We need to teach these strategies as being what good readers do as they read. The think-aloud provides an effective means of modeling each reading comprehension strategy. Some practice, such as a read-think-pair-share , makes sense to reinforce what the strategy entails. A brief writing activity, requiring students to apply the strategy, could also be helpful. In other words, teaching a reading comprehension strategy, such as cause and effect, is not a transferable reading skill, which once learned and practiced can be applied to another reading passage by a developing reader.
All eight reviews reported that reading comprehension strategies instruction boosted reading comprehension, but none reported that practice of such instruction yielded further benefit. The outcome of 10 sessions was the same as the outcome of So, should we teach reading comprehension strategies? Yes, but as part of the reading process, not as isolated skills with extensive practice. Reading comprehension strategies have their place in beginning reading, content reading, and reading intervention classes, but not as substitutes for reading concepts and skills.
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Comprehension strategies are conscious plans — sets of steps that good readers use to make sense of text. Comprehension strategy instruction helps students. Resources that teachers, specialists, and administrators can use to improve and teach reading comprehension strategies school-wide. Download FREE reading.
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Latest Posts. Filter Posts. By Mark Pennington. Stems take water to the leaves and flowers. Flowers make seeds. New plants grow from seeds.
All these details tell me how the parts of a plant help it grow and stay alive. Even though the author didn't directly state this as the main idea, the clues and evidence imply it. I'll write this on the chart where it reads Main Idea 1.
Briefly review pages 12— Then ask students to select the most important details and use those as clues and evidence to find the implied main idea. If students need additional modeling and think-alouds, complete the remainder of the graphic organizer together. If they seem to understand the concept, allow them to complete the graphic organizer in small groups, pairs, or individually. Monitor their work and provide guidance as necessary.
Allow time for students to share their recorded information. Types of Comprehension Strategies There are six main types of comprehension strategies Harvey and Goudvis; : Make Connections —Readers connect the topic or information to what they already know about themselves, about other texts, and about the world. Ask Questions —Readers ask themselves questions about the text, their reactions to it, and the author's purpose for writing it. Determine Text Importance —Readers a distinguish between what's essential versus what's interesting, b distinguish between fact and opinion, c determine cause-and-effect relationships, d compare and contrast ideas or information, e discern themes, opinions, or perspectives, f pinpoint problems and solutions, g name steps in a process, h locate information that answers specific questions, or i summarize.
Make Inferences —Readers merge text clues with their prior knowledge and determine answers to questions that lead to conclusions about underlying themes or ideas. Synthesize —Readers combine new information with existing knowledge to form original ideas, new lines of thinking, or new creations. Teaching Strategies Modeling through think-alouds is the best way to teach all comprehension strategies.
Wilhelm describes a think-aloud as a way to: Create a record of the strategic decision-making process of going through text Report everything the reader notices, does, sees, feels, asks, and understands as she reads Talk about the reading strategies being used within the content being read There are many ways to conduct think-alouds: The teacher models the think-aloud while she reads aloud, and the students listen.
The teacher thinks aloud during shared reading, and the students help out. Students think aloud during shared reading, and the teacher and other students monitor and help. The teacher or students think aloud during shared reading while writing on an overhead, on self-stick notes, or in a journal. Students think aloud in small-group reading, and the teacher monitors and helps. Students individually think aloud during independent reading using self-stick notes or a journal. Then students compare their thoughts with others. Wilhelm, When you introduce a new comprehension strategy, model during read-aloud and shared reading: Decide on a strategy to model.
Choose a short text or section of text. Read the text ahead of time. Mark locations where you will stop and model the strategy. State your purpose—name the strategy and explain the focus of your think-alouds. Read the text aloud to students and think aloud at the designated points. If you conduct a shared reading experience, have students highlight words and phrases that show evidence of your thinking by placing self-stick notes in the book. Reinforce the think-alouds with follow-up lessons in the same text or with others. What is going to happen next? Why did the author put that part in there?
I have questions about this part because it doesn't make sense. I need to make sure I read it right. If I reread and fix a mistake, that might answer my question.
I can use a graphic organizer to help me understand it. I see lots of information right here. I need to identify which parts are important and which parts are just interesting. All these ideas are important, but I think some are more important than others. I need to determine which ideas are the most important.
Let me take the big ideas and summarize the text. Let me stop and think about this for a minute. This lesson will help us learn to do that. Here is a card that I received.
First I'll think of the main idea about the card, and then I'll think of some details that help to prove the main idea. This isn't a playing card or a note card—it's a greeting card. That is the most important concept. I'll write This is a greeting card on the graphic organizer where it reads Main Idea. Read the card aloud to students. Use the following think-aloud to model how to determine details: Now I'll think of some details about the card. These details describe the main idea and let people know that the main idea is true.
I'll look for details that prove that this is a greeting card. First, I see that the card has a picture on the front. I'll write It has a picture in the first Supporting Details box. Next, I notice that the card is signed by the person who sent it. I'll write It has a signature in the next Supporting Details box.
Can you think of another detail about the greeting card? Let's add that to the graphic organizer. Day 2 Say: Yesterday we looked at a greeting card and identified the main idea and supporting details. After reading aloud the text, draw a main idea and supporting-details graphic organizer on chart paper. Ask students to help complete it with information from the text. If they have difficulty, guide them with the following prompts: Main Idea: Read the title and the first sentence. Create a graphic organizer. What other plant parts are there?
Plants need water and light to grow. How does a plant get water? How does a plant get food? We can eat plants. What parts of a plant can we eat? Do we use plants in other ways? Some animals eat plants. How can we grow a plant? Preview the book.
Set a purpose for reading. Discuss the reading and complete the graphic organizer. Plants have roots, leaves, stems, and flowers. Water falls as rain. The ground soaks it up. The roots help get water from the ground. The leaves use light from the sun to make food.