We serve such an awesome God. I am so thrilled and blessed to be a part of this study! As a new mother, wife and teacher it has been challenging to protect my devotional time with the Lord. However, this study has helped me to get back in the groove! More than anything I sense the Lord speaking to me about his undying love and faithfulness to us, his children! He is an awesome God and he will go at great lengths to save his people! Even if it means sending his only son to save us from our sins! I am so blessed to be reminded of this promise and this part of the character of our God! I want to be more like Him!
Love your insight Nadia, so true! I have really enjoyed going through the bible using the SOAK method. I have learned so much in just the first few weeks. You know, Moses, basket, Pharaoh, plagues…yeah, yeah. I was not anticipating how much my life would change in just this little while by being in the Word consistently every single day.
Thank you so much for this opportunity! No worries Dawn. Again — so glad you are joining us and thanks for linking up! Lots of Love, Courtney. Thank you Courtney for such a wonderful study!! The story of the plagues and what God did for the Israelites was just amazing. Am from Kenya btw….. Thank you Courtney for allowing God to use you to create this great platform where you get to share the word of God and be a blessing to loads of ladies.
God keeps his promises and I need to remember this, even in the midst of difficult circumstances. In chapter 6 verse 9 we read that Moses told the Israelites what God was going to do, but they did not listen to him because of their discouragement. We have to fight not to let discouragement blind us to the fact that God keeps his promises.
Cat, you said the same thing I was thinking! All I have been reminded of this week is that no matter the circumstances or how bad life can get, God hears us and has an answer and is fighting for us! Sometimes we see it and sometimes its behind the scenes! I have to just remind myself of this, because the world does get overwhelming especially when circumstances get really hard!
Just enough to stretch and grow our faith and patience and joy a bit more! I used the same sequence of colors in each chapter. Moses knew which works were from God and which were dark. Jessica, how neat to recognize that pattern through the colors! A similar theme jumped out at me in Exodus Its desire is for you, but you must rule over it. One of the most moving parts for me this week was from Chapter 7, verse 6: And Moses and Aaron did as the Lord commanded them, so the did. This is the first time we see Moses and Aaron do what they were asked when they were asked with out murmuring.
They seem to have gain some confidence. Moses may feel this way since Aaron is beside him. Perhaps he finds comfort in numbers. Why is it that we have such a hard time doing what God asks when he asks? Why do we need comfort in earthly friends to go through the trials with us instead of fully trusting God. We have a head knowledge of faith but lack a complete heart of faith. Why should we fear what God has in store for us? I feel like it is a few things fear, stubbornness, and lack of want to.
I think he knew this as head knowledge but lacked the heart until now. I am also learning how passages can be seen so many different ways by using the color coding. This study has been powerful for me. In Exodus God was using Pharoah for His purpose. It reminds me that everyone has a purpose sometimes we just need to be reminded.
I have so enjoyed this study of Exodus! In Exodus God let them know to shelter all of the slaves and livestock so they would be protected from the storm. Even though He was using Pharaoh to make His name known, He made sure the Egyptians had a chance to save their livestock. Give me a problem and I will solve it…and move on!! At 64 not quite as old as Moses , God is moving me into an area of concern that involves tasks and people, but there is no quick fix. As I read of Moses and Aaron having to return to Pharaoh over and over again….
Never too old to learn or be used by God if we will listen and obey. I have enjoyed studying along with all the women here also. I find it hard to slow down and really ponder on the passages but then I read the comments from the women who are also studying and by going over their comments and their observations all of a sudden there is a new thing that I have missed.
I have so needed this in my life. As a Sunday School teacher in a very small group, I am rarely in an adult study or hear a sermon of any kind. Thank you to all who take the trouble to post comments each day. One thing I realized as I was reading was that Moses had very little self esteem! I made another color for myself, because I noticed how often Moses was doubtful or fearful, so I made Grey — doubt, fear, questioning….
I see this with myself and my family that we are doubtful that God thinks we can do this or that. Then as I reread chapters all together in one sitting, I found myself getting frustrated with Moses! It made me stop and think about how frustrated God must get with me when I question him! It also helps me to read this story as I would any other book, from start to finish. I love the Exodus study, it brought me down to my knees and made me realize that God is there to protect me no matter what and that in a way tied to my One Word for which is Fearless.
Thanks Courtney for this wonderful study. Once turned into blood life could no longer be sustained. It only brought about death which is what it was used for in killing the Hebrew baby boys. Frogs — The Egyptian fertility goddess, Isis, was represented by a frog. Lice — Lice came up out of the dust of the earth. Beelzebub is the Egyptian god of the air and Ekron is the god of the flies.
Again, God is mocking the Egyptians and their gods. These gods were present at all their sacrificial ceremonies. At this point the plagues are only affecting Egypt and not the Hebrews. Disease of Livestock. The Egyptians worshipped animals and believed that the livestock possessed the spirits of their gods. God sends the locusts to finish off anything remotely agricultural that was left from the last plague. Happy lights and tanning beds keep that darkness from penetrating you physically, emotionally, and spiritually.
You really can feel the darkness here in Alaska during the winter. Anyway, Pharaoh is rebelling against the Light that is God. Despite the British protests, a group of refugees managed to enter the vessel Noemi Julia in the port of Sulima on the Black Sea and sail to Haifa after eighty-three days. Most of the presented scenes abound with a positive resolution. We observe scenes showing the wedding on the ship and, to a large extent, the rather joyful atmosphere of everyday customs and prayers.
