MEMOIRS OF NAPOLEON BONAPARTE (annotated, illustrated)

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He could organize his own thoughts and rapidly dictate a series of complex commands to all his subordinates, keeping in mind where each major unit was expected to be at every future point, and like a chess master, "seeing" the best plays many moves ahead. Combined with his inexhaustible energy, he kept relays of staff and secretaries at work.

Unlike many generals, Napoleon did not turn to history to ask what Hannibal or Alexander or whomever did in a similar situation. Critics said he won many battles simply because of luck; Napoleon responded, "Give me lucky generals," aware that "luck" comes to leaders who recognize opportunity, and seize it. On the great Russian campaign of , with crisis after crisis at hand, he rarely rose to the occasion. Some historians have suggested a physical deterioration, but others note that an impaired Napoleon was still a brilliant general.

In terms of impact on events, it was more than Napoleon's personality that took effect. He chose outstanding generals, and stood by them. He reorganized France itself to supply the men and money needed for great wars. The force of his personalities neutralized material difficulties as his soldiers fought with the confidence that with Napoleon in charge they would surely win. Napoleon has become a worldwide cultural icon who symbolises military genius and political power.

Martin van Creveld described him as "the most competent human being who ever lived". He has been portrayed in hundreds of films and discussed in hundreds of thousands of books and articles. During the Napoleonic Wars he was taken seriously by the British press as a dangerous tyrant , poised to invade. He was often referred to by the British as Boney. A nursery rhyme warned children that Bonaparte ravenously ate naughty people; the " bogeyman ". Confusion about his height also results from the difference between the French pouce and British inch—2.

In Alfred Adler , a psychologist, cited Napoleon to describe an inferiority complex in which short people adopt an over-aggressive behaviour to compensate for lack of height; this inspired the term Napoleon complex. He is often portrayed wearing a large bicorne hat with a hand-in-waistcoat gesture—a reference to the painting produced in by Jacques-Louis David. Napoleon I strengthened the town's defences to prevent British naval incursions. In the field of military organization , Napoleon borrowed from previous theorists such as Jacques Antoine Hippolyte, Comte de Guibert , and from the reforms of preceding French governments, and then developed much of what was already in place.

He continued the policy, which emerged from the Revolution, of promotion based primarily on merit. Corps replaced divisions as the largest army units, mobile artillery was integrated into reserve batteries, the staff system became more fluid and cavalry returned as an important formation in French military doctrine.

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These methods are now referred to as essential features of Napoleonic warfare. His opponents learned from Napoleon's innovations. The increased importance of artillery after stemmed from his creation of a highly mobile artillery force, the growth in artillery numbers, and changes in artillery practices.

As a result of these factors, Napoleon, rather than relying on infantry to wear away the enemy's defenses, now could use massed artillery as a spearhead to pound a break in the enemy's line that was then exploited by supporting infantry and cavalry. McConachy rejects the alternative theory that growing reliance on artillery by the French army beginning in was an outgrowth of the declining quality of the French infantry and, later, France's inferiority in cavalry numbers.

Napoleon's biggest influence was in the conduct of warfare. Antoine-Henri Jomini explained Napoleon's methods in a widely used textbook that influenced all European and American armies. Under Napoleon, a new emphasis towards the destruction, not just outmanoeuvring, of enemy armies emerged. Invasions of enemy territory occurred over broader fronts which made wars costlier and more decisive. The political impact of war increased significantly; defeat for a European power meant more than the loss of isolated enclaves. Near- Carthaginian peaces intertwined whole national efforts, intensifying the Revolutionary phenomenon of total war.

Napoleon ended lawlessness and disorder in post-Revolutionary France. His role in the Haitian Revolution and decision to reinstate slavery in France's oversea colonies are controversial and have an impact on his reputation.

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Paperback; edge of pages yellowed otherwise good in yellowed and marked card covers. The collection contains some monographs, records for which are available on the website. Containing the first report ordered to be printed 25 May , the second report 2nd June the third One of the first truly modern politicians, Napoleon was a master at manipulating the media to project an idealized image of himself that has endured to this day. Clearly chronicled and explained. Franz Eugen von Seida und Landensberg was a relatively unknown This was by far the largest battle of the Napoleonic Wars and cost more than 90, casualties in total.

