Stimson also made some basic analyses: for example, comparing diameter with age of manufacture and compiling the number of different types and nationalities for each century. The mantle of maintaining the inventory of known astrolabes has since been taken up by a team led by Professor Filipe Castro from the J. The CMAC catalogue has since been updated twice and the total number of specimens currently stands at ; comprised of astrolabes and four alidades Fig.
In some cases, however, an astrolabe from a reliably dated shipwreck can fill a gap, or help to bolster the taxonomic and chronologic record. The ships were part of the Portuguese fourth armada to India led by the legendary explorer Vasco da Gama, which departed Lisbon in February on what most historians consider to be a largely military mission aimed at the Zamorin of Calicut for the revenge killing of 54 Portuguese feitoria workers Subrahmanyam, ; Pissarra, Detailed comparative analysis of this source information pointed to two specific locations off Al Hallaniyah where the loss likely occurred.
Al Hallaniyah is the largest of the Khuriya Muriya Islands situated approximately 45km off the southern coast of Oman and km from the nearest major port of Salalah Fig. The island is extremely remote, sparsely populated and has virtually no facilities or infrastructure to support the operations described herein. The surface artefacts were mainly large stone shot but they also included a fractured ship's bell found in an exposed position under a boulder.
The artefacts were contained within a series of narrow 5—18m wide interconnected gullies intersecting the foreshore reef rock seaward to a distance of m.
The fill of the gullies, to a maximum depth of 2m, was largely sand, boulders, rock scree, and broken coral. Due to an increased risk of disturbance or looting the exposed surface artefacts were all recovered at the end of the expedition.
All recovered artefacts have been catalogued, documented, and conserved and are being kept as a single coherent collection by the MHC. The disc was located beneath approximately 0.
No other artefact was found in the immediate vicinity. As it was being removed from the sand a small amount of loose corrosion products came away from the undecorated side of the disc, otherwise, the disc was in relatively good condition and the decorated side was especially clean.
Photographs and video of the disc were taken in situ Fig. The clean side of the disc was decorated with a coat of arms and the esfera armilar armillary sphere , which identified it clearly as Portuguese in origin.
Our suspicion was that the disc was an early astrolabe owing to its size, shape, central hole, and what appeared to be the remnants of a suspension ring. However, without an alidade or any visible gradations, identifying the disc as an astrolabe would be tenuous. Immediately after its recovery the disc was placed in a container of tap water to begin the process of passive desalination.
The disc was placed in a final bath of distilled water to allow for better diffusion of residual chlorides and then solvent dried in ethanol prior to the start of mechanical cleaning. Some green mineral corrosion products composed of a copper mineral developed on the front and back surfaces of the disc during the period of desalination. As these corrosion products were stable it was decided not to remove them so as to avoid potentially damaging the disc's surfaces.
The disc is not complete and has suffered from corrosion and metal loss mainly to its undecorated side and perimeter. Its maximum diameter measured across a section having the least amount of metal loss was mm. In profile the disc is very thin and parallel measuring 1. The central hole is At the top of the disc there appears the remains of a partially corroded or broken suspension ring. The dry weight of the disc is The analysis reveals the disc to be made of leaded gunmetal with the following major elements: copper However, attempts to compare or draw conclusions from such analysis in the future must be treated with a strong sense of caution.
The most striking features of the disc are the two prominent decorations seen in relief either side of the central hole and in line with the suspension ring Fig. The raised decorations are clear evidence of the disc being cast. The upper decoration is the classic Portuguese shield or royal coat of arms recognized by the distinctive five escutcheons arranged in a cross.
The lower decoration is the iconic esfera armilar armillary sphere : well known as King Manuel's personal emblem chosen at a time when he was the Duke of Beja before becoming king in late Gomes and Trigueiros, : These decorations are the most enduring heraldic symbols in Portuguese history and have graced the current national flag since Thus, their inclusion in the design of the disc, by either the creator or the owner who commissioned it, denotes it as an object of considerable importance and high stature. The presence of one or two extremely faint and barely visible marks on the upper right limb of the undecorated side of the disc hinted at the possibility they were the scale marks that could confirm the identity of the disc as an astrolabe.