However, some scenes are accompanied by moments of fear when drinking water is lacking. Each passenger was assigned two glasses of water daily, and all passengers suffered from sea sickness during a storm. In the final part, we can observe how the Jewish group, when finally arriving in Haifa on the ship Noemi Julia, is arrested by the British government in order to clarify the matter. Fortunately, after a month they are released and can enjoy freedom in Palestine.
Thus they became a part of , Jewish settlers living under the British Mandate. It is worth noting that, in general, during World War II, seventy-seven thousand people escaped from the Third Reich through the Danube. This exilic movement reflects the Jewish return to the promised land as a fortunate escape from the phantom of genocide that was spreading across Europe.
The narrative illustrates the voyage of natives of the Bessarabia Germans who tried to escape their resettlement by the Red Army to Third Reich. Accepting the proposition to be resettled in occupied Poland in accordance with the agreement between Hitler and Stalin, the refugees decided to abandon their homeland themselves.
The Soviets paid the Third Reich in wheat and coal, and promised to pay compensation to the displaced upon arrival. The cruise began at Reni and led to Semlin, where the Germans were examined. Then they were transported to Galati and then to Russe. From there, they were transported by train to Prague and to camps in the Third Reich. The action ended on November 16, Some of the Bessarabian Germans were later settled in the lands of Poles expropriated by the Nazis.
At some point, Polish owners appear there, asking for the return of the precious violin, probably the Stradivarius brand, left there because of a rush when leaving the house. However, they leave without the violin. In the first story, the Jews enjoyed the journey, dancing, and singing, as they had saved their lives from the threat of extermination. In contrast, the Germans Exodus is shown in a nostalgic light, with the farmers mourning the loss of their homes and estates in exchange for unsure promises of abandoned territory.
In contrast to the Jewish happiness, the Bessarabia Germans regretted leaving their homes and estates. Moreover, interactivity has enriched mental activity with, in this case, the ability to touch and play with the film, making it possible to shape the images projected in the installation. In other words, the interface designed by the Getty Team and the Labyrinth Group presents a transmedia journey that covers five screens each of which is two meters high and three meters wide , creating a fifteen-meter-wide panorama. This polycentric vision of narrative visual culture permits entry into dialogue and stimulates the movement of circular panoramas, hovering on the edge of the many visual shreds of evidence.
This spatial decoupage of two different historical stories shows the mutual similarities and differences between them. Building on the principle of sustainability and formal changeability, the kinaesthetic nature of the work makes an impact on the status of stable artefacts in the dynamic and liquid architecture of work-events.
Through selection of maps and variants of the presented history, viewers can manoeuvre between the paths of history, primarily between movement and Taoist no-movement. Visitors can easily decide which parts of the story will be seen and in what order, as we become not only visitor and witness, but also creator. This dialogue, even if highly illusive and insufficient, seems to provide an insight in to the archival footage used, that could be used as a function of experimental, laboratory study in order to revive fragments of moving pictures reconstructed in the more accessible way for a contemporary perceptual needs of the viewer.
Thus, in The Danube Exodus one can enter into a dialogue with works based on navigation, dictated by an interactive menu created by the viewer via the touchscreen interface. More specifically, the sequencing and composition of the narrative permit forward movement without the possibility of returning to the previous sequence. This passing between the spaces of history enables viewers to enter into narrative passages and navigate between them in a one-way direction.
Let me note very briefly that the importance of The Danube Exodus lies rather in the questions and difficulties that emerge from spatial, non-linear, deconstructed stories in the light kinaesthetic juxtapositions aboard the ship. If we accept this remark, we can open up a renewed dialogue with representations of migratory aesthetics derived from the past, and point out the role of the relocation processes in order to rethink art cinema.
The importance of found footage archives lies in the how the combination of signifiers of Western and Eastern cultures produces a vision of found footage heterotopia. This provides insight into the way we think about the juxtaposition of story immersed within a wide-screen narrative, rediscovered post-mortem. The use of amateur chronicles is a particular method by which we can understand found-footage heterotopia, comprehending it as a place in which the history of Eastern and Western technology, amateur filmmaking and the professional model of curatorship intermingle, not being ideologically invisible.
Primarily, the sentence, the episode, the image is isolated to express its nature and the tonality of the collection. Furthermore, it provides the possibility of correspondence, through which all manner of signs of nature come into resonance or dissonance. More specifically, circulation of images increases the role of amateur, private archives in reviving the collective memory.
The Danube Exodus panoramic installation can be read plurally, comparatively challenging us to play, however vertiginously, within the screens. Reesa Greenbard, Bruce W. Bal Mieke, Double exposures. Mapping the borders of the cinema , ed. Selected Writings by Victor Burgin , ed. Travelling with Jacques Derrida , trans. The Strategy of Sensitive Experimentation.
Art Contemporain. Gallen: Erker Koch Gertrud, Die Verkehr der Illusion. Mapping the borders of the cinema , eds. Dominique Nogeuz Klincksieck: Paris Magagnoli Paolo, Documents of Utopia. Simanowski Robert, Digital art and meaning. Tanya Leighton, London: Tate Publishing A Global Perspective , ed. Gallen: Erker , p. Tanya Leighton, London: Tate Publishing , p.