Napoleon institutionalised plunder of conquered territories: French museums contain art stolen by Napoleon's forces from across Europe. Chandler , a historian of Napoleonic warfare, wrote in that, "Nothing could be more degrading to the former and more flattering to the latter. Napoleon's masterful use of propaganda contributed to his rise to power, legitimated his regime, and established his image for posterity. Strict censorship, controlling aspects of the press, books, theater, and art, was only part of his propaganda scheme, aimed at portraying him as bringing desperately wanted peace and stability to France.

The propagandistic rhetoric changed in relation to events and the atmosphere of Napoleon's reign, focusing first on his role as a general in the army and identification as a soldier, and moving to his role as emperor and a civil leader. Specifically targeting his civilian audience, Napoleon fostered an important, though uneasy, relationship with the contemporary art community, taking an active role in commissioning and controlling different forms of art production to suit his propaganda goals.

Hazareesingh explores how Napoleon's image and memory are best understood when considered within the socio-political context. They played a key role in collective political defiance of the Bourbon restoration monarchy in — People from all walks of life and all areas of France, particularly Napoleonic veterans, drew on the Napoleonic legacy and its connections with the ideals of the revolution.

Widespread rumors of Napoleon's return from St. Helena and Napoleon as an inspiration for patriotism, individual and collective liberties, and political mobilization manifested themselves in seditious materials, notably displaying the tricolor and rosettes, and subversive activities celebrating anniversaries of Napoleon's life and reign and disrupting royal celebrations, and demonstrated the prevailing and successful goal of the varied supporters of Napoleon to constantly destabilize the Bourbon regime.

Datta shows that, following the collapse of militaristic Boulangism in the late s, the Napoleonic legend was divorced from party politics and revived in popular culture. Reduced to a minor character, the new fictional Napoleon was not a world historical figure but an intimate one fashioned by each individual's needs and consumed as popular entertainment.

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In their attempts to represent the emperor as a figure of national unity, proponents and detractors of the Third Republic used the legend as a vehicle for exploring anxieties about gender and fears about the processes of democratization that accompanied this new era of mass politics and culture.

International Napoleonic Congresses are held regularly and include participation by members of the French and American military, French politicians and scholars from different countries. In January , the mayor of Montereau-Fault-Yonne , near Paris—the site of a late victory of Napoleon—proposed development of a commemorative theme park at a projected cost of million euros.

In particular, Napoleon's French nationalism had the effect of influencing the development of nationalism elsewhere—often inadvertently. German nationalism of Fichte rose to challenge Napoleon's conquest of Germany. The Napoleonic invasion of the Iberian peninsula not only greatly fuelled Spanish and Portuguese national sentiment; it also helped provoke the Spanish American wars of independence. Napoleon also inflamed Italian nationalism, famously providing the design for the flag of Italy on the basis of the French tricolour. The Napoleonic Code is a codification of law including civil, family and criminal law that Napoleon imposed on French-conquered territories.

After the fall of Napoleon, not only was Napoleonic Code retained by many such countries including the Netherlands, Belgium, parts of Italy and Germany, but has also been used as the basis of certain parts of law outside Europe including the Dominican Republic, the US state of Louisiana and the Canadian province of Quebec. The memory of Napoleon in Poland is highly favorable, for his support for independence and opposition to Russia, his legal code, the abolition of serfdom, and the introduction of modern middle class bureaucracies.

A number of leaders have been influenced by Napoleon. Muhammad Ali of Egypt sought alliance with Napoleon's France and sought to modernize Egypt along French governmental lines.

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Until she met Bonaparte, she had been known as "Rose", a name which he disliked. Bonaparte often sent her love letters while on his campaigns. The letter appeared in the London and Paris presses, much to Napoleon's embarrassment. Napoleon had his own affairs too: during the Egyptian campaign he took Pauline Bellisle Foures, the wife of a junior officer, as his mistress. She became known as " Cleopatra " after the Ancient Egyptian ruler. In March , he married Marie Louise , Archduchess of Austria, and a great niece of Marie Antoinette by proxy ; thus he had married into a German royal and imperial family.