Unfortunately, the undecorated side of the disc experienced the most severe corrosion damage such that if any other identifying marks had been once present they were now obliterated Fig.
In November of , a team of three engineers from WMG, University of Warwick travelled to Muscat to conduct laser scanning of a selection of the recovered wreck artefacts including the disc Fig. A total of 47 individual artefacts were successfully scanned over a period of three days. The ICC for intra-rater reliability V1 vs. V2 was 0. There were also no significant differences in the scores between the two observers of the study The ICC for inter-rater reliability was 0. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the CAT was 0.
Bland Altman plots showed good test-retest reliability and good inter-rater reliability Figure 1. The present study showed that the Portuguese-language version of the CAT had excellent reliability when administered by different observers and when administered by the same observer at two distinct time points.
Bland Altman plots showed that the CAT has good test-retest reliability, as well as a high Cronbach's alpha coefficient and a good correlation with the SGRQ total and domain scores. Various studies conducted in countries such as Spain, 15 China, 16 South Korea, 17 and Saudi Arabia 18 , 19 have validated versions of the CAT in their language and reported the instrument to have good reproducibility.
During test-retest, the ICC was found to be 0. Jones et al. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0. Regarding the pulmonary function variables, the present study showed that there was a weak but significant correlation of the CAT scores with some spirometry values and 6MWD. This might represent a discrepancy between patient experiences and perspectives and the degree of respiratory dysfunction.
Other studies have also shown weak correlations between the CAT scores and pulmonary function values, especially FEV 1. There was no significant correlation between the CAT scores and the anxiety scores. However, for the depression scores, the correlation was found to be weak. This might have occurred because, among the CAT questions, only the items concerning energy and confidence leaving home address issues that are more directly related to the psychological component of the patient.
The administration time of the CAT in the present study was, on average, s; this occurred because of the simplicity of the questions and response options.
There was no back-translation analysis of the CAT, since there is already a Portuguese-language version, written in congruent, easy-to-understand language, ready for use. None of the items in the present version sounded odd in Brazilian Portuguese or seemed to be alien to the Brazilian culture and society, and therefore there was no need for any significant adaptations.
If an event is abandoned after the 1 st half is completed, bets on Number of Goals 1 st Half will stand and bets on Number of Goals will be void. Kruskal's vs Prim's on the same graph, open 2 VisuAlgo pages in 2 windows and juxtapose them. Published by Editorial Acad? You can send your email to either Helpdesk betfinal. Esportes Apostar ao Vivo. A card is considered to have happened when it is shown.
Since the present study was cross-sectional in design, it was not possible to evaluate the responsiveness of the Portuguese-language version of the CAT to interventions, such as pulmonary rehabilitation. This can be considered a limitation of the study; however, other studies have used the same approach.
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In conclusion, the Portuguese-language version of the CAT is a valid, reproducible, and reliable instrument for assessing the impact of COPD on the lives of patients in Brazil. A dispneia foi avaliada por meio da escala MMRC. Ringbaek et al. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.
Journal List J Bras Pneumol v. J Bras Pneumol. Find articles by Guilherme Pinheiro Ferreira da Silva. Find articles by Cyntia Maria Sampaio Viana. Find articles by Eanes Delgado Barros Pereira. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. E-mail: rb. This instrumental theme works as a breather between the record's two halves. A deeply existentialist song about a woman becoming a man through some sort of metamorphosis.
Sung in Dutch. The record's second and last song in Portuguese. The lyrics talk about the unbearable weight of routine on a couple's day-to-day life. The record's second and last song in English. And the first to be written. Its lyrics tell the story of a mind thief, through the POV of its victim. An instrumental piece with dark, funeral march-like ambience.