Average employment income for disabled adults declined between and The 1.
Traffic volume is vastly outstripping the development of new road and public transit infrastructure. Car-sharing is beginning to change the landscape of vehicle ownership and contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Improved convenience, safety and accessibility remain challenges. Vancouver retained its number one spot in , followed by Victoria and Montreal. Toronto needs to fund and build an expanded rapid transit network before congestion brings the city to a halt. However, rates of home ownership are above the Toronto average, and the number of university-educated residents is at the city average.
Lack of language and cultural literacy skills often prevent newcomers from finding good jobs. A big barrier is recognition of foreign credentials and work experience.
Recent immigrants are also more likely to be employed in middle-level jobs that require experience but less education , and less likely to be employed in knowledge work jobs that require higher specialization and education , despite the fact that there is no significant difference in the educational attainment of newcomers in Toronto and elsewhere in Ontario. One in three had not eaten for a whole day. A convergence of risk factors and demographic change threatens to place an unprecedented burden on the health care system. Smoking rates continue to decline, but Toronto residents are at risk for a number of diseases aggravated by lack of physical activity and poor diet.
The environment, the economy, transportation and the health and well-being of city residents are all vitally linked. But the average for the years - was Four beaches received a Blue Flag in Toronto residents:. In April, , Toronto City Council requested that the province make the river valleys part of the protected Greenbelt.
Housing affordability is one of the most fundamental issues, impacting the quality of life in the city. Vancouver was the most expensive of any market surveyed. In , estimated incomes for a number of occupations and groups had already put affordable housing out of reach:. The , reported offences in was The rate of 1, crimes per , population 31, criminal offenses in compares to the rate of 1, 33, violent offenses.
This is close to the average 60 homicides a year in the decade - , and well below the average The year average is The year average is 6. It is also higher in neighbourhoods where high population density and mobility contribute to a lack of social cohesion or sense of belonging to the community. Police-reported crime rates continue an almost decade-long decline in the city, but crime is a top concern of many young Torontonians.
Cities provide not just infrastructure like roads and sewers, but social infrastructure - the services and facilities that support those least able to cope in financially tough times. A household is food secure when every member has access to enough safe and nutritious food for a healthy life. One in two Torontonians lives more than 1 km from the nearest grocery store. Access to healthy food is linked to income, but also to proximity to a grocery store. Lamar Memorial Library Borrow it.
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Link Analysis Experimental. Network Analysis Inbound Links 3 1 Total. Wales is far from Toronto, but an interest in my own native city followed easily. My father, Silas Henry Armstrong, was superintendent of playgrounds from to and during the Depression his blow-by-blow account of how the city politicians were cutting the parks and playgrounds budget was standard fare at home.
When a deputation arrived at his Shuter Street office demanding reinstatement of the classes, he explained that it was either classes or baseball. If the latter went, their sons would be home underfoot or out on the streets up to goodness knows what. Pressed on how the money for the classes could be reinstated, he told the women that they would have to go to the City Council.
They went—and virtually invaded a Council meeting.
A City in the Making: Progress, People and Perils in Victorian Toronto [Frederick H. Armstrong] on rapyzure.tk *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. A City in. Editorial Reviews. Review. A City in the Making examines certian of the events that took place in the nineteenth century Toronto, paying particular attention to.
An alderman was hit on the head with an umbrella and, miraculously, the funds for the classes were restored, Depression or not! With the influence of my grandfather behind me, I studied history at the University of Toronto, though my research and writing in history did not begin until my return there for doctoral work in after many years in the insurance business —an experience that lies behind my studies of fires. They had been sent to the provincial archives in by a city employee who was ordered to clean out a vault and thankfully decided that they were too important to destroy they have now been reclaimed by The City of Toronto Archives.
When I did this study in the early s urban history in Canada was a largely neglected field. But this left the years from to open to enquiry, and some of the most important documents relating to this period were available at the Ontario Archives. In my research I have also been much affected by the warning of one of my Classics professors at the University of Toronto, Gilbert Bagnani, that one should never accept a story at face value, however often it may be repeated, without checking it back to the original sources.
Noting that any good story tended to be copied by one writer after another, Bagnani remarked that in one case he had traced an inaccurate legend back through three centuries of writers to a mis-translation in the sixteenth century. It was through thus checking the stories of the William Lyon Mackenzie family — stories that had been unquestioningly copied by later historians — that I began to see a very different historical figure emerge from that of the man of the legend.
