Evapotranspiration in the Soil-Plant-Atmosphere System (Progress in Soil Science)

Molecular Environmental Soil Science
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The physics of water phase change is briefly presented. Consumption of energy to change liquid water into water vapor cools the biosphere, thus allowing the creation of suitable conditions for life on the Earth. The kinetic theory of fluids is used to quantify the evaporation process because it depends on the properties of an environment, allowing us to find the most important properties of the environment influencing evapotranspiration. The kinetic theory of evaporation can help us understand evaporation as a process, but does not allow use in directly quantifying it; therefore other methods should be used.

Water can evaporate from all wet surfaces if there is a flux of energy. The most important process for biomass production and proper functioning of the biosphere is evapotranspiration. Evapotranspiration is, however, the process of water transport through the soil-plant-atmosphere system SPAS. Every subsystem of the SPAS can strongly influence the evapotranspiration process. This chapter contains basic information about all three subsystems of the SPAS. Basic properties of water water vapor , soil, plant canopy , and atmosphere are presented and their role in the evapotranspiration process is discussed.

It is shown that soil water is not pure water but a solute, and salinization during evapotranspiration can occur. The role of carbon dioxide and its increase in the SPAS is discussed, mainly the possible effect of carbon dioxide on the greenhouse effect. Water evaporates from different, wet surfaces. This chapter briefly describes water evaporation from various evaporating surfaces and their specific features are accented.

Evaporation of intercepted water, evaporation from water surfaces, from snow and ice as well as evaporation from urbanized surfaces is described. Transpiration as a process of water transport from soil through plant to the atmosphere is discussed. The basic features of water transport through plants and properties of roots and leaves stomata are given, to better understand the transpiration process.

The term potential evapotranspiration, as well as potential transpiration evaporation , is described and quantified. Conditions necessary for potential evapotranspiration are presented and the process of potential transpiration is defined. Finally, the term potential evapotranspiration index is described. The boundary layer of the atmosphere BLA is the space above the Earth, properties of which are strongly influenced by the Earth surface.

Water vapor evaporating from the surface is transported in the BLA; therefore, the properties of the BLA can strongly influence the evapotranspiration process. Vertical distributions of the meteorological characteristics wind, air humidity, and air temperature profiles in this layer are described quantitatively. Parameters of those profiles as well as methods of their evaluation are presented. Parameters of the evaporating surface roughness length, zero displacement level are described as well as methods of their estimation. Transport properties of the BLA are of primary importance and can be expressed by transport coefficients.

Methods of heat and water vapor transport coefficients estimation in the BLA are described. The influence of the state of an atmosphere on transport coefficients is discussed and the method of its quantification is given. One subsystem of SPAS is soil, which accumulates water and transports it to the roots transpiration or to the soil surface where water is evaporating.

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In this chapter, movement of water in the soil subsystem is described. Movement of soil water during evaporation is a nonisothermal process in principle; soil is heated by the energy of the Sun and cooled by the energy consumed during evaporation. Typical soil water content SWC profiles during evaporation are presented, demonstrating their typical features during isothermal and nonisothermal evaporation. Typical relationships of evaporation and soil water content estimated in the field and in the laboratory are given, and the three stages of evaporation as they are related to the SWC are identified.

A system of equations describing movement of liquid water, water vapor, and heat in the soil and approximative solution of transport equation for bare soil are presented. Movement of soil water during transpiration is a complicated process in comparison to evaporation because the root system of plants extracts water and solute from the soil using the soil root layer. Evaporation is the typical movement of water to the soil surface or close to it from which water is evaporating.

The method of root extraction rate of water estimation from soil water content SWC field measurements is presented. This is the proposed method of water uptake evaluation by roots, based on the results of field measurements. This method is used to model water movement and extraction by roots in soil with a plant canopy. The mesoscopic approach to water uptake by an evaluation of roots is described.

The role of a plant is to reproduce itself.

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Transport of water from soil through plant and to the atmosphere is a part of this process. Water consumption in the photosynthetic process is small in comparison with transpiration, which is enormous, and transpirating water passes through the plant and stomata to the atmosphere. To preserve itself, the plant can regulate transpiration by stomata opening and closing. Water movement through the plant is described and quantified, with emphasis on the role of stomata in the transpiration process. The resistance or conductivity of stomata is defined and methods of their measurement and estimation are described, as well as the resistance of plants and canopies.

Daily and seasonal leaf resistance courses are shown. The relations between leaf resistance and properties of an environment are presented. A major common challenge in all these areas of soil ecology is how to scale observations and model concepts from organism and communities to soil profiles, ecosystems and finally to scales relevant to management and policy, all the way to the global scale. We thus welcome innovative and interdisciplinary studies that are pushing the field of soil ecology from the understanding of ecological and biogeochemical processes in soils to addressing global sustainability issues.

Soils host a vast biodiversity across various kingdoms, with multiple interactions within and between communities and with the surrounding environment. In this session, we will investigate how biodiversity in soils responds on biotic and abiotic factors across various spatial scales. We will study the functional roles of these communities in processes like nutrient and water cycling, trace gas exchange with the atmosphere, soil erosion, mineral weathering, and vascular plant germination and growth. We will put one special focus on extracellular polymeric substances EPS and their role in promoting microbial adhesion to surfaces, reducing cellular desiccation, protecting against antibiotics or toxic molecules, and even acting as a final source of nutrition under extreme scarcity.