They remained married until his death, though she did not join him in exile on Elba and thereafter never saw her husband again. He became Napoleon II in and reigned for only two weeks. He was awarded the title of the Duke of Reichstadt in and died of tuberculosis aged 21, with no children.

Sign In Don't have an account? For other uses, see Napoleon disambiguation. Contents [ show ]. Main article: Siege of Toulon. Main article: Italian campaigns of the French Revolutionary Wars. Main article: French campaign in Egypt and Syria. Main articles: 18 Brumaire and Napoleonic era. See also: Haitian Revolution. Main article: First French Empire. Main article: War of the Third Coalition.

Main articles: Franco-Ottoman alliance and Franco-Persian alliance. Main article: War of the Fourth Coalition. Main article: Peninsular War. Main article: War of the Fifth Coalition. French Empire. French satellite states. Allied states. Main article: French invasion of Russia.

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Main article: War of the Sixth Coalition. Main article: Hundred Days. Main article: Napoleonic Code. Main articles: History of the metric system , Mesures usuelles , and Units of measurement in France. Further information: Napoleon and the Catholic Church. Further information: Concordat of Further information: Napoleon and the Jews. Further information: Cultural depictions of Napoleon.

Main article: Bonapartism. Main article: Napoleonic propaganda. House of Bonaparte. Four genuine death masks of Napoleon are known to exist: one in The Cabildo , a state museum located in New Orleans, one in a Liverpool museum, another in Havana and one in the library of the University of North Carolina. Well, when we see that our physical frame resembles theirs, may we not believe that we are only better organized matter The most simple idea consists in worshiping the sun, which gives life to everything.

I repeat, I think man was created in an atmosphere warmed by the sun, and that after a certain time this productive power ceased. I would believe in the Christian religion if it dated from the beginning of the world. That Socrates, Plato, the Mohammedan, and all the English should be damned is too absurd.

Jesus was probably put to death, like many other fanatics who proclaimed themselves to be prophets or the expected Messiah. Every year there were many of these men. This and other more minor attacks have led historians to debate whether he had epilepsy and, if so, to what extent. Napoleon Bonaparte 1. HarperPerennial ed. New York: HarperPerennial. Retrieved 3 November Retrieved 3 August Le Figaro.

Retrieved 20 February December Retrieved 18 February The War of Wars , Robinson, Retrieved 31 May Coronation Rites. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 28 August London: The Macmillan Company. Retrieved 10 March Retrieved 10 February Retrieved 15 June Retrieved 12 July Retrieved 4 November Helena' ' , pp. Retrieved 5 February Christianity and Revolutionary Europe c. Courier Dover Publications. France in Revolution, — Copley Simon and Schuster. Wellington: A Personal History.

Da Capo Press. Command in War. Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. Retrieved 12 October Retrieved 13 September Retrieved 5 April Retrieved 21 October Retrieved 27 June Foundation Napoleon. Retrieved 13 April Abbott, John Life of Napoleon Bonaparte. Kessinger Publishing. Alder, Ken Free Press. Alter, Peter Blanning and Hagen Schulze. Unity and Diversity in European Culture c. Oxford University Press. Amini, Iradj Napoleon and Persia. Archer, Christon I. Ferris, Holger H. Herwig World History of Warfare.

University of Nebraska Press. Astarita, Tommaso Balcombe Abell, Lucia Elizabeth Recollections of the Emperor Napoleon. Bell, David The First Total War. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Bertman, Sandra New York University. Retrieved 18 November Blaufarb, Rafe Bordes, Philippe Jacques-Louis David. Yale University Press. Boycott-Brown, Martin Chandler, David The Campaigns of Napoleon, Volume 1. The Campaigns of Napoleon. Leo Cooper. Chesney, Charles Connelly, Owen Blundering to Glory: Napoleon's Military Campaigns. Cordingly, David Cronin, Vincent Cullen, William Is Arsenic an Aphrodisiac?

Royal Society of Chemistry. Driskel, Paul As Befits a Legend. Delicately adorned…. Napoleon knew that his best strategy on returning from Elba was to exploit the unpopularity of restored Bourbon rule. This meant parading his own revolutionary credentials. He proclaimed….

