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Lists: Academia Belgica. New acquisitions , New Acquisitions. Soft s. Acta Musei Moraviae.. However, administrative institutions and personnel seemed in some degree able to supply resources of this second kind, and were evidently valued for that reason.
Actual continuities of imperial service became increasingly conspicuous, reflecting in part the development of a more stable alternation of the crown, between just three rich princely dynasties—Wittelsbach, Luxemburg and Habsburg—during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. These were the figures whom rulers would most have wished to retain, not only for their expertise, but for the legitimising continuity of distinguished service which they embodied. Their consolidation into an elite of interconnected, high-ranking graduate specialists made such men—in contrast to lesser clerks, with their local roots and territorial ties—more likely to prolong their service under an incoming monarch.
By the fifteenth century, therefore, important administrators were staying on, or even shifting allegiance to serve a new king, in a way that had previously been rare. Johannes Kirchen, a leading Hofgericht notary under Wenceslas, went on to act as protonotary to both Rupert and Sigismund.
Document culture, and those who sustained it, had particular benefits to offer the insecure and sometimes weak rulers of the late-medieval Reich. It did not order its far-flung provinces within centralising structures like the kingdom of France, or expand with the startling speed of Valois Burgundy. Instead it contracted somewhat, although outright disintegration never looked likely.
The two centuries after the fall of the Staufer brought modest and piecemeal steps towards greater administrative sophistication, although the effects of these were largely confined to the old-established core lands of the Reich, in central and southern Germany.
Relations between government and society became more complex and more intimate—but again, mainly in regions where they had traditionally been close. The change primarily reflected developments in society, not government. A more thoroughgoing reform and extension of imperial institutions was to be instituted at the close of the fifteenth century.
Reform was not constrained by the existence of elaborate cadres of rule-bound, conservative mandarins however constrained it may have been in other ways. The late-medieval Reich, with all its shortcomings, fared notably less badly in difficult times than did its depleted and crisis-stricken counterpart in Byzantium. That the imperial court should have aspired to police the personal and cultural interactions of its German-speaking agents with the inhabitants of Lombardy or Arles in the manner of the English in Ireland was more than just unattainable: it was unthinkable.
But this was a less feasible venture in the Reich than in some other realms, and had less certain results. The trouble with texts is that, by their existence, they tempt us to reach unfavourable judgements upon those places where they appear to be relatively less present.
Important too, therefore, were the clerks responsible for finding, framing and disseminating those words. Rader eds. V Stuttgart: Klett Cotta, , pp. Wiesbaden: Steiner, , vol. I, pp. The medieval Reich, moreover, was only one heir to the western imperial tradition: see Chris Jones, Eclipse of Empire: perceptions of the Western Empire and its rulers in late- medieval France Turnhout: Brepols, Munich: Beck, Cain and A.
Hopkins, British imperialism, —, 2nd edn Harlow: Longman, , p.
Weimar: H. MGH Schriften, vol. Jahrhundert Stuttgart: Steiner, Dietrich presided for a time over his own separate chancery in Prague, with a competence extending to both the Reich and Bohemia and, while it lasted, permanently based in the capital. For the exchequer as exemplifying precocious Weberian modernity, see Clancy, Memory, p.
Geburtstag am September , 3 vols. II, pp. Hale, J. Highfield and B. Smalley eds. As Thomas observes, this figure can be contrasted with the known documents from the Paris Parlement for the year alone. For the resistance which Rudolf I encountered in attempting to extend urban taxation during the s, see Thomas M. There must originally have been more, in particular, further special registers: ibid.
For comparative dates for the introduction of registration in various European chanceries, see John Watts, The making of polities: Europe, — Cambridge: Cambridge UP, , p. IV Berlin: De Gruyter, , cols. For the character of office in modern bureaucracy, see Gerth and Wright Mills ed. Raban was also responsible for the unusually sophisticated system of registration established under Rupert: ibid. In spite of this, however, Charles accepted in practice no limitation upon his own control of appointments: Lindner, Das Urkundenwesen, pp.
Southern, Western society and the church in the middle ages Harmondsworth: Penguin, , p. For further discussion of medieval English record-production, see Crooks, below, pp. Southern, Medieval humanism and other studies Oxford: Blackwell, , p. Even when a princely writing office already existed, however, its importance as a basis for imperial administration was not in every case equally great.
However, not all the reigns of this period show a predominant reliance on outsiders. Wolfgang D.
Much admired by some modern students of the period, Sicilian kingship had a well-established track-record of provoking rebellions among its much-burdened subjects. Joseph L. Rader, Friedrich II. Dresden: Sandstein, , vol. As an example of imperial privileges created for visual effect, see the five solemn confirmations issued in in favour of the church of Freising: ibid. Kaisergestalten des Mittelalters Munich: Beck, , p. V, ed. Jakob Schwalm Hannover and Leipzig: Hahn, —13 , no. In the same letter Philip repeatedly spoke of his endeavours to obtain imperial power without special reference to his election by the nobles or his coronation by the pope, but without doubt meaning due to take place consecutively cf.
Bearbeitet von Wolfgang D.
Weimar , p. Jahrhundert Forschungen zur Kaiser- und Papstgeschichte des Mittelalters. Beihefte zu J. Rzihacek — Spreitzer ed. DD , , , , There is, however, one exception: in D we read coronam ac dyadema regni suscepimus. DD 21, 63, 82, , see also esse imperii in DD 96 and DD 60, 62, 77, , D 29 copied from an older charter of Emperor Fredrick I and D and D , which has an identical text was formulated outside the chancellery.
DD , based on its text is D , and also the forgery D Download pdf. More Posts - Website. Philipp II. Staufer Urkunden.
Dezember Januar Diese Website verwendet Akismet, um Spam zu reduzieren. To Be King of an Empire. DD 81, , , , , , , , , Jahrhundert 4. Cui bono?