Africa since 1940: The Past of the Present (New Approaches to African History)

Politics of Africa
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N ote: Further details on options will be made available at the Introductory session. If fewer than 7 students sign up for an option, that option will be cancelled. There will be a maximum of 15 students in each seminar, so some students may not get their first choice option. Students must sign up for their option by 27 October with Dr Srinivasan.

When you sign up, please give a second choice option. Western intervention is a prominent feature of violent conflict in Africa, and Sudan and South Sudan have remained an enduring case. This option will critically assess these claims, and evaluate different theories of war, peace and political change. We will pay particular attention to the interplay between international, regional and local ideas and practices related to peace and conflict.

Why have these regions experienced such high levels of violence in the post-colonial period? Why have so many international and regional efforts to end conflict and promote peace failed? What accounts for different patterns of violent conflict in the region? What is the relationship between state formation, international economy, identity, development and violence? Has the involvement of new powers and non-traditional donors had any notable consequences? These are some of the questions that will be explored in this option.

We will focus on these questions and themes with reference to the experiences of Sudan and South Sudan, but students are welcome to draw comparisons with other African countries and regions. Mobile telephony, Internet connectivity and now the. What are the implications of new communication technologies for the distribution of power, including global and transnational dimensions?

How are the broadcast of state power, maintenance of authority and possibilities for governance being enabled and constrained? Are the affordances of digital communications changing the nature and power of publics in processes of political mobilisation, contestation and change? How are digital communications shaping the intervention opportunities and motivations of foreign actors in Africa, from corporations to states? This option will explore such questions thematically as well as through country case-studies ranging from Ethiopia to Kenya, from South Africa to Ghana , and with a multi-disciplinary approach.

It will link the recent debates on governance in Africa with those on the appropriation of new technologies, showing not only how ICTs may offer new opportunities for political participation, but also how networks of power and existing communication practices may re-reshape technologies in unique ways. Teaching consists primarily of seminars, though there are also optional lectures. Students are expected to participate actively in the seminar discussions. There is a significant amount of reading for this course typically one book per week and students should bear this in mind when selecting their courses.

The 3rd year undergraduate lecture series on African politics may be useful for MPhil students, especially if they have no previous background in African politics. They are, however, entirely optional, and no student is at a disadvantage if they do not attend the lectures. The first short piece words is a review essay. It should review one of the key books from Michaelmas term. The second research essay is a word essay displaying significant research and probing in depth one of the themes of the course. Questions are set by the Course Leader and released in February. A series of films shown to 3rd year undergraduates includes films that may be of interest to MPhil students, noted below.

These will be shown at.

The reading list divides material into different categories. The General books are useful starting points for the course. For each seminar topic you will find Core and Supplementary readings. The Seminar readings are essential readings for all students.

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Most weeks, the seminar reading will be a full book. There are some copies available at the libraries including the college libraries but if your budgets allow it you may want to consider purchasing them. You could also pool resources with other students in the seminar to share books. The Core readings are useful for the seminar discussions and book reviews. Students will be asked to contribute to seminar discussions by presenting on a specific core reading, with the seminar leader ensuring that all students contribute and participate throughout the term.

The Supplementary reading lists are provided for those who want to dig deeper into particular issues. Many of the readings are relevant for more than one Section. You can also try libraries across the university, including college libraries, Haddon, Marshall, Seely, and Geography. Discussion of African politics is vibrant and diverse, with rich crossover between scholarly debates and policy research and practice. Those wanting to follow the debates, from a variety of different perspectives, should explore the following specialist publications and academic journals those in italics are particularly prominent; most or all are available either on-line, at the PPS library or at the Centre of African Studies library :.

The following Internet sites are good for news and research about Africa. Is the study of African politics trapped in its past? How might the study of African politics inform our. How can a deeper understanding of. Research in African Literatures , 36 3 , In Naomi Chazan ed. P o litics and Society in Contemporary Africa. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, , pp. Mazrui, Ali Al Amin, Africa's international relations: the diplomacy of dependency and change , London, Heinemann, John W.