As far as optical illusions go, in order to exist they need not a restless eye, but a static one. But what if the space being rendered is itself fluid, dynamic by default? Braiding computer-generated imagery into live-action film footage has become progressively more robust in revealing its non-material base through texture, light reflexivity, and the way these additions interact with the pro-filmic space. Nevertheless, they too are just as reliant on a suspension of disbelief in their striving for a photographic verisimilitude. With the help of software enabling motion tracking to merge 3D visuals into filmed scenes , picture correction, and digital composition in the post-production stages, as well as completely digital animated previsualizations, filmmakers are now able to come up with radically new spatial environments.
In this way, the innovative concept of cinematic screen space that blurs or even nullifies material borders is introduced. Through this, contemporary spectacles postulate a new kind of viewer — one who absorbs visual and acoustic effects viscerally, and allows himself to become engulfed by and pulled into the filmic space. Along with films that not only employ computer-generated imagery CGI , but are realized with techniques characteristic of animated film at nearly every stage of their production , a general approach in treating the representational emerges.
This article sets out to investigate the poly-sensory quality of represented spaces. In their surrogate of an out-of-body experience through cinematographic strategies, editing becomes quite reluctant to tie down visual spectacle to a specific point-of-view or point-of-audition narrative.
Bringing Maurits Cornelis Escher back to life through the power of CGI and a lack of humble decency, if that was ever an option, might have brought about the digital revolution in cinematography we are witnessing right now. Drawings resembling photographs, 3D models indistinguishable from material objects, abstract graphics thoroughly intercepting indexical veracity, and — apparently — promoted animation as a main mode of filmic expression, and all in the guise of photographic textures wrapped around objects, places, and actors alike.
This is the cinema of the future, and the future is now. What this article postulates is an emerging concept of representational space in films which not only employ computer-generated imagery CGI , but are realized with techniques characteristic of animated film. These, in turn, steer nearly every stage of their production.
As digital visual special effects DVFX , with time, have come to emancipate themselves as a category, the industry standard nowadays sees feature films often driven by the use of computer graphics integrated with the live-action footage, or substituting for portions of it. Quite often what we see on screen are not just lifelike, moving matte paintings created in Maya or 3D Studio Max, but entire 3D scenes and environments reconstructed digitally, though covered with photographic textures. Sets are now often built to incorporate green and blue screens so that they can be seamlessly extended in post-production.
The way we look at space becomes space itself — three. Set designers, with cinematographers, are often ardent students of classical art. In resorting to this technique, modern art directors joined company with writers on perspective from the Renaissance and Baroque eras, whose schemes were routinely taught in American art schools. In fact, it was Toy Story , John Lasseter that arrived on the scene as the true binary Prometheus, disrupting the balance of computer-generated special effects shots versus regular footage, expanding the category of digital FX into full-length 3D animated features.
In this way:. Computer-generated imagery braided into live footage is reliant on a suspension of disbelief, according to which any film is assumed to be lifelike as long as it presents us with objects whose photographic verisimilitude — its indexical value — seem undeniable.
As parametricism in architecture evolves into yet more advanced and elaborate forms, and with CGI as a standard in movie production, what was formerly regarded as merely a new tool to aid the design process has not only reconfigured both practices, but also introduced an innovative concept to the cinematic screen space, which blurs or nullifies material borders. But both presumptions are wrong. Contemporary cinema has emancipated itself from the rules of classic montage.
The point of view varies. With digital image processing, these directorial dreams have come true, although not without affecting our relationship with on-screen spaces — formerly a montage of fragments,  now a seamless environment in which the architecture of the material, illusory and computer generated all converge.
The procession of visual information — in such features as the aforementioned Birdman , Gravity , or The Revenant , Alejandro G. We are used to gazing at cinematic space as an imagined, otherworldly reality on a screen in whose wilderness the characters are meant to wander, struggle, or simply interact. Inside a bluescreen environment this task becomes much harder to accomplish, as far more unknowns about the represented space are introduced into the equation.
With the digital, to record reality is already, and simultaneously, to reconstruct it. We know of course that any representation, however slavishly recorded it may be, is always-already a re construction. It is a spatiotemporal collage conceived by editing, within-the-frame montage, compiled from a variety of sources, chiefly pro-filmic space, stage sets, scale models and matte paintings.
Their juxtaposition creates the setting for the plot. He began to study camera angles, which varied according to the focus of the lens employed. Intrigued by these studies, [Jean] Perrier took them up as well and developed a rational concept of film set design as a function of the position of the camera and the lenses. The graphic method that he worked out enabled him to determine which plan and dimensions of a set would produce the image desired and drawn by the designer.
Such views can only propagate themselves.
It constitutes the way in which a look perforates and advances into space. Even though buildings constructed in the studio were usually made smaller than life-size, their physical diminution was not noticeable when they were filmed with actors. Documentaries make us alert, as they strive for verity, even though throughout history truth-seeking has been achieved through quite diverse means.
Animated and experimental films are unique in this manner, as they present us with spaces that, even when originating in real life, have been intercepted in order to test the borders of our cognition; the limits of our perceptual capabilities, as in structuralist film. With the introduction of computers to filmmaking, the spectrum of tools allowing for processing of imagery grew considerably, facilitating chirurgical incisions, letting cuts proliferate in a more in-depth manner, while the stitched-together patient would emerge with no visible scars.