The amount, composition and functionality of EPS in soils, biological soil crusts, sediments or other porous media will be investigated. Responses of soil communities to land use and climate change as well as other potential threats will also be included in this session. Besides temperate soil communities, we will focus on biological soil crusts occurring in hot and cold deserts around the world, and biofilms forming in coastal regions of freshwater and marine environments.

Soil structure is difficult to study as it is a 3D opaque matrix. A strong interdisciplinary approach is thus required, merging soil physicists, chemists and ecologists. This session is divided into two oral blocks, one focusing more on the micro-scale in relation to microbial activities and the other accounting for micro- and macro-scale in relation to soil ecology of larger organisms and soil functioning. Carsten Mueller is the solicited speaker of the first oral block and Matthias Rillig is solicited for the second oral block.

The interactions between plants and their environment in biogeochemical cycles have drawn substantial attention in the domains of soil science, hydrology, plant physiology, ecology and climatology in recent years. This interest stems from the need for improved predictability of plant-related transfer processes to face fundamental environmental and agricultural issues, like for instance crop drought tolerance, contaminant transport, and the impact of global change on plant-mediated resource and energy fluxes in terrestrial systems.

Emerging experimental techniques and system modeling tools have deepened our insights into the functioning of water and nutrient transport processes in the soil-root system. Yet, quantitative approaches connectable across disciplines and scales nowadays constitute step stones to foster our understanding of fundamental biophysical processes at the frontier of soil and roots.

This session targets researchers investigating plant-related resource transfer processes from the rhizosphere to the field scale, and aims at gathering scientists from multiple disciplines ranging from soil physics to plant physiology. This includes: - Novel experimental techniques assessing below-ground plant processes - Measuring and modeling soil and plant water fluxes across scales - Bridging the gap between biology and soil physics through numerical modeling - Plant water and nutrient uptake under abiotic stress - Impact of plant uptake on solute transport in soil - etc… Invited speakers: Prof.

During the passage of precipitation through the soil-plant-atmosphere interface, water and solutes are redistributed by the plant canopy, subsurface flow and transport processes. Many of these dynamic interactions between vegetation and soil are not yet well understood. This session brings together the vibrant community addressing a better understanding of ecohydrological processes taking place between the canopy and the root zone.

Innovative methods investigating throughfall, stemflow, hydraulic redistribution, and root water uptake in various environments shed light on how water and solutes are routed in the thin layer covering the terrestrial ecosystems. The session further covers open questions and new opportunities within the ecohydrological community regarding methodological developments such as the analysis of stable isotope, soil moisture, throughfall or solute dynamics.

Advancing our understanding of how biotic and abiotic processes control soil organic matter stocks, stability, stabilisation mechanisms, biochemical transformations, and loss from terrestrial ecosystems remains a major focus in biogeochemistry today. This session aims to facilitate discussions that improve our understanding of how complex biotic and abiotic processes interact in the terrestrial ecosystem, in particular during periods of natural- or anthropogenic-induced change and across a range of scales from molecular, profile, plot, landscape, and global scales to control soil organic matter dynamics.

Furthermore, the session welcomes submissions that focus on: a relationship of soil organic matter transformations with length and intensity of weathering processes that modify minerals and create a distinct soil matrix in which biological processes take place; b dynamics of soil organic matter in deep soil layers using experimental and modeling approaches and c plant-soil interactions on soil carbon and nutrient cycling.

This session will contribute to improving our understanding and future predictive capabilities of carbon dynamics in the earth system by bringing together scientists working on improving our mechanistic understanding of key soil organic matter processing, with the explicit goal of promoting inclusion of the interplay of biology, climate, geochemistry and pedology into large-scale model frameworks. Ecosystems, particularly soils, are a globally important reservoir for organic carbon OC and contribute significantly to CO2 emissions. Soil organic matter is further vital for soil fertility and sustainable agriculture, and has the potential to increase and safeguard agricultural yields against climate change.

Reducing losses of organic carbon OC from soils and restoring or even further enhancing soil OC stocks therefore offers a strategy to combine the benefits of climate change mitigation with improved soil quality. Nevertheless there are still a range of frontier areas of research on soil OC that have to be tackled to understand and manage the potential of soils to sequester additional or maintain carbon. These include for example soil carbon saturation, carbon stability in subsoils, carbon input quality, soil structure and management practices, as well as ways to verify changes in soil carbon stocks.

Also, there is still large uncertainty on the time scales at which carbon stays in soils and other ecosystem compartments, with flux based and modelling approaches often suggesting faster OC turnover than radiocarbon based approaches. We invite presentations addressing these or other areas of pioneering research on SOM sequestration and temporal dynamics using experimental, synthesis, or modelling approaches.

Dissolved and particulate organic carbon DOM, POM are key components of the global C cycle and important as potential sources of CO2, and for the long-term preservation of carbon stabilized in subsoils and sediments. DOM and POM are key sources of energy for microbial metabolism within terrestrial ecosystems, the aquatic continuum, and ultimately the ocean. Despite recent evidence showing this lateral transport of carbon is linked to anthropogenic perturbations, efforts to integrate DOM and POM fluxes across the terrestrial-aquatic continuum are just emerging.