Did Colonial rule simply reproduce European ideas of the state in Africa? Alternatively, have rulers in Africa — Colonial or otherwise — encountered similar and enduring challenges to forming centralised states in mostly the same sorts of ways? Are critiques of how rural Africa has been historically ruled less relevant today? Jeffrey Herbst, States and Power in Africa. Princeton: Princeton University Press, updated edition , Ch. The invention of tradition.

Cambridge University Press. Ch6 [also in Perspectives on. The invention of tradition revisited: the case of colonial Africa.

Africa since 1940: The Past of the Present (New Approaches to African History)

In Legitimacy and the State in Twentieth-century Africa pp. Palgrave Macmillan UK. History and Historiography. Robinson, J. Gallagher and A. Lee, J. Colonial development and good government: a study of the ideas expressed by the British official classes in planning decolonization , Oxford: Clarendon Press, Rodney, Walter. Did African nationalism fail independent Africa? Whatever happened to Pan-Africanism? How did the role of violence in struggles for liberation shape the post-colonial trajectories of African states? What explains the different ways in which colonial authorities managed decolonisation across African states?

Stubbs ed. London: Penguin Books, Judith Molloy eds , African aims and attitudes: selected documents , Cambridge University Press, Jeffrey Herbst. States and Power in Africa. Princeton: Princeton University Press, , Ch. Ali Al Amin Mazrui. Shivji, Issa. Coleman, James S. Falola, Toyin Nationalism and African intellectuals. Rochester, N. Cooper, Frederick. Africa since the past of the present. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,. Rotberg, Robert I. New York: Oxford. What does clientalism explain and what does it overlook in the study of African politics?

What explains differences among African states regarding the strength of party versus identity politics or degrees of patronage and personal rule? Africa Works: Disorder as Political Instrument. Oxford: James. Review of African Political Economy , 22 65 , Cambridge Journal of.

Jean-Francois Bayart. Clapham, Christopher. London: Frances Printer, Jewsiewicki and Newbury examines the sociopolitical conditions that shaped the development of historical writings in Africa. Ki-Zerbo is an edited volume that provides the most comprehensive and detailed exploration of different aspects of the subject. Ranger calls for a new historiographical approach that emphasizes current relevance and usability, a position forcefully castigated by Neale but welcomed conditionally by Temu and Swai , which was sharply critical of the poverty of ideas inherent in a whole generation of postcolonial historical scholarship in Africa.

Afolayan, Funso. Edited by Kevin Shillington, — New York: Fitzroy Dearborn, A succinct overview that traces the development of African historiography from the earliest written records to the postmodernist accounts of the present. For general readers, undergraduate, and graduate students.

Falola, Toyin. Harlow, UK: Longman, Examines the importance of oral tradition as a historical source and explores pertinent issues in the development of Yoruba, Christian Missions, and West African historiographies. For general readers and college-level students. Jewsiewicki, Boghumi, and David Newbury, eds. A collection of essays, by prominent practitioners, reflecting on the social and political conditions shaping the production of historical writings in and on Africa in the first two decades after independence.

For specialists and college-level students. Ki-Zerbo, J. Berkeley: University of California Press, The most comprehensive and detailed collection of commissioned essays written by pioneers and leading authorities on the subject of the methodology and historiography of African history and prehistory. Readable and accessible to everyone, but a must for graduate and advanced scholars. Neale, Caroline. Writing Independent History: African Historiography, — Westport, CT: Greenwood, Shows how post-independence history writing was predicated on a desire to achieve intellectual decolonization.

For general readers, undergraduates, and graduate students. Ranger, Terence O. Edited by Christopher Fyfe, 17— London: Longman, A sobering assessment of the remarkable progress made in the study of the African past from to Examines the continuing crisis in African historiography and disillusionment among emerging African historians to make a case for methodological refocusing and sophistication and for more relevant historical approaches.