The Reverend Andrew Bell in Madras and the…. In the school became a military academy and its purpose was to provide the French Empire with military officers. Education was a means…. The image shows a shako, pelisse and dolman of the 7th hussar regiment that belonged to Colonel Jean-Baptiste Antione Marcellin de Marbot - Colonel Marbot had been put in charge of the 7th hussar regiment during the Bourbon restoration in However his support for the King, like…. While Napoleon did have supporters in German lands, over the years he had caused great suffering to those living there: from the financial burden of occupation and annexation to the conscription of Germans for his campaigns, not to mention the battles fought on German soil.

The Wars of Liberation…. Diplomatic gifts were as important for Napoleon as any other ruler…. Faber, Remarks on the effusion of the fifth apocalyptic vial, and the late extraordinary restoration of the imperial revolutionary government of France F. By no…. On May , the battle of Tolentino, fought between the Austrian army and that of the King of Naples Joachim Murat, put an end to Napoleon's domination over Italy. In the days immediately following, the seventeen-year-old philologist and poet Giacomo Leopardi wrote an 'oration'….

Because of this, after the Third Partition of Poland , he was called by Catherine the Great to the court of…. When he returned to power in , Napoleon made some liberal concessions in the Acte additionnel see entry for 22 April. Like previous constitutional changes, it was submitted to a plebiscite. All adult males were invited to sign registers, opened in their communities for several days at the end….

There, he saw various optical illusions and automata, through which he had a glimpse into the state of…. The revolutionary origins of the 'Marseillaise' are well known. Quickly adopted and adapted by the…. Censorship was a sensitive matter in The young author of this play, intended for performance in Toulouse, had transposed the…. They issued a new protocol on 12 May , reaffirming their opposition….

Published anonymously in May , we have no record of its performance, though it may have been put on in one on Paris's private…. By Chateaubriand held an openly hostile position. He published a scathing essay De Buonaparte et des Bourbons in , attacking the…. On 30 April, Napoleon took the surprising and unprecedented step of calling on all male citizens in villages and towns of under to elect their mayors and adjoints deputies. This risked not only disrupting war preparations but also seeing numerous communes falling into royalist hands.

In the middle of May , Parisians were gripped not by the legislative elections or by the preparations for war but by a murder trial. As secretary to Baron vom Stein a Prussian statesman at the head of reform and war efforts , Ernst Moritz Arndt was able to avoid serious censorship and make the most of communication networks facilitating publication on a grand scale: during the period , he would become one of the most….

On 29 March , Nikolai Turgenev , a key figure of Russian liberal thought, wrote in his diary: 'Today [we] found out here that N[apoleon] entered into Paris as if he was back from a journey. He plays his role in a masterly fashion among a people made up of actors. What is going to…. Its publication life was brief — the first…. As Napoleon…. The text in the…. The book is obscure and scarce, printed and published provincially, in Newcastle upon Tyne , by an otherwise unknown writer.

It was originally intended for publication in , a chronology of…. The political philosopher and novelist William Godwin , whose Enquiry Concerning Political Justice forecast the elimination of government and the triumph of reason, is not the likeliest supporter of Napoleon. Yet his sparsely annotated Diary reveals a fascination with Napoleon. In Britain, the public mood towards Napoleon had dramatically changed since his abdication at the beginning of April The figure of the defeated despot who had oppressed Europe was giving way to that of the hero who had been unjustly detained on a small Mediterranean island and had boldly….

Klemens von Metternich was an Austrian diplomat of Rhenish origins who rose to become one of the most significant statesmen of the nineteenth century. Popular reactions in the Hispanic world were conditioned by an information black out imposed by the Bourbon king Ferdinand VII, who only ten months earlier had been restored to his throne in Madrid after spending six years as an involuntary guest of Napoleon in France.

The images show a copy of…. Mounted as a king in a royal equestrian portrait, this tobacco label shows Napoleon in his Imperial regalia. She married Napoleon's brother Louis Bonaparte, making Napoleon both her stepfather and brother-in-law. Hortense was at the Tuileries to greet the Emperor on 20th March on his return to Paris, and she wrote on his…. Journalistic comment during the days on the production of novels is heavily reminiscent of discussions during the French Revolution 25 years earlier.