A comprehensive understanding of the dynamics of DOM and POM in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems remains challenging due to complex interactions of biogeochemical and hydrological processes at different scales, i. This session aims to improve our understanding of organic matter processing at the interface of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. We solicit contributions dealing with amounts, composition, reactivity and fate of DOM and POM and its constituents i. C, N, P, S in soils, lakes, rivers and the coastal ocean as well as the impact of land use change and climatic change on these processes.

For example, it is important to recognize the key role of peatlands as sources of organic matter for many streams and rivers as well as soil erosion induced lateral fluxes of sediment and carbon at the catchment scale when assessing C dynamics across the terrestrial-aquatic continuum. Stability of soil functioning is closely related to biochemical turnover and microbial recycling of carbon C and nutrients. Despite numerous studies aimed on soil organic matter SOM formation, accumulation, and decomposition, most of them consider only one direction: formation or decomposition, sorption or mineralization.

Consequently, the questions of C turnover and nutrients recycling remain opened.

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This session invites contributions to cycles of organic substances in soil, turnover processes and rates, as well as recycling of nutrients and soil organic matter compounds by microorganisms. We appreciate studies focused on turnover mechanisms of fast and slow cycling pools, as well as on substances preferably reutilized by bacteria and fungi.

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Investigations based on an application of isotope labeling e. Soil and environmental controls of turnover and recycling rates are of a special interest. Soil organic matter SOM plays a key role not only in soil fertility and quality by providing a number of physical, chemical, and biological benefits , but also in C cycling. The decline of SOM represents one of the most serious threats facing many arable lands of the world. Beside this, there is an imperative necessity of a sustainable management for the increasing quantity of organic waste.

Crop residues and animal manures have long been successfully used as soil organic amendments to preserve and enhance SOM pools. During the last decade, pyrolysis the combustion of biomass under low or no oxygen supply is showing a promising approach for managing carbon-rich wastes such as sewage sludge, the pulp and paper industry residues or crop residues and to create added value co-products.

Characterizing Patterns and Structures in Soil–Plant–Atmosphere Systems

Progress in Soil Science. Free Preview cover. © Evapotranspiration in the Soil-Plant-Atmosphere System Movement of Water in Soil During Evaporation. Evapotranspiration in the Soil-Plant-Atmosphere System (Progress in Soil Science) [Viliam Novak] on rapyzure.tk *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.

Besides serving as a source of organic matter and plant nutrients, these materials may contribute to fight plant diseases and reduce soil contamination, erosion, and desertification. A safe and useful application of organic amendments requires an in-depth scientific knowledge of their nature and impacts on the soil-plant system, as well as on the surrounding environment.

While the benefits biochar or fly ashes as soil ameliorants and fertilizers are very well known, the knowledge of the use of other sorts of pyrogenic organic matter as well as the effects of biochar in SOM composition at a long term are very scarce. This interdisciplinary session will focus on the current research and recent advances on the use of organic amendments including pyrogenic organic materials such as biochar or wood ash in modern agriculture as well as for the restoration of degraded soils, covering physical, chemical, biological, biochemical, environmental and socio-economical aspects by bringing together scientists from the diverse fields of soil, applied pyrolysis, bioenergy waste management, SOM characterization, carbon dynamics and plant nutrition.

Tropical ecosystems play an important role for the regional and global climate system through the exchange of greenhouse gases GHG , water and energy and provide important ecosystem services that we as humans depend on, such as wood, foods, and biodiversity. Historic and recent human activities have, however, resulted in intensive transformation of tropical ecosystems impacting on the cycling of nutrients, carbon, water, and energy. Here we invite contributions that provide insights on how land-use and land-use change influences biogeochemical cycles and ecohydrology in tropical ecosystems at the plot, landscape, and continental scale.

Examples include nitrogen and carbon cycles in soil and vegetation, the exchange of GHG between soil and atmosphere as well as ecosystem and atmosphere, changes in the energy balance, impacts on the water cycle, scaling issues from plots to country to continent; and the influence of management activities i. The session covers forests, but also managed land-use systems such as agriculture, pastures or oil palm plantations.

Experimental studies chamber or eddy covariance flux measurements, stable isotopes, sap flux , inventories, as well as remote sensing or modelling studies are welcomed. Soil is an environment where minerals undergo steady changes with consequences to the bioavailability and cycling of elements. Chemical weathering of primary minerals provides nutrients to soil biota and results in the formation of secondary minerals that react strongly with pollutants, organic matter, and organisms.

Soil minerals, therefore, are major controls in the biogeochemical cycling of elements in soil. The complex interactions between minerals and their abiotic and biotic environment offer numerous challenges to modern environmental research, such as 1 the identification of relevant mineral-related processes at different spatial and temporal scales, 2 the determination of properties of soil minerals, and 3 the resulting impact of soil minerals on element speciation, mobility, and bioavailability. The session aims at bringing together expertise in field, laboratory, and modelling studies for shedding light on all aspects of soil minerals as determinants in the biogeochemical cycling of major e.

Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems of the boreal to polar regions face tremendous alterations due to a fast changing climate. Besides geophysical and hydrological impacts like vanishing permafrost, coastal erosion and altered runoff, biogeochemical cycles are highly affected by the ongoing changes. Although we are completely aware of the importance of high latitude ecosystems for instance for carbon sequestration, we have a restricted understanding of the biogeochemical processes especially in terrestrial ecosystems. This session aims to bring together scientists working on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in the high latitudes, both in Arctic, Antarctic, and Boreal regions, reaching from microbiological functioning and stoichiometric constraints of organic matter turnover and nutrient cycling e.