For a general readership. Temu, Arnold, and Bonaventure Swai. London: Zed, A biting critique of the postcolonial liberal historical scholarship in Africa, focusing especially on its weak empiricism, its absence of theory, its divestment of itself from the canons of historical professionalism, and its lack of rigor and relevance to pressing contemporary issues on the continent. For specialists and graduate students. Presently there is no single historical bibliography covering the entire continent spatially or in time depth.

The few that exist are limited in scope, subject, and chronological coverage. Scheven provides a comprehensive list of bibliographies published on Africa between and The Africa Bibliography , published by the International African Institute, provides an online annual index of published articles, essays, journals, and books on Africa. The International African Bibliography provides a comprehensive quarterly listing of new articles, book chapters, books, periodical articles, and book reviews on Africa.

Paden and Soja is a massive volume and a valuable listing of publications on colonial and the immediate postcolonial Africa. Finally, Ballantyne and Roberts provides a comprehensive list of audio-visual resources available for the teaching of African studies. Africa since A Historical Bibliography. Contains lists of journals, journal articles, and book chapters on Africa in the decade between and Valuable for researchers, specialists, and general readers. Africa Bibliography.

Now digitized and fully interactive, it brings together in one single database a rich variety of sources, records, and publications on African studies. Also has indexes of books, periodical articles, essays and book chapters, and book reviews. Ballantyne, James, and Andrew Roberts. Valuable for its comprehensive list of audio-visual resources in virtually all areas of humanistic and social science disciplines for the teaching of African studies. Several of these are of a historical nature. Valuable for teachers.

Fage, J. A comprehensive list of published primary sources on precolonial African history in English and other European sources. Especially valuable for researchers, writers, and graduate students. International African Bibliography. Published quarterly as a key bibliography on Africa and the African diaspora. Arranged by regions with four thousand new entries per year listing monographs, book chapters, and articles in periodicals. Provides cross-references for many entries. For researchers, specialists, and the general reader. Internet African History Sourcebooks.

Presents and preserves an array of primary and secondary sources on African history, from the earliest times to the modern era. Includes original texts and various materials organized to showcase differing perspectives on key issues and debates in African history. Valuable for researchers, as well as for undergraduate and graduate students. Paden, John N. Soja, eds. The African Experience. Massive and comprehensive, though dated.

Focus is on the modern era, especially the colonial and the immediate postcolonial periods. Emphasis on social, economic, and political issues.

New Approaches to African History: Africa since 1940: The Past of the Present Series Number 1

Valuable for researchers, graduate students, and those with an interest in the immediate postcolonial decade. Scheven, Yvette. Bibliographies for African Studies, — New York: Zell, A compilation of bibliographies that have been published as books, articles, or as parts of edited volumes in African studies dealing with different disciplines in the social sciences and the humanities. Fully annotated. Updated annually in the African Book Publishing Record each year. For libraries and specialists.

Several reference works exist for the study of African history. Vogel provides the most authoritative exploration of issues related to the precolonial history of Africa. For comprehensive and more detailed coverage, consult Middleton and Miller and Shillington Ajayi and Crowder is a colorful and well-illustrated historical atlas. Zeleza and Eyoh provides the best single-volume reference work on 20th-century African history. Africa South of the Sahara. London: Routledge, —.

A major reference work, published annually since Provides rare and valuable information, a narrative of recent history, statistical surveys, and a directory on each African country. Contains background articles on the continent and key information on African regional and international organizations. Available online by subscription. Ajayi, J. Ade, and Michael Crowder. Historical Atlas of Africa. Covers a wide range of subjects related to African history and society, from the earliest times and the first hominids to the modern era.

Contains detailed, beautiful, multicolored, large-format maps as well as photographs, numerical data, and accompanying historical narratives on more than seventy subjects. Essential reference work for researchers. Fage, John D. The Cambridge History of Africa. Detailed survey of African history from the earliest times to the midth century. Written exclusively by British and American historians. Has extensive bibliographies. In-depth coverage for the specialists as well as for undergraduate and graduate students. Middleton, John, and Joseph C.