Other essays in the collection at hand arose from articles I prepared for the Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Preparing entries for the DCB leads writers to family connections,business enterprises, recreational pursuits, and, indeed, every variety of human endeavour. Consequently, when researching such pieces, historians can gain a new perspective on the communities in which their subjects lived, as well as a new understanding of the forces that shaped the development of these centres. My Dictionary biographies hence mark the starting-points of several of the essays that follow in this collection.
They also led me on to the study of the elites who ran the city: how they arose; how they retained power; and how they directed economic and political development. Such is the rather lengthy tale of how these essays came to be written. While the collection in no way attempts to provide an overview of the history of Toronto, its contents will, it is hoped, give some idea of the nineteenth-century richness and diversity of life in what was traditionally long regarded as the dullest and the most colourless of Canadian cities.
The use of the term Victorian to describe the period covered in this book may seem somewhat limited, for the story told in some of the essays reaches back into the late eighteenth century. But, as the focus of discussion extends from the York riots of March to the Second Great Fire in April , Victorian seemed an appropriate designation. Furthermore, most of the book deals with events that took place in the middle years of the century.
Some of the essays are built around an incident, some concentrate on an individual, and some do both. Each section has its own short introduction. Thus, the urban picture of that time is understandable without too much explanation. Some things, however, have changed considerably.
An example is the many revisions in street names that have taken place. Occasionally the same street has had more than one name change; sometimes several streets have been linked together and given one name: Bay Street and particularly Dundas Street are cases in point. To avoid confusion, the modern names are used throughout; but where there have been changes, the contemporary name is shown after the modern name in square brackets on the first reference in each chapter.
Another point in need of clarification is the monetary system of Upper Canada, which was a particular nightmare before the decimal system was adopted in As part of the British Empire, Upper Canada used the imperial system of pounds, shilling and pence: the pound consisting of 20 shillings and the shilling being divided into 12 pennies pennies equalled one pound.
To complicate matters further, there were two types of pounds used in Upper Canada: the British pound or pound Sterling abbreviated St. The latter, which was originally only a bookkeeping currency since there were no local coins or paper notes, was less valuable: five shillings Currency equalled four shillings Sterling. When the local banks began to issue their own paper money and tokens in the s they used pounds Currency.
With no government-issued paper money or coins, and English money hard to import, and at any rate slightly different in value, almost any coins that drifted into the colony were accepted. Even leaving aside currency fluctuations and interest charges, the simplest transactions could become nightmares and a good deal of business was carried on by barter. Not surprisingly, it was customary for people to keep running accounts at stores rather than pay for each individual purchase. Trying to compare nineteenth-century figures and costs with those of today is thus very difficult, even without considering the various waves of inflation and deflation — which in the end left the American dollar very close in value to what it had been worth in The incredible technological advances of the era sometimes also resulted in drastic reductions in prices.
In some cases examples of contemporary costs and wages have been added for comparison. The first section of this book deals with the physical landscape of Toronto as it grew from a village in the s to a town of more than 10, people in the s. As well, it looks at the ambitions of early Torontonians, the limits of their economic power and their desire to expand their communication network and commercial hinterland.
The first chapter provides a topographical and architectural description of the city as it had evolved by The second examines the extent of its hinterland, the state of its commercial and communications network, and the nature of the services it provided for its population.
In all these aspects Toronto provides a local microcosm of an international phenomenon. What was taking place in the city reflected the commitment to progress that was remaking the face of every town, village and hamlet across both Europe and North America. Some of the schemes that were attempted were ludicrous, but others — such as the railways — represent a crucial stage in the evolution of most of the largest cities of today.
Their effects on Toronto show how a remote, backwoods, colonial city formed part of an international economic pattern, and demonstrate the almost instantaneous, world-wide transmission of new technological developments in the nineteenth century. In the population of the town had been 1,, in , 2,, and by , 9, After incorporation this increase continued, usually at a slower speed, and by the city had a population of over 30, The effect of this sudden wave of migration was the virtual creation of a new entity.
The village of was scarcely recognizable a decade later; but even the new city itself was soon changed drastically as the population expanded further, and new buildings and streets which still survive today made their appearance. Thus in Toronto was undergoing a physical as well as a political transition. At the same time, however, it was still semi-rural in many aspects. A survey of the city at that date demonstrates that many of the characteristics of modern downtown Toronto had developed, while many features of the former village lingered into the early metropolitan period.
By the Town of York had attained what was, for Upper Canada, the advanced age of forty-one years. As originally laid out in by Lieutenant-Governor Simcoe, the town plot was merely a twelve-block rectangle bounded by Front Palace , George, Adelaide Duke and Berkeley streets, but this area had long ceased to be the centre of the city.