Soil structure, function and ecosystem services are discussed within each soil discipline: biology, chemistry and physics and it is recognised that each one of these soil disciplines have great importance in determining the overall soil health and characteristics. Moreover, there is an interrelationship between soil biota and the chemical and physical properties of the soil. For example, soil chemical composition can influence the survival of organisms in the soil and in return, soil organisms may change soil pH, aggregate stability and rate of organic matter decomposition.

Healthy, bio-diverse, fertile soil that is rich in nutrients and elements required for food security and proper human nutrition can lead to personal physical fitness as well as social wellbeing for both the individual and broader society. Despite sessions and discussions within each soil discipline, there is very little talk between disciplines and one of the main reasons is the difficulties of the members of one discipline to understand the jargon used by another. The aim of this session is to bring experts and ECSs from the different soil disciplines to present on soil structure, function and ecosystem services where the only rule is that jargon is not allowed!

Our main objective is to facilitate discussion and feed soil information between the biology, chemistry and physics disciplines. We have dedicated our session to the work of Professor Lily Pereg who was the initiator of this session and President of Soil System Sciences Division at EGU until she died tragically and unexpectedly earlier this year.

Human impacts including intensive land use, contamination, and consequences of climate change have brought severe changes to the functioning of the critical zone. Owing to the inherent vulnerability of many karst ecosystems to disturbance, these are often particularly severe in karst areas. This has resulted in many emerging challenges for soil science, hydrology and related disciplines to understand how land-management practices impact biogeochemical cycles, and consequently the ability of the karst critical zone to provide future ecosystem services.

The special characteristics of the critical zone in karst areas include heterogeneity of aquifer properties, thin soil profiles with a direct soil-rock contact, and unique weathering processes. This results in challenges to biogeochemical cycles studies in karst systems, requiring novel techniques and different approaches to non-karst areas. Critical zone science is necessarily interdisciplinary.

This session strongly encourages work drawing on a range of disciplines that will further our understanding of biogeochemical cycling in the karst critical zone. This will provide the knowledge base on which future management of karst areas is based, in order to secure their ability to provide ecosystem services. Work from all relevant disciplines is encouraged, including soil science, water quality, geology, karst hydrology, ecology, agronomy, and ecosystem services in karstic systems, which may draw from both long-term monitoring and high resolution study of occasional or extreme events.

Work may include modelling, experimentation, reviews or a combination of the three. Cracks, fractures and macropores are typical features of natural soils and fissured rock formations, and promote preferential flow and mass transfer. Lithological heterogeneity e. In addition to these physical factors, chemical and geochemical processes e.

This session focuses on experimental and theoretical challenges and state of the art of methods to characterize, measure and model preferential flows, and their effects on water infiltration into the soil, flow in the vadose zone, and their implications for the water-soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. The session also welcomes studies on the impact of preferential flows on mass transfer in the vadose zone of fractured porous media and heterogeneous soils.

Preferential flows are expected to regulate the access of pollutants and solutes to soil reactive particles, and thus the efficiency of pollutant removal by soils and the geochemical processes that govern soil evolution and weathering processes e. On larger scales, some landforms, such as mine waste covers are known to have highly heterogeneous properties, and yet quantifying and modelling water and solute movement in these systems is often required for regulatory and management purposes.

The analysis of infiltration, especially when infiltration experiments are used to estimate soil hydraulic properties, is becoming increasingly important for the geosciences community. Indeed, infiltration process is an important component of the hydrological cycle; it refers to the entry into the soil of water and all substances transported by it. Thus, estimates of soil infiltrability are mandatory key tasks to be performed on a number of hydrologic, agronomic, ecological or environmental studies.

Under natural conditions, infiltration is characterized by high spatial variability resulting from a high degree heterogeneity of both soil texture and structure. On the other hand, local infiltration experiments are sensitive to space-time variability of the unsaturated soil properties. High-resolution infiltration measurement is crucial to properly describe and analyze soil water properties needed to model soil water flow.

The aim of the session focus is on the principles, capabilities, and applications of both infiltration techniques and models at different scales, including, but not limited to: - field infiltration measurements for a wide variety of infiltration devices, from the most simple to the most sophisticated and complete, combined to complementary information provided by other methods i.

We will explore diverse topics of infiltration and interactions encompassing soil processes. The session is not limited by methodology or approach and we welcome studies including laboratory or numerical simulation of infiltration, in-situ studies of water and solutes infiltration. We welcome contributions from simulated and real data investigations in the laboratory or field, successful and failed case studies as well as the presentation of new and promising infiltration approaches.

The continuum approach is a classical framework to describe and understand the soil—water dynamics and the soil effective—stress state in unsaturated soils. This approach is greatly dependent on the soil—water constitutive laws, viz soil—water retention curve, relative hydraulic conductivity, and those derived by these two principal ones. They link the real soil and its model.

Advancements along their development and the comprehension of their role stand at the intersection of experimental measurements, mathematical representation and modelling, numerical solutions, theoretical understandings and practical applications. The growing possibility of monitoring soil moisture with rather simple tools has allowed to perform many field experiments devoted to understand the links between environmental variables and soil moisture.