Miller, eds. New Encyclopedia of Africa. New York: Scribner, The most comprehensive encyclopedia on Africa in print. Co-authored by a historical anthropologist and a historian. Contains numerous entries on African history and historiography. Coverage extends beyond historical topics to other subjects, unlike Shillington and Zeleza and Eyoh Essential library collection. Shillington, Kevin, ed. Encyclopedia of African History.

Several articles dealing with different aspects of the sources, methods, and historiography of Africa. On African historiography generally, see pp. On historiography of Western Africa, see pp. On sources of African history, see pp. Contains essential reference materials for public and institutional libraries. Also available in digitized e-book version. Berkeley: University of California Press, — Unlike the Cambridge History of Africa Fage and Oliver — , this was written primarily by African specialists with a greater focus on archaeology, oral history, and African initiatives and contributions.

Has extensive bibliographies at the end of each volume. Vogel, Joseph O. Walnut Creek, CA: Altamira, A comprehensive and readable exploration of key issues and themes on the peoples, languages, and history of precolonial Africa. The bulk of the volume pp. Zeleza, Paul Tiyambe, and Dickson Eyoh, eds. Encyclopedia of Twentieth-Century African History. New York: Routledge, Compact and continental in focus, the volume explores the history of Africa in the 20th century. Focuses on the development of its historiography and on the varied, massive, complex, and contradictory sociopolitical transformations the continent has experienced in the last hundred years.

Many journals on African history exist. The most authoritative is the Journal of African History , which publishes on all areas of African history, as does International Journal of African Historical Studies. History in Africa is focused specifically on historical methods, with emphasis on the use of nonwritten sources. African Studies Review publishes on all areas of African studies. Africa concentrates on society and culture, while African Economic History concentrates on economic history.

African Studies Quarterly is an online publication of time-sensitive research results. Nearly all of the journals cited here are now available and accessible online, either directly through the individual publisher or through JSTOR. Africa: Journal of the International African Institute. A premier quarterly journal dedicated to the study of African society and culture.

Publishes in the fields of humanities as well as the social and environmental sciences. Its special interests are in an interdisciplinary approach, the local production of knowledge, and critical analysis based on African categories. African Economic History. Published annually, this journal focuses primarily on economic themes and issues. Emphasis on historiography, as well as on colonial and postcolonial sub-Saharan Africa. Preceded by African Economic History Review — Available by subscription only.

African Studies Quarterly —. Publishes articles on all areas of African studies, with a special focus on issues that are of a time-sensitive nature. African Studies Review. The leading journal of African Studies in the United States. Publishes on all areas and aspects of African studies. Preceded by African Studies Bulletin — International, interdisciplinary, and bilingual French and English social science journal on Africa, the West Indies, and the African diaspora.

History in Africa: A Journal of Method. Probably the leading journal on historical methods, especially as it relates to the use of nonwritten sources such as oral tradition, archaeology, linguistics, ethnography, and genetics, as well as the critical assessment of written sources. International Journal of African Historical Studies. Publishes on all aspects and periods of African history. Preceded by African Historical Studies — Journal of African History. The pioneering and leading journal on African history, archaeology, and prehistory.

Contains the most authoritative articles on the subject of African historiography. The development of African historiography can be organized into different periods and trends. For example, ancient and classical writers wrote about Africa, and while their primary concerns were not always about the history of the continent, they left materials of historical value.

These were followed by Arabic and Islamic scholars, whose writings became valuable sources for the reconstruction of the history of Islamic Africa. Closer to the modern era were writings by European traders, travelers, missionaries, and colonialists. The accounts left by these various groups were often biased, tendentious, and sometimes patronizing or even denigrating toward their African subjects, clients, and hosts; as contemporary records, they have remained valuable sources of the African past.

Decolonization and independence ushered in the eras of nationalist and modern historiography. The classical writers were the first to write on Africa. Some of them, such as Herodotus see Herodotus , personally visited Africa, while some wrote accounts based the writings of others. While these accounts were few, fitful, and scanty, they provide scholars with the first inklings of the place of Africans in the ancient and classical worlds. The controversy over slavery, especially over the origin of racism in the United States, has spurred renewed interest in the place of Africans in the classical world.