Animated films, especially experimental shorts such as the first computer films by John Whitney Sr. Thereby, special effects entered mainstream live-action cinema and thoroughly reshaped the production pipeline, emerging soon after as their own separate category. Conversely, space in animation has always been an artificial construct, along with the characters themselves bodies, contour lines etc , the convention of background images and their own laws of physics, which come into being only when acted out.
Along with digital special effects, new stages of film production quickly caught on, such as previsualisations of more complicated sequences fight scenes, explosions, stunts etc , and animatics — an animated version of the storyboard. That was the case for Gravity , which was created not unlike a typical Pixar production. The final cut of the film was decided upon in the pre-production stage. Two examples of animated films are analysed below, examining their visual strategies which made their way, further on, into CGI-imbued live action cinema — extracted from two anime classics, covering distinct sequences that are explicitly pure visual transitions conjoining separate settings.
The latter is a film with computer-generated dream-reality transitions. As depicted, they are indistinguishable from the character and the environmental design. Cut to a frame divided diagonally by the water line — the character in the lower left half of the screen rises floats gently upwards towards her double in the upper right.
Despite our knowing the scene is set underwater, there seem to be no other indications, such as a watery blue hue, wavy shapes in the drawing, or a lack of focus. Which one of the two characters is Kusanagi, and which her reflection? Of course, both are images, as there was no real actor there to begin with.
Mamoru Oshii frequently plays with pictorial conventions, creating equivocal 2D settings, depicting them at a fixed angle to reinforce an optical illusion that would have been shattered if presented stereoscopically. Thus Oshii strains the limits of representation, demonstrating how images can imply, instead of merely depicting. In Paprika , the ambiguity at play concerns the gradual intrusion of the dream world into concrete reality.
At some point in the story, Chiba, the main female character, is scrutinizing the apartment of her colleague a former programmer. She notices a doll bearing a significant resemblance to her colleague and approaches it, jumping over a fence which suddenly dissolves like a reflection in water. Digital embroidery makes the drawing undulate, morphing the safe space of the apartment into a vertiginous drop. To overcome this narrative restriction, the singularity of the shot is mitigated by the fluency of transitions and transformations at a blank stage, and the division of the frame to support simultaneous storytelling.
The evasion this account identifies is deep and pervasive: the reverse shot of the gazer […] sutures over that profound wound in our being […][;] suture, in other words, provides film spectators with the illusion of an origin for what they see. More importantly, the construction of seeing needs to be naturalized.
Seamless transitions linking contradicting environments and creating long takes with the aid of digital imagery aim at something different — involvement. Cinematic sequences are composed of a range of shots that present different vantage points on an action, event, or state of affairs for the purpose of narrating a fiction, depicting an environment, communicating a point of view […].
Shots and sequences can therefore be defined as recognitional prompts that present diagnostic information that enables viewers to perceptually recognize their content in much the same way they recognize everyday objects, actions, and events in ordinary contexts. This further enhances the nervous, syncopated rhythm of the film as the viewer follows its central character, Riggan Thomson Michael Keaton , nervously pacing the narrow corridors of a Broadway theatre and dealing with the various people and obstacles along the way.
Unlike the fades to black practiced by Hitchcock, the seams here are invisible, conjoined by the graphic artists at Rodeo FX.
They employed a variety of techniques, including use of three time-lapse sequences and the aforementioned matchmoving — the matching of camera angles, motion, lighting etc. Even a CG camera was used to seamlessly make a move that would tie all the unrelated elements together. Current computer technology has made it easier to incorporate motion into composited shots, even when using handheld cameras. Modern advances in software and computational power have eliminated the need for accurate placement of the markers — the software figures out their position in space.
A perceived disadvantage of this is that it requires a large camera movement, possibly encouraging modern film techniques where the camera is always in motion…. In the Birdman sequence examined here, the character engages in frequent actor-to-actor interplays, only to be suddenly pulled up out of them by a crane, into an SFX display. However, CGI long-takes usually want none of that, let alone those in Birdman. Here, smooth transitions are set up between spaces and moments so as to point towards the distorted mindset of the protagonist.
It enables the determination of the position of a camera from two or more separately-taken shots, or photographs, and on the basis of data gathered on location, reconstruction of a 3D model of the scene. This pre-dates traditional matte painting, and gives an impression of three-dimensionality. In Birdman , crew reflections were digitally erased. Parts of the set had to be either obscured with a bluescreen or taken out in post-production using rotoscoping, for example, in the dressing room scenes in which the large mirrors would normally reflect the film crew.
Instead, the filmed reflections were replaced with CG reflections of the actors only, as well as of objects lying on a table visible in the shot. Simultaneously, audiences are shell-shocked by the fantastical though still convincing images of an aerial attack on the city. Parked cars exploding, debris falling from destroyed buildings, wreckage and fire from every corner of the until-recently peaceful urban scenery.
On the other hand, digital intrusions are applied to small details too. It can also effortlessly recreate nearly infinite zoom, and has no problem with a scarcity of interrupting cuts. These concealed incongruities mask the fact that the conjunction of heterogeneous spaces result in new viewing habits and different tasks for the viewer.
And not passive reception of the information projected, but active negotiation of instances in a stream of attractions. Immersion here means surrender to the apparatus of cinematic projection. Moreover, the promise of seamlessness acquired by any formerly disjointed sequence of images grants the filmmaker the ability to not only sustain the illusion of a long take, but erase any barriers that would have normally been posed by material objects — be it props, set decorations or even other actors, as in the case of Gravity.