Commentators in both instances felt that it was wrong to be devoting attention to something as trivial as novels at a time of such political…. It is now part of the 'Tableaux de la Revolution' collected by Ferdinand de Rothschild A rare survival, the ticket evokes the majesty…. After the campaign patriotic literature extolling the virility and martial attributes of German manhood circulated among the Prussian elite. The silver medal shown here was produced for members of the Chamber of representatives to use for the session.

On 4 June the Chamber of representatives chose Jean-Denis Lanjuinais as its president. Lanjuinais represented the liberal tradition of the French Revolution and had been a constant opponent of the Bonapartist regime. As member of the Senate, he had been one of the few to protest…. Bored British officers with the army in Belgium sometimes got themselves into trouble.

Sergeant Wheeler, who was stationed in Grammont Geraardsbergen wrote home about an incident in early June: In the great square, opposite the Guildhall, there is a fountain, in the middle stands a naked boy,…. For Romantic poet and novelist Alfred de Vigny, the first Restoration was a personal as well as a political milestone: in July , he was commissioned in one of the four corps of the royal household. Its 86 issues ran from January to August Four densely-packed pages…. The Congress of Vienna met not to make peace but to extend an existing one.

The Napoleonic invasion of the Iberian peninsula not only greatly fuelled Spanish and Portuguese national sentiment; it also helped provoke the Spanish American wars of independence. Napoleon also inflamed Italian nationalism, famously providing the design for the flag of Italy on the basis of the French tricolour.

The Napoleonic Code is a codification of law including civil, family and criminal law that Napoleon imposed on French-conquered territories. After the fall of Napoleon, not only was Napoleonic Code retained by many such countries including the Netherlands, Belgium, parts of Italy and Germany, but has also been used as the basis of certain parts of law outside Europe including the Dominican Republic, the US state of Louisiana and the Canadian province of Quebec. The memory of Napoleon in Poland is highly favorable, for his support for independence and opposition to Russia, his legal code, the abolition of serfdom, and the introduction of modern middle class bureaucracies.

A number of leaders have been influenced by Napoleon. Muhammad Ali of Egypt sought alliance with Napoleon's France and sought to modernize Egypt along French governmental lines. Until she met Bonaparte, she had been known as "Rose", a name which he disliked. Bonaparte often sent her love letters while on his campaigns. The letter appeared in the London and Paris presses, much to Napoleon's embarrassment. Napoleon had his own affairs too: during the Egyptian campaign he took Pauline Bellisle Foures, the wife of a junior officer, as his mistress.

She became known as " Cleopatra " after the Ancient Egyptian ruler. In March , he married Marie Louise , Archduchess of Austria, and a great niece of Marie Antoinette by proxy ; thus he had married into a German royal and imperial family. They remained married until his death, though she did not join him in exile on Elba and thereafter never saw her husband again. He became Napoleon II in and reigned for only two weeks. He was awarded the title of the Duke of Reichstadt in and died of tuberculosis aged 21, with no children.

Sign In Don't have an account? For other uses, see Napoleon disambiguation. Contents [ show ].

Memoirs of Napoleon, Vol 1 Full Audiobook by Louis Antoine Fauvelet de BOURRIENNE

Main article: Siege of Toulon. Main article: Italian campaigns of the French Revolutionary Wars. Main article: French campaign in Egypt and Syria. Main articles: 18 Brumaire and Napoleonic era.

See also: Haitian Revolution. Main article: First French Empire. Main article: War of the Third Coalition. Main articles: Franco-Ottoman alliance and Franco-Persian alliance.

François Carlo Antommarchi

Main article: War of the Fourth Coalition. Main article: Peninsular War. Main article: War of the Fifth Coalition. French Empire. French satellite states. Allied states. Main article: French invasion of Russia. Main article: War of the Sixth Coalition. Main article: Hundred Days. Main article: Napoleonic Code. Main articles: History of the metric system , Mesures usuelles , and Units of measurement in France. Further information: Napoleon and the Catholic Church. Further information: Concordat of Further information: Napoleon and the Jews. Further information: Cultural depictions of Napoleon.