Snowden and Snowden argue that ethnic and cultural prejudice rather than racism was the order in the classical world, a position roundly rejected by Isaac , whose author insists that racism was common in that period. Hansberry and Harris examines the perspectives of Africa and Africans from classical writings, while Djait looks at the nature, categories, and value of these writings on Africa. Djait, H. Edited by J.

Ki-Zerbo, 87— Examines the different types and categories of extant written sources for African history composed before the 15th century. Focused mainly on Greek, Roman, and Arabic-Islamic sources.

Bestselling Series

Hansberry, William Leo, and Joseph Harris. Africa and Africans as Seen by Classical Writers. A pioneering study by a groundbreaking Africanist at Howard University, William Hansberry, who established the first African Civilization program in the United States Insightful critique of classical sources on Africa showing their strength and limitations. Special focus on writings by poets, playwrights, historians, and geographers.

London: Dent, He wrote copiously about what he saw and his impressions of Egyptian civilization and its relation with inner Africa. Isaac, Benjamin. The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity. An analysis of ancient sources and a corrective to Snowden and Snowden Argues that racial and not just ethnic and cultural prejudice was common in the ancient world. Greco-Roman proto-racism became the prototype for modern-day triple ideologies of enslavement, imperialism, and anti-Semitism. Readable and thought-provoking. Snowden, Frank.

Cambridge, MA: Belknap, Scholarly and painstaking study of classical writings, epigraphs, papyri, and numismatic and archaeological evidence of the black African experience in the Greco-Roman world. Africans emerge not as mysterious beings or racial inferiors but as dignified and respectable equal players. Encyclopedic in scope and richly illustrated. Uses ancient writings to analyze three thousand years of complex black African history of cultural interactions with the classical and Mediterranean worlds. Shows the absence of virulent racial prejudice against Africans in Antiquity. Richly illustrated.

The islamization of Africa resulted in the production of Arabic writings by Muslim scholars, either foreign or indigenous. Works were also composed in some of the local languages using the Arabic script. Most of these works are eyewitness accounts, much like that of Ibn Battuta Hamdun and King and much of Leo Africanus Leo Africanus ; other writings were composed from secondhand sources.

Among the most notable collection of these sources are Levtzion and Hopkins and Cuoq on West Africa; Koubbel and Matev , which contains primary Arabic texts with Russian translations, as well as Kamal with its French translations , are continental in focus. Hunwick reviews extant internal and external Arabic sources for sub-Saharan African history and the problems associated with utilizing them.

Djait examines written sources before the 15th century. Cuoq, J. Translated with notes by J. Collection focuses on West Africa. Also indicated here are the source materials for the translations. An exploration of the various written sources available for the writing of African history composed before the 15th century. Identifies the types, nature, spread, strength, and limitations of the sources. Includes a spreadsheet listing of Arabic sources before AD.

Hamdun, S. Ibn Battuta in Black Africa. London: Rex Collings, A compilation of writings on Africa by the most famous Arab travelers in medieval Africa. Detailed and illuminating firsthand accounts of the practice of Islam, hospitality, gender issues, politics, and court lives in western and eastern Africa during the midth century. Hunwick, John O. Edited by John Edward Philips, — Reviews the challenges of interpreting known published and unpublished external and internal Arabic sources for sub-Saharan African history.

Sources in African languages written in Arabic scripts, such as Hausa and Swahili, are also examined. Includes an appendix of archival collections and extensive notes and references. Leo Africanus. Originally written and published in Italian in Though it contains some factual inaccuracies, this remained the main source of information in Europe on the history and geography of Africa for nearly three centuries. Kamal, Youssouf, ed. Monumenta Cartograhica Africae et Aegypti. Presents a collection of maps of Africa. Continent-wide in approach, this book, however, excludes the Maghreb.

Extensive collection of all known descriptions of Egypt and Africa in their original languages with English or French translations. Koubbel, L. Moscow, Takes a broad continental approach. Includes materials on Egypt and black Africa and also Arabic primary texts with Russian translations. Levtzion, Nehemiah, and J. Hopkins, eds. New York: Cambridge University Press, The most comprehensive collection of early Arabic sources on African history in print, with sixty-four entries arranged chronologically and dating from AD to AD.