The reduced narration and the poetic exploration of zero-gravity turns the film into a laboratory of the senses, which brings the spectator close to the bodily experience of floating, drifting, and being suspended in space. In animated films, the attributes of material objects and physical laws have to be implied, acted out; they need to give off an illusion of corporality through texture, or usually weight, through light play and the way characters interact with the object.
Dematerializing them in live-action cinema, as with actors in a bluescreen environment or the more frequent practice of bright green Christo-like wrapping of their body parts, indicating areas of later intervention for CG artists , pares them down to the status borne by any other object. But animage is also — and now more than ever — an image that moves to the beat of animation. There is an ontological shift in the represented space we perceive, which — out of a continuous flux — forms the underlying principle of most digital interventions. There is only a consistent process of becoming and unbecoming , based on the binary sequencing of zeros and ones, which creates a constant relay of appearing and vanishing, of presence and absence.
In both, the beholding eye — the camera — appears as a disembodied entity, traversing walls and material obstacles; in the Antonioni film it passes through the bars on a window separating the hotel room in which David Locke dies, from the courtyard outside. Such swift hovering about a virtual set implies a bit more than a delusion of grandeur. The Eisensteinian concept of the dominant, indicating aspects of the film frame or scene, is brought to the fore as it denotes both aural and visual layers of the spectacle. Montage according to tempo. Montage according to the chief tendency within the frame.
Montage according to the length continuance of the shots, and so on. This is montage according to the foreground. In other words, providing them with visual cues. With contemporary productions, this strategy is repurposed by means of colour correction, digitally-added lens flare, vibrant luminescence, or manipulated brightness levels. What is the consequence of this kind of multi-aspect use of digital processing, compositing of a homogenous environment in which the look, mediated by the camera, is invisibly paired with CG additions?
It now opens up a virtual space that extends in depth, alternately thrusting itself menacingly out towards the spectators and pulling them into an enveloping embrace. That ubiquitous strategy of creating an immersive spectacle will probably soon fall into decline, both as antecedents and nemeses of Birdman quickly grow in numbers. The next logical step for any self-conscious film made in the digital age would be to engage a thematic exploration of interruptions, blemishes, and borderline cases, in which digital intrusions into supposedly material reality cause an involution of the latter.
During this period it is less sensitive to details, and images may be represented in a coarser way. This is why compression artifacts are often called blocks, or blocking artifacts. Soon, cinema may well be without any material reality outside the machine, as long as it remains armed with vast libraries of data from the physical world; a hermetic hermitage of digitized props, ready to be used and reused in any future spectacle.
The space between planes or objects on the screen is perceived as real, hence the viewer may perceive himself in relation to this space as fluidity, expansion, elasticity. Sooner than expected, we could find ourselves confronted with a seamless cloth of digitally composited and enhanced reality. Then, it will be our turn to rip the stitches apart.
Bryant Antony and Pollock Griselda ed. Tauris, New York and London: Harcourt New York: Columbia University Press Shimamura Arthur P. Exploring Cognition at the Movies , ed. Arthur P. A Medium in Crisis in the Digital Age , ed. John Belton, transl. Tauris, , p. Memory studies are one of the most dynamically developing areas of the humanities. Although most scholars are focused on various forms of collective memories, some differ from this general trend. It works through various forms of media, such as films or experiential museums. Keywords : prosthesis, prosthetic memory, memory, retro, nostalgia, cinema, new civil rights cinema.
Memory and its relation to media has recently become not only one of the most discussed topics in the realm of pop culture, but also one of the most influential. However, unlike traditional costume dramas which of course are still being made , new ways of depicting the past concentrate on issues such as retrospective shaping of historical narratives and the very function of memory. These subjects, which have also become the main topics of the dynamically-developing field of memory studies, divide scholars.
Some see these throwbacks to the past either as a danger, or in the best-case scenario, as a sign of the end of creativity. Zygmunt Bauman, in his last book Retrotopia , describes the fear of both the present and the future as a reason for searching for utopias in the past, which is perceived as safer and more harmonious than anything that lays ahead of us . Authors such as the ones mentioned above most often see the past as an object of manipulation, as well as a tool for further manipulation.
Reynolds, too, said as much in regards to the music of that time. Kennedy was assassinated were convenient tools of the Reaganite political rhetoric of the s. Even though the conservative image of the past can still be found in American movies today, perception of the retro style as something amounting to nostalgic idealization became rare, not only among scholars, but also in films themselves. How can moviemakers achieve such goals? Of course, strategies differ depending on the genre, but certain strategies seem to have gained popularity with filmmakers as well as audiences.
Among them, we can find the critical depiction of history, reversing traditional historic narratives e. For example, by introducing black American or homosexual characters to genres reserved in the mid-century for white and heterosexual characters only as Todd Haynes does in his melodrama Far from Heaven , his take on the Eisenhower era. These strategies mostly reference shared images of the past — its mythologisation and demythologization in collective forms of memory that can be influenced by politics, media, current historical narratives, etc. Since it is almost impossible to examine exactly how movies influence our memory as individuals, media and film scholars rarely focus on individual memory, instead shifting their attention to strategies for shaping and governing collective memory built on symbols and icons, reproduced by and through other movies.
