that is, the vowels are not written. Hence, Luca manages to preserve the poetic aspect of the Kabbalah without directly engaging a religious overtone. Indeed, the poem speaks multiple meanings and no meanings simultaneously. In fact, such haphazard and coincidental passages were a common result of gematria whereby a seemingly non-sensical instalment could have multiple meanings for the initiated. Isou, likewise, sought to unburden literature from the representation of mental concepts in language.
His Kabbalah-informed poetry, hypergraphie , transcended national languages by subverting the linguistic contents of language in extremis. Epistemologically, hypergraphics could not convey linguistically communicable meaning due to the invented signs it included. Isou was keen on diminishing the secular aspect of the Kabbalah in avant-garde poetry, which tended to utilize mysticism for poetic rather than spiritual ends. This is another way of articulating the obscurity of the Kabbalah and its resistance to modern modes of thought, such as national ist agendas. The Kabbalistic topos illustrates the ethnic-cultural transnational spaces in francophone literature.
This outsiderdom has a history: the Jewish diaspora in East Central Europe was transnational in character. It became more emphasized during the Russian Revolution, when approximately half a million Jewish refugees from the Russian Pale of Settlement arrived in Romania. The refugees were Ashkenazi and spoke Yiddish or Russian rather than Romanian, thus provoking anti-Semitic attitudes among Romanian gentiles against all Jews. Romanian literary modernity had indeed arrived from France, in which the Jewish intelligentsia played a crucial role.
These little magazines were often trilingual Romanian, French, German and included original contributions by some of the leading figures of the Continental avant-garde, such as Breton, Marinetti, and Herwath Walden. In fact, contemporary Western writers seldom maintained any sense of periphery and Romanian avant-gardists were regarded as important as those in Vienna or Berlin. In addition, the Romanian magazines were au courant with the topical developments in the avant-garde thanks to their correspondents in Paris, such as Tzara and Benjamin Fondane.
However, following his early interest in the avant-garde in the latter part of the s, Fondane became keen on Shestovian existential philosophy and his literary works characteristically more modernist.