With the protestation of the Lutheran princes at the Imperial Diet of Speyer in and the acceptance and adoption of the Lutheran Augsburg Confession by the Lutheran princes beginning in , the separate Lutheran church was established. The Catholic Counter-Reformation , initiated in at the Council of Trent was spearheaded by the scholarly religious Jesuit order , that was founded just five years prior by several clerics around Ignatius of Loyola. Its intent was to challenge and contain the Protestant Reformation via apologetic and polemical writings and decrees, ecclesiastical reconfiguration, wars and imperial political maneuverings.
In emperor Charles V defeated the Schmalkaldic League , a military alliance of Protestant rulers. It also stipulated the ruler's right to determine the official confession in his principality Cuius regio, eius religio. The Counter-Reformation eventually failed to reintegrate the central and northern German Lutheran states. The to Thirty Years' War , that took place almost exclusively in the Holy Roman Empire has its origins, that remain widely debated, in the unsolved and recurring conflicts of the Catholic and Protestant factions.
The Catholic emperor Ferdinand II attempted to achieve the religious and political unity of the empire, while the opposing Protestant Union forces were determined to defend their religious rights. The religious motive served as the universal justification for the various territorial and foreign princes, who over the course of several stages joined either of the two warring parties in order to gain land and power.
The conflict was sparked by the revolt of the Protestant nobility of Bohemia against emperor Matthias ' succession policies. After imperial triumph at the Battle of White Mountain and a short-lived peace, the war grew to become a political European conflict by the intervention of King Christian IV of Denmark from to , Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden from to and France under Cardinal Richelieu from to The conflict increasingly evolved into a struggle between the French House of Bourbon and the House of Habsburg for predominance in Europe, for which the central German territories of the empire served as the battle ground.
The war ranks among the most catastrophic in history as three decades of constant warfare and destruction have left the land devastated. Marauding armies incessantly pillaged the countryside, seized and levied heavy taxes on cities and indiscriminately plundered the food stocks of the peasantry. There were also the countless bands of murderous outlaws, sick, homeless, disrupted people and invalid soldiery. Overall social and economic disruption caused a dramatic decline in population as a result of pandemic murder and random rape and killings, endemic infectious diseases, crop failures, famine, declining birth rates, wanton burglary, witch-hunts and the emigration of terrified people.
The war was the last major religious struggle in mainland Europe and ended in with the Peace of Westphalia. It resulted in increased autonomy for the constituent states of the Holy Roman Empire, limiting the power of the emperor. Alsace was permanently lost to France, Pomerania was temporarily lost to Sweden, and the Netherlands officially left the Empire. The population of Germany reached about twenty million people by the midth century, the great majority of whom were peasant farmers. The Protestant Reformation was a triumph for literacy and the new printing press.
Luther's translation of the Bible into German was a decisive impulse for the increase of literacy and stimulated printing and distribution of religious books and pamphlets. From onward religious pamphlets flooded Germany and much of Europe. The Reformation instigated a media revolution as by over 10, individual works are published with a total of ten million copies. Luther strengthened his attacks on Rome by depicting a "good" against "bad" church. It soon became clear that print could be used for propaganda in the Reformation for particular agendas.
Illustrations in the newly translated Bible and in many tracts popularized Luther's ideas. Lucas Cranach the Elder — , the great painter patronized by the electors of Wittenberg, was a close friend of Luther, and illustrated Luther's theology for a popular audience. He dramatized Luther's views on the relationship between the Old and New Testaments, while remaining mindful of Luther's careful distinctions about proper and improper uses of visual imagery. His bible promoted the development of non-local forms of language and exposed all speakers to forms of German from outside their own area.
The German astronomical community played a central role in Europe in the early modern period. Several non-German scientists contributed to the community, such as Copernicus , the instigator of the scientific revolution who lived in Royal Prussia , a part of Poland and Tycho Brahe , who worked in Denmark and Bohemia. Copernicus, whose mother was of German ancestry was better known inside the German community.
Through rigorous application of the principles of the Scientific method he construed his laws of planetary motion. His ideas influenced contemporary Italian scientist Galileo Galilei and provided fundamental mechanical principles for Isaac Newton 's theory of universal gravitation. Nikolaus Kopernikus , astronomer and mathematician. Johannes Kepler — , astronomer and mathematician.
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz , philosopher and mathematician. Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus — , mathematician, physicist, physician, philosopher, co-inventor of European porcelain. Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit , physicist, inventor, and scientific instrument maker. In , Frederick William , also called the Great Elector , became ruler of Brandenburg-Prussia and immediately threw off his vassalage under the Kingdom of Poland and reorganized his loose and scattered territories. In order to address the demographic problem of Prussia's largely rural population of about three million, the immigration and settlement of French Huguenots in urban areas, of whom many were craftsmen, was supported.
The total population of Germany in its territorial extent grew from 16 million in to 17 million in and reached 24 million in The 18th-century economy noticeably profited from widespread practical application of the Scientific method as greater yields and a more reliable agricultural production and the introduction of hygienic standards positively affected the birth rate - death rate balance.
He conquered Alsace and Lorraine — that included the free imperial city of Strasbourg and invaded the Electorate of the Palatinate — in the War of the Grand Alliance. Louis' forces operated inside the Holy Roman Empire largely unopposed, because all available imperial contingents fought in Austria in the Great Turkish War. The Grand Alliance of took up arms against France and countered any further military advances of Louis. The conflict ended in as both parties agreed to peace talks after either side had realized, that a total victory was financially unattainable.