However, concepts that are predominantly focused on the perception of the past by individuals due to media coverage , also seem to prove just how difficult it is to explore such relations more than intuitively. It is challenging, because it focuses exclusively on the individual spectator and their reaction to cinema, something that is not popular among media and memory scholars. It is difficult because to some extent it proves that those avoiding the topic of individual media relation seem to be right. The notion of media affecting people on their innermost private level is, of course, not new.
However, it has most often been regarded negatively. On the other hand, some positive takes can be found within the reflection on queer cinema.
According to Harry M. Of course, it is almost impossible to accurately examine or prove that kind of influence, but even random accounts of such reactions can legitimise the aforementioned definition of queer cinema. However, Landsberg adds something to this equation that complicates things even more — memory. This makes prosthetic memory different from any kind of collective or cultural memory.
On the other hand, these memories have the power to influence individuals, and shape or even change their point of view or life experience. They are mediated — acquired through media by watching movies or going to experiential museums, etc. In these films, memory and identity can be literally transmitted through digital devices, implanted inside the body of a person who never lived them.
The filmmakers argue the opposite. In Blade Runner and its sequel, Blade Runner , Denis Villeneuve , androids equipped with artificially-generated memories are more human than the humans themselves. This idea is of course very tempting cinematically, and therefore pop culture constantly provides movies and TV shows based on it.
Among the most recent examples are the long-running serial Black Mirror Channel 4, ; Netflix, — , and Altered Carbon Netflix, , both of which toy with the idea of identity and self being transferred into or through a device no bigger than a pen drive. On the other hand, memory sometimes means the same thing to her as knowledge or personal experience, expanded by gathering new information about the past. For example, taking part in reconstructions of historical battles controversial as they are , will not make anyone remember the actual events, but will create mediated memories of taking part in a reconstruction.
Likewise, visiting the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, which is thoroughly described by Landsberg, will not bring anyone even remotely close to what actual Holocaust survivors went through, but will create in them memories of seeing an exhibition and submitting themselves to the historical narrative it provided. The ground under your feet is uneven. Of course, cinema can also serve this purpose, and the idea of memory as prosthesis becomes less abstract and more easily grasped when applied to actual films and formulas. Not necessarily through the science-fiction genre, but those with the ambition to recreate the forgotten experiences of discriminated groups can give a boost to empathy and raise awareness — both public and individual — of counter-narratives and counter-memories.
Landsberg herself uses the cinematic example of Rosewood , John Singleton , the true story of a lynch mob that attacked African Americans in in Rosewood, Florida. The Help , Tate Taylor , The Butler , Lee Daniels , Selma , Ava DuVernay , and others are all examples of films that deliberately aim to provide audiences with prosthetic memories in a less literal sense than described by Landsberg. Moviemakers locate their African-American heroes in the midst of social upheavals, as in Selma , or in hostile and discriminatory communities, as in The Help.
At the same time, it operates within the area of memory and the historical narratives shaping it. It is fair to assume that the new civil rights cinema is targeted at a general audience, against racial divisions. Yet, in regard to both black and white viewers, it has slightly different aims and uses different strategies, as described by Landsberg.
At the same time she admits that prosthetic memories can also lead to homogenous identity, as in the case of the immigrants from Eastern Europe that she examines. Newcomers, in order to become Americans, had to shake off their former identities and acquire a new, American one. However, unification by way of prosthetic memory can also work the other way around — by reminding people of a group identity and by extension, individual identity , and its historical role.
For example, African-American actors in Hollywood traditionally played supporting or episodic roles, and were therefore excluded from the narrative. Moreover, even in movies centred on racism and civil rights violations, such as Mississippi Burning , Alan Parker and A Time to Kill , Joel Schumacher , it was white characters who held the active, prominent positions within the narrative.
The black characters were portrayed as too scared or weak to act, waiting to be saved. New civil rights cinema, especially Hidden Figures , Theodore Melfi , Selma and The Butler , brings African Americans back to the centre of events, highlighting their agency and role in the civil rights movement The Butler and other prominent activities such as the vital role played by black female scientists in the Mercury space programme, in Hidden Figures .
Here, it is white characters who appear as background figures. At the same time, such movies are supposed to attract white audiences as well. How can that be achieved in a feature film? On the one hand, they use careful, self-reflexive stylization and — sometimes — documentary footage connected thematically to the civil rights movement. On the other, in terms of narrative they are made in a rather conventional way.
The Butler is especially characteristic of the biopic formula. However, this last feature in particular allows redefinition of ostensibly basic narrative devices in terms of prosthetic memory. Such devices lie at the very heart of classical cinema, aimed at immersion and emotional involvement. That is why The Help and The Butler both employ first-person narration. This is especially emphasised in The Help , the story of black maids serving a wealthy, middle-class white woman in the suburbs of Jacksonville, Mississippi in On the contrary, she speaks directly to us, reaching outside the frame of the screen, so that we can put ourselves in her rather unfamiliar situation and ask ourselves the questions she has to answer.
Of course, it is no coincidence that The Help brings up such an emotional, personal issue, since it is one of the easiest ways known in cinema to manipulate someone into empathy. It is she who will tell us the entire story — from her own perspective. Within the story, it is a white girl from the suburban middle class, Skeeter Emma Stone , who listens to Aibileen and the other maids describing their awful fate. She writes their stories down and has to reach beyond her own exclusively white experience, in order to guide audiences to do the same — to inhabit memories of discrimination and a new model of slavery that defined racial relations in the Eisenhower- and Kennedy-era South .