Main article: Bonapartism. Main article: Napoleonic propaganda. House of Bonaparte. Four genuine death masks of Napoleon are known to exist: one in The Cabildo , a state museum located in New Orleans, one in a Liverpool museum, another in Havana and one in the library of the University of North Carolina. Well, when we see that our physical frame resembles theirs, may we not believe that we are only better organized matter The most simple idea consists in worshiping the sun, which gives life to everything.

I repeat, I think man was created in an atmosphere warmed by the sun, and that after a certain time this productive power ceased. I would believe in the Christian religion if it dated from the beginning of the world. That Socrates, Plato, the Mohammedan, and all the English should be damned is too absurd. Jesus was probably put to death, like many other fanatics who proclaimed themselves to be prophets or the expected Messiah.

Every year there were many of these men. This and other more minor attacks have led historians to debate whether he had epilepsy and, if so, to what extent. Napoleon Bonaparte 1. HarperPerennial ed. New York: HarperPerennial. Retrieved 3 November Retrieved 3 August Le Figaro.

Retrieved 20 February December Retrieved 18 February The War of Wars , Robinson, Retrieved 31 May Coronation Rites. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 28 August London: The Macmillan Company. Retrieved 10 March Retrieved 10 February Retrieved 15 June Retrieved 12 July Retrieved 4 November Helena' ' , pp.

Retrieved 5 February Christianity and Revolutionary Europe c. Courier Dover Publications. France in Revolution, — Copley Simon and Schuster. Wellington: A Personal History. Da Capo Press. Command in War. Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. Retrieved 12 October Retrieved 13 September Retrieved 5 April Retrieved 21 October Retrieved 27 June Foundation Napoleon. Retrieved 13 April Abbott, John Life of Napoleon Bonaparte. Kessinger Publishing. Alder, Ken Free Press. Alter, Peter Blanning and Hagen Schulze.

Unity and Diversity in European Culture c. Oxford University Press. Amini, Iradj Napoleon and Persia.

Archer, Christon I. Ferris, Holger H. Herwig World History of Warfare. University of Nebraska Press. Astarita, Tommaso Balcombe Abell, Lucia Elizabeth Recollections of the Emperor Napoleon. Bell, David The First Total War. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Bertman, Sandra New York University. Retrieved 18 November Blaufarb, Rafe Bordes, Philippe Jacques-Louis David.

Yale University Press. Boycott-Brown, Martin Chandler, David The Campaigns of Napoleon, Volume 1. The Campaigns of Napoleon. Leo Cooper. Chesney, Charles Connelly, Owen Blundering to Glory: Napoleon's Military Campaigns. Cordingly, David Cronin, Vincent Cullen, William Is Arsenic an Aphrodisiac? Royal Society of Chemistry. Driskel, Paul As Befits a Legend. Kent State University Press. Dunan, Marcel Retrieved 11 January Dwyer, Philip Napoleon:The Path to Power — Edwards, Catharine Roman Presences. Flynn, George Q. Greenwood Publishing Group.

Fremont-Barnes, Gregory; Todd Fisher Fulghum, Neil University of North Carolina. Retrieved 4 August Gates, David The Napoleonic Wars, — Geyl, Pieter []. Napoleon For and Against. Penguin Books. Goetz, Robert Greenhill Books. Hall, Stephen Size Matters. Hanson, Victor Davis The Claremont Institute. Retrieved 30 May Harvey, Robert The War of Wars. Hindmarsh, J. Thomas; John Savory American Association for Clinical Chemistry. Digital object identifier: Retrieved 10 October Hudson, Christopher 24 July Jackson, John Race, Racism, and Science.

Johnson, P. Napoleon: A life. Karsh, Inari Harvard University Press. Lowndes, Marie Adelaide Belloc Where Love And Friendship Dwelt. Macaulay, Neill Duke University Press. Markham, Felix Mass Market Paperback. McLynn, Frank St Andrew's University. Retrieved 18 July Outhwaite, William Poulos, Anthi Roberts, Andrew Napoleon and Wellington. Weidenfeld and Nicholson. Roberts, Chris