The Order's expansion, acquisition of property, and involvement in wool production, notably in northern England, brought economic and social benefits to the areas where monasteries were established.
It also resulted in wealth that contradicted the message of simplicity and austerity articulated in the Order's founding. The monks who had denounced the excesses of Cluniac abbeys found themselves the targets of satire against their own wealth and greed. Kienzle, 'Pons of Leras' [introduction and translation] in Thomas Head, ed.
Nichols and L. Shank, eds. How To Jump In.
Dating Affirmation. Better Speaker Affirmation. Get My Free Ebook. Post a comment Name Fulton, Rachel. New York: Columbia University Press, An insightful study of changes in medieval patterns of spirituality. Compellingly looks to the unfulfilled popular expectation that the world would end in to explain the subsequent growth in compassion for the suffering Jesus, with Anselm as a pivotal influence.
Contributes thoughtfully to an understanding of Cistercian affective spirituality. Lawrence, C.
New York: Routledge, Outstanding single-volume work on monasticism during the Middle Ages. Follows a basic chronology from desert monasticism to the late medieval friars, including a chapter on The Cistercian Model and a clear chapter about monastic women. Endnotes in chapters, detailed index, no general bibliography.
Glossary useful for classroom teaching. Leclercq, Jean. The Love of Learning and the Desire for God.
Translated by Catharine Misrahi. New York: Fordham University Press, The essential study on the origins of monastic culture and the dominant influence exercised by Saints Benedict and Gregory the Great. Consistently readable. Originated as lectures for young monks.
Lekai, O. Edited by Francis Swietek and John R.
Janet Burton , Janet E. The orders differed based on how they observed their religious rituals and the strictness with which they implemented their laws and regulations. As the popularity of monks and monasteries grew, monks became very influential figures in the middle ages society. Melville, Gert. A thorough overview of European religious orders and their founders through the 15th century, ranging from regular canons through the Humiliati ; photographs, maps, detailed time line, and bibliography. Sommerfeldt, —
Sommerfeldt, — Cistercian Studies Kalamazoo, MI: Cistercian Publications, Leclercq addresses the question of what conversion meant for those joining 12th-century monasteries of Cistercian and other new orders. Provides no fixed typology of conversion, but categories such as the social strata of converts mostly aristocratic , motives for conversion, and difficulty of entry requirements, including good health. Melville, Gert.
Basil is considered the founder of Eastern Orthodox monasticism, Benedict the founder of western monasticism. A monastery usually has an abbot, from the Aramaic word " abba ," or father, who is the organization's spiritual leader; a prior, who is second in command; and deans, who each supervise ten monks. Founded in , this order follows the Rule of Augustine. Martin Luther was an Augustinian but was a friar, not a monk. Friars have pastoral duties in the outside world; monks are cloistered in a monastery.
Augustinians wear black robes, symbolizing death to the world, and include both men and women nuns. Founded in , these monks and nuns follow the Rule of Basil the Great. This order is primarily Eastern Orthodox. Nuns work in schools, hospitals, and charitable organizations. Benedict founded the abbey of Monte Cassino in Italy about , although technically he did not begin a separate order.
Benedictines also include nuns. The order is involved in education and missionary work. Founded in , the Carmelites include friars, nuns, and laypeople. They follow the rule of Albert Avogadro, which includes poverty, chastity, obedience, manual labor, and silence for much of the day.