The Butler also privileges a black servant, Cecil Forest Whitaker , working for decades in the White House, who like Aibileen narrates events in first-person. He witnesses successive presidents and their decisions on racial injustice, such as the desegregation of Little Rock High School in In Hidden Figures especially, we enter and leave the scene when characters do, and experience what they experience, even if there is no voice-over to explain exactly how they feel. Even the rather omniscient narration in Selma puts the black characters front and centre, especially Martin Luther King David Oyelowo.
Roots was a ground-breaking show, as it was one of the first depictions of the realities of the often mythologised slavery in American pop culture. However, the way in which Landsberg describes the influence of Roots on white audiences — and the idea of prosthetic memory — might be seen as problematic, especially from the contemporary point of view.
This kind of situation is put at the centre of the conflict in Dear White People  , in which events are catalysed by a university fraternity encouraging Halloween party guests to dress up as famous black people media celebrities . This, of course, causes outrage among the black students and poses the wider question of the thin line between acquiring prosthetic memories through media, and the unwelcome appropriation of unique and often traumatic experiences or memories that belong to a different group. Of course it would be unfair to say that cultural appropriation is actually what Landsberg has in mind.
Further, O. These movies can force audiences to look beyond racial divisions like those created by O. Benshoff M. Gruner Oliver, Screening the Sixties. Landsberg Alison, Prosthetic Memory. Therefore narrative intentions from the opening scene are not fully carried trough. Affective, multisensory, synaesthetic body is an archive of power relations, an experience of colonization and — most of all — a discoursive transgression, reversing ideology based on the Western eye.
The main goal of this article is to present three most influential theoretical stances connecting sensoria with the Other. The concepts of Laura U. Keywords: tactile epistemology, senses, embodiment, Laura U. Marks, Sara Ahmed, Milena Marinkova. Furthermore, the concept alters cinematic experience by changing the form of storytelling. One of the most important methods of deploying it is, as Laura U.
Marks calls it, a tactile epistemology. Affective and sensuous incentives improve subversive narrations in postcolonial prism. Body language helps in coping with dominant discourses and in expressing the experience of the other — the experience of physical and mental colonization.
Such scholars as Marks, Milena Marinkova or Sara Ahmed, in their critique of the Western discourse of the other, confide in a multisensory experience and memory of senses. They link this discourse to ocularcentrism and — taking Foucauldian approach to depict mastering and objectification of others — reject gaze as a form of wielding power. Another cinematic example is Yes , Sally Potter — a love affair between Irish-American biologist and Lebanese chef medic doctor before imigration is conflicted by stereotypical views and cultural prejudices. For this reason scholars like Marks and Marinkowa focus on the body.
The issue of embodiment is not only an individual matter, but also a map of cultural differences and power relations. Moreover, a multisenory perspective enables disrupting dominant discourses and creates a new language entangled in the postcolonial discourse. This perceptive renewal is not only a matter of aesthetics, but also ethics.
The body might be a foundation for the redefinition of representational system. Based-on-body encounter with the other rejects a negative tendency to annex margins which is typical for the Western ocularcentrism. It emphasizes the incompatibility of some languages and experiences rather than the illusion of the possible identification. In Touch. In a spirit of Edward Said: eyes are tools of imperialistic inclinations. Do not believe what you see — it is only an ideological discourse.
It is possible to gain knowledge through physical contact,  but one should remember that visceral, haptic or tactile epistemology can be used arbitrally. This example shows possible limitations of haptic poetics but simultaneously it legitimizes this aesthetics by underlining the cultural and political dimension of the sensorium.
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It can acknowledge that embodiment is a matter of individual lifemaps as well as cultural difference. These matters are important for understanding intercultural experience, where traumas and more ordinary histories become encoded in the body. When intercultural films and videos appeal to the different power relations involved in looking and in touching, they remind us that these power relations are built into cultural organizations of perception. Marks makes a list of possible aesthetic means — for example blurred, grained image and decaying film.
The ideal relationship between viewer and image in haptic visuality is one of mutuality, in which the viewer is more likely to lose herself in the image, to lose her sense of proportion.
Interaction supersedes cinematic illusion, while making place for alternative narrations or simply for the story of the other. The French director narrates postcolonial relations using mostly multisensory aesthetic. Films such as Chocolate show how an embodied vision develops engaged spectatorship. Denis is known for rejecting classical film conventions, using static and extended shots without many dialogues, being sensitive to the form of an image, and creating poetic, sensual atmosphere. Her trade marks converge with her autobiography and political views too — raised in West Africa in few French colonies, Denis shows engagement in postcolonial issues which is perfectly depicted in her debut film.
Chocolate tells a story of a young woman, France, who comes back to Cameroon where she lived as a child. Names of these characters are significant as they unveil power relations in French colony. Nonetheless, their proximity was starting to dissolve borders between center and margins embodied in these characters.
This is a work in progress, searching — or building — an intimate relations which was not easy. In one of the sequences the father explaines France what the horizon line is: a line which does not exist in physical sense but is still recognized by everyone. It is not only a symbol of racial boundaries — the definition shows how the figure of the other operates as an embodied entity as long as the horizon line is something that is embed in space.
First one represents the mutual fascination and blures seemingly natural lines. The director emphasises skin and touch in a close-up. Hapticity is hightened through cross-cutting with a theatrical scene in long shot in which, main representatives of colonial power are involved.