Also, climate change research has boosted this field of knowledge. Many terrestrial critical zone observatories have been installed, therefore new information both at the local and at the catchment scale is now available. Many open issues still exist in understanding the role of soil moisture in the environment, in combination with other factors such as soil and air temperature, air humidity, carbon and nitrogen availability, etc. Also, it is necessary the study of the structure of time and spatial variability of soil moisture itself, for example to combine the different scales of measurements.

Usually soil moisture is measured at the local scale, but hydrogeophysics allows to have larger scale measurements and micrometeorological tools such as eddy covariance provide even larger scale estimation of gas and energy fluxes. The cosmic ray have increasing applications and the remote sensing images are powerful tools, therefore interesting issues regard the spatial upscaling, and the sampling frequency.

We invite contributions related to the understanding of the soil--water constitutive laws and to soil moisture monitoring, both finalised to understand the effects of its time and spatial variability, and to study soil moisture itself. Scientists working both in the biogeosciences, and in soil sciences field are encouraged to participate, for example with study related to the implications of soil moisture on carbon and nitrogen dynamics, as well as on root and plant growth.

Mining and industrial activities, particularly in the past, have left waste deposit sites and contaminated former fertile soils in many countries. Due to future shortage of arable areas as well as raw materials, the recovery of raw materials as well as remediation for future agricultural utilization, and prevention of hazardous leachings to the groundwater continues to be a goal of current and future research.

However, optimization of these technologies requires a sound understanding of related biogeochemical processes and the consequences of site management. This session aims to bring together contributions of all aspects of biomining and bioremediation research including the effects of rhizosphere processes, soil management and microbial leaching.

This includes, among others: -advances in the understanding of functions of plant-soil-microbe interactions in the rhizosphere -factors influencing the mobility and leaching of target elements or soil contaminants -distribution of target elements inside the organisms -final recovery of metals from accumulator plants or leachates We welcome presentations of laboratory and field research results as well as theoretical studies.

We intend to bring together scientists from multiple disciplines. Young researchers are especially encouraged to submit their contributions. Pre-anthropogenic evolution of biosphere based on mechanisms of struggle for life created dynamic stability of the Earth ecosystems comprised of species with maximum matching to all the biogeochemical niches. Intellect specific of only one species changed biosphere to support civilizations but at the same time interfered natural processes and transformed the state of the organized natural biogeochemical cycles. As a result, soil as the main basis of nutrients and biomass production is subjected to physical and chemical degradation and needs reclamation.

To survive and develop as a species, Man should escape short-term decisions and use his knowledge and scientifically based approaches to find the ways for stable existence in changeable noosphere. The main idea of the present session is to discuss the problem of optimization of eco-geochemical state of anthropized soil to improve the quality of agricultural and forestry production and, finally, human health in conditions of inevitable man-made contamination.

We invite specialists in soil science and all stakeholders to: 1 present their ideas and experience in assessment of the ecological and health risk due to soil contamination in their regions, countries and localities; 2 discuss how we should evaluate soil contamination in conditions of: a natural nutrients deficiency; b soil over-fertilization; soil pollution; 3 clear up what levels of elements concentration may be treated as pollution and demonstrate theoretical approaches and modern technologies that may be considered optimum in reclamation of technogenically transformed soils to improve their ecological quality and to contribute to human health.

Sorbent materials have various environmental applications, i. Rapid progress in nanotechnology and a new focus on biomass-based instead of non-renewable starting materials have produced a wide range of novel engineered sorbents. The development and evaluation of novel sorbents requires a multidisciplinary approach encompassing environmental, nanotechnology, physical, analytical, and surface chemistry.

The necessary evaluations encompass not only the efficiency of these materials to remove contaminants from surface waters and groundwater, industrial wastewater, polluted soils and sediments, etc. Contributions examining the use of novel sorbents for environmental remediation are welcome. The world annual consumption of pesticides has amounted to 2.

Agricultural land is the first recipient of pesticides after its application; even if the pesticides are applied in accordance with the regulations, only a minor amount reaches its objectives, while the rest represent possible environmental contaminants and short or long-term harvest products, with a wide range of possible negative impacts. On the other hand, these pesticides represent a potential risk for soil biota, such as nematodes, microorganisms and plants. The purpose of the session is to share the knowledge generated by researchers whose interest lies in the role of soil in the destination and the behavior of emerging contaminants, including pesticides.

This session will include contributions from different areas: 1. Studies of adsorption, desorption, physical transport, synergies, etc. Field tests, monitoring and modeling of environmental destinations of pesticides. Effects of mixtures of pesticides and pesticides on non-target organisms and interactions of various classes of pesticides detected in the natural environment.

Evaluation of risks of environmental contamination by pesticides. Assessments regarding climate change on the fate and behavior of pesticides. Thus, the radioactive contamination problem is multi-disciplinary. In fact this topic involves regional and global transport and local reactions of radioactive materials through atmosphere, soil and water system, ocean, and organic and ecosystem, and its relation with human and non-human biota. The topic also involves hazard prediction and nowcast technology.

The session consists of updated observations, new theoretical developments including simulations, and improved methods or tools which could improve observation and prediction capabilities during eventual future nuclear emergencies. New evaluations of existing tools, past nuclear contamination events and other data sets also welcome.