Translated by J. Contains an extensive notes section pp. European exploration, commerce, and missionary activities provided another major source for the writing of African history. The nature, scope, strength, and limitations of these sources have been the subject of much scholarship.

Fage provides a guide to these sources written in European languages. Hrbek provides a general overview of a different range of written sources from the 15th century onward. Anyake lists, describes, and contextualizes various written sources in the different European languages. Jones a examines the limited scope and coverage of European written sources. Heintze and Jones highlights the value as well as the problems and limitations of using these sources. Thornton examines the geographical spread as well as the biases of and inspiration for these sources.

Hilton explores the strength and limitations of using missionary sources for reconstructing African religious history. Anyake, Joseph B. A brief survey of the major sources for the writing of African history, from the earliest times to the present. Important for its listing, description, and contextualization of extant written sources in Arabic and in the various African and European languages.

Listings of published books and collections on European sources on Africa. Includes critical annotations on the sources as well as their publication history. More comprehensive in coverage and listing of sources than Jones b and Thornton Heintze, Beatrix, and Adam Jones, eds.

Other Subject Areas

Nic Cheeseman. Africa and Africans as Seen by Classical Writers. Return policy. Arthur Goldsmith. Closer to the modern era were writings by European traders, travelers, missionaries, and colonialists.

Paideuma Stuttgart: Franz Steiner, An overview of the problems and challenges, as well as the immeasurable value, of using European sources. Examines the biased and tendentious nature of the sources, their limited geographical scope, and the general failure to identify sources of information. Hilton, Anne. Examines the strength and limitations of extant European sources for the reconstruction of African religious history. Special focus on missionary records, reports, correspondence, newsletters, and other materials. Illustrative of the value of using eyewitness missionary accounts in spite of their obvious biases and limitations.

Hrbek, I. Ki-Zerbo, — An introductory survey of available written sources on the African past composed since the 15th century.

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Main emphasis on sources in Arabic, Oriental, European, and indigenous African languages. Brief survey of archival sources, private papers, official reports, and other records. Continues where Djait leaves off. Jones, Adam. Shows that the value ascribed to these sources was way out of proportion to the geographical areas covered by them. Uses illustrative maps to show that approximately 80 percent of the continent was out of the purview of European observers and writers.

Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, b. A review of published accounts, collections, and editions of European sources on precolonial African history. Tries to separate the chaff from the wheat by highlighting their strengths, weaknesses, limitations, and usefulness. Useful for specialists and graduate students. Thornton, John. A brief overview of the extent, geographical spread, and scope, as well as the variety and problems, of European sources for reconstructing the precolonial history of Africa.

Discussion of the motives and biases underpinning European sources. The needs and exigencies of European colonialism resulted in the production of written documents, many of historical nature and value. Colonial accountability and efficient administration required the keeping of accurate records and the maintenance of regular written correspondence among administrators, as well as with the colonial offices in the various European capitals.

Tax assessment, labor recruitment, and administrative organization led to population census, district assessment reports, as well as annual, periodic, and other special reports with much information of historical value. Many of these records are now preserved and are generally available in the various national archives in Africa, as well as in colonial records offices or other repositories in Europe.

Some of these records are on microfilm while some are becoming available digitally. Fetter provides a collection of some of these colonial primary sources. Afigbo and Falola give a general critique of the colonial sources. Jones and MacGaffey examine the relations between history and anthropology during the colonial period. Sanders reviews the debates over the Hamitic hypothesis.

Spear criticizes overstating the invention thesis, while Cooper insists on the critical questioning of the use of European categories in the comprehension of the African colonial experience. Afigbo, Adele E. Edited by Toyin Falola, — Cooper, Frederick. DOI: An overview of the colonial experience. Eschews the concept of subalternity to reject the primacy of European epistemological categories, its universalizing claims, and the totalizing arrogance of its modernizing ideologies in the study of African experience of and reaction to colonialism. Emphasizes African appropriations and reformulations of the colonial categories.