Primarily, the sentence, the episode, the image is isolated to express its nature and the tonality of the collection. Duke rode on trains and in cars while blasting enemies. Czemu nie. Gibson, Lech Majewski , dz. Film przypomina i utrwala ten fakt. Instead, the filmed reflections were replaced with CG reflections of the actors only, as well as of objects lying on a table visible in the shot.
An oscillation between optical and haptical visuality confers a texture to moving image. Viscerality of this sequence shows that real dialogue is not necessary lingual and colour of skin can be hidden. Although the second mentioned sequence presents an over-exposure of the skin of the other. His subjectivity and embodiment are limited to the level of the skin and its colour causing internalization of being not-a-norm. There is no balance between embodiment and image in the imperial eye paradigm.
They are staring at each other silently while he grabbes a pipe and suggests her to do so too, ignoring the fact that it was hot and could burn their palms. After that he leaves and disappears in the dark. She came back to West Africa with White Material in which the interference of bodily boundaries is shown as a ferocious, but essential attempt to break the power relations. She argues — after Marks and Merleau-Ponty — that touch cannot be reduced to skin, but it is rather connected with embodiment. We should not locate it in one organ; it is dispersed, permeable and not isolated from the rest of sensorium.
Furthermore the body, being under the influence of dominant regimes, can provide a ground for redefinition of these regimes with their discourses. Marinkova notices that the embodiment of Western gaze dislocates the main direction of perception process — viewers get their attention directed to their viewing practices.
For Canadian scholar, it is a matter of style: multisensory, fluid and open to non-normative connections. Haptic aesthetics and embodiment are individual and collective issues, subjective and social simultaneously. Personal is political. Bodies are political. This formulation is premised on the intersubjective power of affect to move and be moved, and thus transcend the boundaries of the self and encounter difference.
The encounter, however, is not followed by a return to sameness through crude identification — recognizing oneself in the other and thus sympathize with them — but by the ethical recognition of the opacity and unassimilability of alterity. Canadian scholar puts an emphasis on rejecting identification as a psychological relationship with characters. Being founded on gaze, it is not neutral, and the impression of being natural is strictly ideological.
Eye, contemplation, perception — those are tools of knowledge which can be a form of aggression and wielding power. Gaze colonizes others and produces subalterns; its mechanisms and intents are obscured by film grammar. Therefore, cinema requires a new language.
Marinkova thinks that there is a solution from cultural usurpation of the other — the ocularcentrism and its mastering inclinations can be relinquished. Nude Area , Urszula Antoniak can be a cinematic example of these thesis. The main tool in this battle is the eye — it tracks, peeps, scans, leers, ogles, scrutinizes; it imposes conditions and demands mutuality. Moreover, gaze can be accepted or rejected by the body. Seducing is violent — people try to enforce their will upon each other.
Naomi provokes other girl, seduces her and gets control over her using both her gaze and language. Fama is more humble, submissive — she surrenders and protects only one intimate part: her hair. The skin is shown in close-ups, revealed in its very tactility, and the entire scene is suggestive, erotic and sensual. Next ones are, on the contrary, very static.
It appears three times anticipating three movie parts. Next we can see Naomi in a tram or rather her reflection — she is an observer, maybe even a predator. She initiates their meeting and subordinates Fama initially. In the restaurant, where Muslim girl works as a waitress, Naomi humiliates her only to prepare a spectacle of apology later.
After, she dresses up like her lover, putting a wig on her head even. At some point roles are changing — Fama distances herself from Naomi. She gives her a handful of hair she cut in the process of emancipation from a colonizer. The other learns how to gain empowerment — through the reversal of gaze and the exploitation of touch.
As Nude Area shows, touch and hapticity can be very ambivalent, and Marinkova evokes skeptical voices in her monography. One of scholars Marinkova mentions as example of having a skeptical attitude to haptic cinema is Sara Ahmed. The author of Strange Encounters: Embodied Others in Post-Coloniality focuses on a subaltern treated as a stranger by many techniques of differentiation. Her book introduces an interesting approach to the other — being a stranger is not an ontological issue, but epistemological one.
It is a matter of recognizing others and oneself in an environmental network. He or she is needed only to finalize the process of an individuation. There is a shift of meanings and boundaries, bodily and subjective borders. This thesis echoes Laura U. The difference is placed between antagonism and eroticism which, according to Marks, drives haptical and optical visuality, whereas for Ahmed it is all about conflict.
He draws boundaries between human beings in process of perception, bending xenological phenomenology with material one. We tend to identify ourselves through a separation from milieu — other things, people, places, etc. Our own boundaries are tantamount to the boundaries of the alien, so our relations with the other are a relation of proximity, embodied and haptic. In this sense, the stranger is always in proximity: a body that is out of place because it has come too close. The concept was coined by Giorgio Agamben but Thomas Elsaesser implemented it in film studies describing one scene in Hidden , Michael Haneke.
Her alienation is embodied and sensed by the viewers. Sensuous, tactile aesthetics emphasizes the oppression of the eye as an organ of domination. Their bodies are colonized but they can find their subjectivity in the embodiment. It implicates a non-normative way of viewing engagement with an image — an identification is replaced by an interaction. Haptic or multisensory cinema creates proximity that imposes new ways of contact with the other without usurpating rights to his or her identity.