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Several types of nature-based solutions NbS for land and water management have been implemented. They are multi-beneficial, not only to prevent and mitigate climate-related risks, providing more resilient cities, but also to improve human well-being and further pave the way towards a more resource efficient, competitive and greener economy.

However, adequate proof-of-concept for economic, social and environmental benefits provided by NbS is needed to promote their inclusion in planning and decision-making processes. This session aims to promote exchange of knowledge regarding NbS and to discuss their relevance for sustainable development, through evidence-based and scalable case studies.

The soil environment hosts a vast array of interfaces, ranging from those between microbes and aggregates, bulk soils and roots, to the interactions of soils with the bedrock and atmosphere. A range of physical, biological and chemical processes occur at these interfaces across different spatial and temporal scales, sustaining a wealth of ecosystem functions and services.

Soil systems are therefore dynamic environments. The behaviour and response of these complex systems to short-term perturbation and long-term environmental change pose fascinating challenges for soil scientists. Many of the major drivers of environmental change are anthropic in origin, including accelerated climatic change and shifts in land use and management. To ensure soils continue to provide valuable functions and services it is vitally important that we study the wide variety of soil interfaces and understand how the processes occurring across them may respond to current and potential future environmental change scenarios.

In this session we hope to bring together researchers at all career stages from different sub-disciplines of soil science to discuss these interactions and how these are affected by broader changes within the environment. Soil systems encompass an exceptional array of biogeochemical components; as such we welcome studies from a wide range of researchers using empirical or modelling-based approaches. We especially encourage contributions which present research encompassing different components of the soil system and the interactions between soil processes and the wider environment.

Acid sulfate soils are found around the world in both coastal and freshwater environments. These soils are dominated by metal sulfides, which, when exposed to oxygen, oxidise and result in acidification of soil and water. Acidification causes detrimental impacts to agricultural land, natural and managed ecosystems and infrastructure in urban environments. We invite submissions on all aspects of acid sulfate soils, sulfidic materials, and wetland soils in natural, managed and anthropogenic ecosystems.

Environmental systems often span spatial and temporal scales covering different orders of magnitude. The session is oriented in collecting studies relevant to understand multiscale aspects of these systems and in proposing adequate multi-platform surveillance networks monitoring tools systems. It is especially aimed to emphasize the interaction between environmental processes occurring at different scales.

In particular, a special attention is devoted to the studies focused on the development of new techniques and integrated instrumentation for multiscale monitoring high natural risk areas, such as: volcanic, seismic, slope instability and other environmental context. We expect contributions derived from several disciplines, such as applied geophysics, seismology, geodesy, geochemistry, remote sensing, volcanology, geotechnical and soil science.

In this context, the contributions in analytical and numerical modeling of geodynamics processes are also welcome. Finally, a special reference is devoted to the integration through the use of GeoWeb platforms and the management of visualization and analysis of multiparametric databases acquired by different sources. Organic farming is based on the natural cycles of energy and nutrients, and relies on the use of crop rotations, compost and green manure. It relies on ecological processes, biodiversity and cycles adapted to local conditions, rather than the use of inputs with adverse effects".

This Scientific Session invites you to contribute with your experience in organic farming in relation to soil changes biota, water, mineral and organic matter, erosion , soil productivity, plant protection, food quality or socio-economic aspects. Studies focused on optimal energy efficiency, water footprint with an emphasis in green and grey water , greenhouse gasses GHC and soil nutrient balancing as indicators of sustainable agricultural practices, are also welcomed. Research conducted on different continents will be shown in order to know the sustainability of organic agriculture under different environmental, social and economic conditions.

All these studies could provide robust scientific basis for governmental agricultural policies development and decision tools for stockholders. A growing population is exerting an unprecedented pressure on water and energy resources, maximizing food production and reducing the impact on ecosystem services. Sociotechnical and socioecological variables are not just terms of our current scientific and technologic dictionary but key variables to increase agricultural productivity and fulfil food and fiber supplies in a dissimilar world experiencing climate, land use, market and social changes.

The proposed session sets the scene for a sustainable irrigation in a changing world. Additionally, projected climate change foresees warmer temperatures and shifting precipitation patterns which all together will modify stationary assumptions used to manage water supply, increasing water demands, shifting cropping regimes and triggering volatile markets and socioeconomic responses across the world. Consequently, soil and water productivity could be drastically reduced and thus, food, energy, and ecosystem services too.

On the other hand, technologic developments and innovation on monitoring and predicting future food, water, energy and ecosystems states highlight the role irrigation may play in creating a resilient agriculture to a volatile and complex environment. The following questions need to be addressed: 1 How water and natural resources will be managed for the sustainability of irrigated agriculture? FEWES , maximize food production, optimize water and energy consumption and preserve the ecosystem services?

A key element in answering such questions has been and will be the improvement of water, energy and fertilizer use efficiency. The implementation of information technology solutions in agriculture is required, particularly in the area of sensing and mapping systems to provide critical data for decision support and help different stakeholders agricultural producers and researchers to evaluate the status of soil and propose soil management strategies in the context of climate change.

New sensor technologies allow collecting fine-scale information to provide spatial and temporal variability related data on soil, crop and environmental factors. Over the last few decades, visible and near infrared visNIR spectroscopy provided a high through put tool to carry out large sample quantities. This enables the efficient assessment of soil property patterns such as C, N, clay content.