A brief survey of the range, nature, and scope of the Christian missionary and European colonial sources on African history. Shows how the needs and objectives of missionary and imperial ventures generated a massive production of documents. Examines the contents, scholarship values, and limitations of these sources. Fetter, Bruce, ed. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, A collection of primary sources, with notes and critical appraisals. For general readers, as well as for undergraduate and graduate students.

Jones, G. An introspective critique of the relations between anthropology and the colonial service by a former colonial administrator turned anthropologist. Examines the social, political, and intellectual formative influences on the development of anthropological and historical writings during the colonial period. MacGaffey, Wyatt. Using Zaire as a case study, examines many of the misconceptions and misunderstandings underpinning much of the anthropological and historical writings on Africa during the colonial and postcolonial period.

Sanders, E. A review of the controversy surrounding the Hamitic hypothesis, which denied initiatives to Africans and offered external explanations for their achievements. Shows the invalidity of the hypothesis and the validation of African initiatives, historicity, and civilizations. Spear, Thomas. The emergence of a new and Western-educated elite, especially during the colonial period, set the stage for the development of an indigenous historiographical tradition.

This process began early, as evidenced in the eclectic but rich collection of early Christian Ethiopian primary sources in Beckingham and Huntingford Pankhurst gives the dynastic history of Ethiopian kingdoms from the 11th to the 20th centuries. Other pioneers include Solomon Plaatje Plaatje : From an indigenous perspective, Plaatje provides valuable insights on life and the nature and impact of race relations in earlyth-century South Africa.

Reindorf details the indigenous laws, customs, and history in the then Gold Coast. And Samuel Johnson provides a seminal contribution to Yoruba history, as detailed in Falola Hrbek provides an overview of written sources on Africa since the 15th century, with special focus on indigenous production. Beckingham, C. Huntingford, eds. Some Records of Ethiopia, — London: Hakluyt Society, A collection of a wide variety of Ethiopian literature such as folklores, poems, monastic histories, religious polemics, and hagiographies. Many of these contain valuable historical information.

Falola, Toyin, ed. A collection of essays written by notable scholars on Yoruba history, exploring the importance of Samuel Johnson and especially his seminal book The History of the Yorubas Johnson in the development of indigenous historiography in Africa and in the writing of Yoruba history. Examines written sources on Africa since the 15th century. Special explorations of key indigenous writers and leading works in European languages and in various indigenous languages of Africa composed in customized or Arabic scripts, from the Gonja chronicles in West Africa to the Merina chronicles in Madagascar.

Johnson, Samuel. London: Routledge, Originally completed in Probably the most famous, the most cited, and the most celebrated example of indigenous historiography. Provides a comprehensive account of early Yoruba history and the 19th-century wars. Valuable information on Yoruba language, customs, and government. Work celebrated and critiqued in Falola Pankhurst, R. The Ethiopian Royal Chronicles. One of the earliest indigenous records on the kingdom of Ethiopia. Recordkeeping began in the 13th century and contained some details for nearly every reign up until the 20th century.

Valuable source of information on the royal courts and key events of each reign. Plaatje, Solomon T. London: P. King, A pioneer in South African indigenous historiography. Reindorf, Carl S. History of the Gold Coast and Asante. Basel, Switzerland: Reindorf, Author was a catechist and medical practitioner as well as a participant in many of the 19th-century events he describes. There is much information on indigenous laws and customs, and this is designed to serve as a corrective to prevailing distortions and misunderstandings about the culture and customs of the peoples and societies of the Gold Coast.

The late colonial and the immediate postcolonial era inaugurated a new approach to African history in which emphasis began to be placed on African autonomy, agency, and initiative prior to and in the face of European advent, as evidenced in Denoon and Kuper and Omer-Cooper Lonsdale presents nationalism as a recent post—World War II power-grabbing phenomenon. Temu, who traced nationalism to the lateth-century resistance to colonization see Temu , nothing could be further from the truth. Ranger calls for a historiographical approach that emphasizes relevance.