Furthermore, technology development and information management systems e. The purpose of the session is to present the current knowledge on relevant methodologies and techniques concerning soil diagnostics and crop monitoring by using remote sensing techniques at short—medium term. The environmental factors that drive the terroir effect vary in space and time, as well as soil and crop management. Understanding the spatial variability of some environmental factors e. In this sense, it is important to stress that in the last decade, the study of terroir has shifted from a largely descriptive regional science to a more applied, technical research field, including: sensors for mapping and monitoring environmental variables, remote sensing and drones for crop monitoring, forecast models, use of microelements and isotopes for wine traceability, metagenome approach to study the biogeochemical cycles of nutrients.

Moreover, public awareness for ecosystem functioning has led to more quantitative approaches in evidencing the relations between management and the ecosystem services of vineyard agroecosystems. Agroecology approaches in vineyard, like the use of cover crops, straw mulching, and organic amendments, are developing to improve biodiversity, organic matter, soil water and nutrient retention, preservation from soil erosion.

On those bases, the session will address the several aspects of viticultural terroirs: 1 quantifying and spatial modelling of terroir components that influence plant growth, fruit composition and quality, mostly examining climate-soil-water relationships; 2 terroir concept resilience to climate change; 3 wine traceability and zoning based on microelements and isotopes; 4 interaction between vineyard management practices and effects on soil and water quality as well as biodiversity and related ecosystem services.

Soils provide many essential functions which are indispensable for terrestrial ecosystems and the health of human societies. Beyond the production of biomass these functions are nutrient cycling, filter and buffer for water, storage of carbon and habitat for an overwhelming biodiversity. In view of an increasing pressure on agricultural soils and the need for sustainable soil management all these functions need to be taken into account. They emerge from complex interactions between physical, chemical and biological processes in soil.

This need to be understood and disentangled to predict the impact of agricultural soil management on soil functions. The intention of this session is fourfold. We seek contributions which i broaden and advance our perspective on soil functions, ii enhance our current process understanding of how soil management practices impact one or more soil functions, iii show how to quantify soil functions based on suitable proxies or indicators and iv demonstrate how soils resist and recover from perturbations.

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Mediterranean and other semi-arid regions are prone to cyclic droughts and flood events due to their high climate variability. Agricultural and forest practices have evolved to adapt to these conditions to increase productivity and the economic viability of these activities. However, it still been difficult to provide a robust appraisal of their effectiveness, or a detailed understanding to facilitate its adoption in situations different from those in which they have been developed, mostly through a combination of technical skills and trials and errors in commercial conditions.

Finally, the use of SWC measures takes a new dimension with the prospect of climate change and the need to improve the provision of key ecosystems services. In this frame, this session will try to promote discussion and networking among researches interested in this issue from different background, focusing on recent and past development of SWC, especially related to: i The effectiveness SWC measures applied in Mediterranean and other fragile environments in term of productivity, provision of ecosystem services and socio-economic impact including both on- and off-site effects ; ii Scientific advances in the understanding of the impact of SWC in the dynamics of hydrological and sediment fluxes, and in the spatial distribution of water and sediment sources and pathways to the improvement of best management practice BMPs aimed to minimize on-site and offsite erosion impacts.

Wildfire is a global phenomenon responsible in each summer for tremendous environmental, social and economic losses. In the last two years, many lives were lost during the fires occurred in Portugal, Greece and California.

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The conjunction of land abandonment, long drought periods, flammable monocultures, lack of forest management and urban development planning, resulted in an unprecedented destruction. This phenomenon have become a persistent threat worldwide, and this risk may increase in the future due to the combination of future fire-prone climate, together with the recent trends of afforestation, land abandonment and fire suppression. A reflection focused in these variables is essential to understand the recurrence of these extreme fires, and the consequent fatalities that occurred in Portugal, California and Greece.

These high-severity mega-fires have also an important impact on the environment as a result of the reduction of vegetation cover and high volatilization of nutrients. Despite the fact that several ecosystems such as the Mediterranean have a high resilience to fires, the high wildfire recurrence is reducing their capacity for recuperation, contributing importantly to land degradation. The aim of this session is to join researchers that study fire effects on the ecosystems, from prevention to suppression, wildfire modelling, climate change impacts on fire and post-wildfire impacts, either by means of laboratory, field experiments, or numerical modelling.

It is time for scientists to join their strengths to give accurate answers to prevent and mitigate the effects of wildfires. Wildfires have long been considered as a dynamic ecological factor and an effective agricultural and landscape management tool, but more recently they are increasingly seen as a hazard, which has motivated governments to develop spatio-temporal datasets and to produce risk and prognostic maps. A key factor in this respect is to study the spatial and temporal distribution of wildfires and understand its relationships with the surrounding socio-economic, environmental and climatological factors.

In recent years, innovative algorithms and methodologies have been developed for the analysis of spatially distributed natural hazards and ongoing phenomena such as wildfires. Considering the fast growing availability of high quality digital geo-referenced databases, it is important to develop and promote methods and new tools capable of easily take them into account, especially for large scale analysis.

Convert the available datasets into meaningful and valuable information is the new challenge. This session will bring together wildfire hazard scientists and researchers of various geo-disciplines, economists, managers and people responsible for territorial and urban defense and planning policies. The goal is to improve the understanding of the fire regime and discuss new technologies, methods and strategies to mitigate the disastrous effects of wildfires.

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In this context, this session will examine empirical studies, new and innovative technologies, theories, models and strategies for wildfire research, especially to identify and characterize the patterns of spatial and temporal variability of wildfires. Therefore, investigation on the relationships between wildfires and predisposing anthropogenic, environmental and climatological factors are also considered.

Due to its large biodiversity, carbon storage capacity, and role in the hydrological cycle, it is an extraordinary interdisciplinary natural laboratory of global significance. In the Amazon rain forest biome, it is possible to study atmospheric composition and processes, biogeochemical cycling and energy fluxes at the geo-, bio-, atmosphere interface under near-pristine conditions for a part of the year, and under anthropogenic disturbance of varying intensity the rest of the year.

Understanding its current functioning at process up to biome level is elemental for predicting its response upon changing climate and land use, and the impact this will have on global scale. This session aims at bringing together scientists who investigate the functioning of the Amazon and comparable intact forest landscapes across spatial and temporal scales by means of remote and in-situ observational, modeling, and theoretical studies.

Particularly welcome are also presentations of novel, interdisciplinary approaches and techniques that bear the potential of paving the way for a paradigm shift. The proper management of water resources is a key aspect of soil conservation in arid and semiarid environments, where any irrigation activity is structurally and deeply related to the understanding of soil hydrological behavior.

In these areas, irrigation should be regarded to as an axle for oases and an effective defense against desertification. Its importance goes beyond the technological aspects, often being traditional irrigation a cultural heritage, which requires to be faced with an at least interdisciplinary approach which involves also humanities. On the other hand, improper practices may dramatically contribute to soil degradation. As an example irrigation may lead to soil salinization, with dramatic fallout on agricultural productivity, and overgrazing may lead soil to compaction, with negative effects on the soil capability of water buffering.

This session welcomes contributions ranging from the understanding of the soil hydrological behavior and of the mass fluxes, through the soil, in arid and water—scarce environments and also under stress conditions e. Particular attention will be given to the maintenance and improvement of traditional irrigation techniques as well as to precision irrigation techniques, also with local community involvement. Interdisciplinary contributions, which deal with different aspects and functions of the link between soil hydrology and irrigation techniques in arid environments, are encouraged. Soil biogeochemical data-modeling integration focuses on: - soil hydrology and its links with soil respiration and biogeochemistry - biogeochemical processes studied in feedbacks with soil structure and by high-resolution imaging - biogeochemical models development and up-scaling issues Water is a critical driver for soil biogeochemical processes.

Hydrologic connections within the soil pore network facilitate flow and transport that enable microbial processing of soil organic materials, and other redox-associated biogeochemical processes. As extreme events such as droughts and storms increase in frequency, a focused understanding of the coupling between water, microorganisms, and biogeochemistry is needed to improve both empirical understanding and simulation models of C cycling processes at all scales.

Dormant microorganisms may revive, or functional shifts in microbial activities may occur, that can be related to changing hydrologic states. Spatial soil information is fundamental for environmental modelling and land use management. Spatial representation maps of separate soil attributes both laterally and vertically and of soil-landscape processes are needed at a scale appropriate for environmental management.

The challenge is to develop explicit, quantitative, and spatially realistic models of the soil-landscape continuum to be used as input in environmental models, such as hydrological, climate or vegetation productivity crop models while addressing the uncertainty in the soil layers and its impact in the environmental modelling.

Modern advances in soil sensing, geospatial technologies, and spatial statistics are enabling exciting opportunities to efficiently create soil maps that are more consistent, detailed, and accurate than previous maps while providing information about the related uncertainty. The production of high-quality soil maps is a key issue because it enables stakeholders e. The products of digital soil mapping should be integrated within other environmental models for assessing and mapping soil functions and addressing soil security issues and support sustainable management.

Examples of implementation and use of digital soil maps in different disciplines such as agricultural e. All presentations related to the tools of digital soil mapping, the philosophy and strategies of digital soil mapping at different scales and for different purposes are also welcome. The importance of soil quality and its functions such as nutrient cycling, carbon sequestration, water quality and biodiversity for a sustainable agriculture is more and more recognized.

As a limited resource, soil is permanently under pressure and new management strategies for optimizing yields are developed continuously. It often remains unclear how such management strategies influence the various soil functions and their interactions. Computational models can help to understand and predict effects of a changing environment on soil functions and their relationship by describing soil processes and organism dynamics. However, combining different interrelated functions and processes of a complex system such as soil remain rather challenging.

With this session, we want to address several open questions for tackling this challenge, including but not limited to : How to quantify soil functions for parametrizing such models? What is the specific relationship between different soil functions? How much details are needed to adequately describe the system, while keeping models simple enough for understanding their dynamics? How important is the incorporation of space? What can we gain from such models to optimize field experiments?

How should such models be designed to provide implications for management strategies? We invite contributions on theoretical and mechanistic simulation models incorporating one or more soil functions relevant for agricultural systems; as well as experimental or field studies which may help to improve modelling approaches.

We especially aim to stimulate a discussion with experts from various fields of soil science including biology, physics, and chemistry. Data assimilation is becoming more important as a method to make predictions of Earth system states. Increasingly, coupled models for different compartments of the Earth system are used. This allows for making advantage of varieties of observations, in particular remotely sensed data, in different compartments.