The Treaty of Ryswick provided for the return of the Electorate of the Palatinate to the empire. After the last-minute relief of Vienna from a siege and the imminent seizure by a Turkish force in , the combined troops of the Holy League , that had been founded the following year, embarked on the military containment of the Ottoman Empire and reconquered Hungary in Prince Eugene of Savoy , who served under emperor Leopold I, took supreme command in and decisively defeated the Ottomans in a series of spectacular battles and manoeuvres.
He effectively ended Turkish rule over most of the territorial states in the Balkans during the Austro-Turkish War of — The Treaty of Passarowitz left Austria to freely establish royal domains in Serbia and the Banat and maintain hegemony in Southeast Europe , on which the future Austrian Empire was based. Frederick II "the Great" is best known for his military genius and unique utilisation of the highly organized army to make Prussia one of the great powers in Europe as well as escaping from almost certain national disaster at the last minute.
However he was also an artist, author and philosopher, who conceived and promoted the concept of Enlightened absolutism. Austrian empress Maria Theresa succeeded in bringing about a favorable conclusion for her in the to war for recognition of her succession to the throne. The Treaty of Hubertusburg ruled that Austria and Saxony had to relinquish all claims to Silesia. Prussia, that had nearly doubled its territory was eventually recognized as a great European power with the consequence that the politics of the following century were fundamentally influenced by German dualism , the rivalry of Austria and Prussia for supremacy in Central Europe.
The concept of Enlightened absolutism, although rejected by the nobility and citizenry, was advocated in Prussia and Austria and implemented since Prussian king Frederick II defended the idea in an essay and argued that the benevolent monarch simply is the first servant of the state , who effects his absolute political power for the benefit of the population as a whole.
A number of legal reforms e. During to Prussia instigated the partitions of Poland by occupying the western territories of the former Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth. Austria and Russia resolved to acquire the remaining lands with the effect that Poland ceased to exist as a sovereign state until Completely overshadowed by Prussia and Austria, according to historian Hajo Holborn , the smaller German states were generally characterized by political lethargy and administrative inefficiency, often compounded by rulers who were more concerned with their mistresses and their hunting dogs than with the affairs of state.
Bavaria was especially unfortunate in this regard; it was a rural land with very heavy debts and few growth centers. Saxony was in economically good shape, although its government was seriously mismanaged, and numerous wars had taken their toll. During the time when Prussia rose rapidly within Germany, Saxony was distracted by foreign affairs. The house of Wettin concentrated on acquiring and then holding on to the Polish throne which was ultimately unsuccessful. Many of the city-states of Germany were run by bishops, who in reality were from powerful noble families and showed scant interest in religion.
None developed a significant reputation for good government. He combined Enlightenment ideas with Christian values, cameralist plans for central control of the economy, and a militaristic approach toward diplomacy. Hanover did not have to support a lavish court—its rulers were also kings of England and resided in London. George III , elector ruler from to , never once visited Hanover. Baden sported perhaps the best government of the smaller states. Karl Friedrich ruled well for 73 years — and was an enthusiast for The Enlightenment ; he abolished serfdom in The smaller states failed to form coalitions with each other, and were eventually overwhelmed by Prussia.
In the process, Prussia became too heterogeneous, lost its identity, and by the s had become an administrative shell of little importance. The nobility represented the first estate in a typical early modern kingdom of Christian Europe, with Germany being no exception.
The empire's pluralistic character also applied to its nobility, that greatly varied in power and wealth, ideas, ambition, loyalty and education. However, there existed the distinction between the Imperial nobility , the direct vassals of the emperor and the Territorial nobility , who have received their fief from the territorial princes. In an ever more complex economy, they struggled to compete with the patricians and merchants of the cities.
The Thirty Years War marked the reversal of fortunes for those noblemen, who seized the initiative and had understood the requirements of higher education for a lucrative position in the post-war territorial administration. In the Prussian lands east of the Elbe river the system of manorial jurisdiction guaranteed near universal legal power and economic freedom for the local lords, called Junkers , who dominated not only the localities, but also the Prussian court, and especially the Prussian army.
Increasingly after , a centralized Prussian government based in Berlin took over the powers of the nobles, which in terms of control over the peasantry had been almost absolute. To help the nobility avoid indebtedness, Berlin set up a credit institution to provide capital loans in , and extended the loan network to peasants in When the German Empire was established in , the Junker nobility controlled the army and the Navy, the bureaucracy, and the royal court; they generally set governmental policies. Peasants continued to center their lives in the village, where they were members of a corporate body, and to help manage the community resources and monitor the community life.
In the East, they were serfs who were bound permanently to parcels of land. In most of Germany, farming was handled by tenant farmers who paid rents and obligatory services to the landlord, who was typically a nobleman. Peasant leaders supervised the fields and ditches and grazing rights, maintained public order and morals, and supported a village court which handled minor offenses.
Inside the family the patriarch made all the decisions, and tried to arrange advantageous marriages for his children. Much of the villages' communal life centered around church services and holy days. In Prussia, the peasants drew lots to choose conscripts required by the army. The noblemen handled external relationships and politics for the villages under their control, and were not typically involved in daily activities or decisions. The emancipation of the serfs came in —, beginning with Schleswig in The peasants were now ex-serfs and could own their land, buy and sell it, and move about freely.
The nobles approved for now they could buy land owned by the peasants. The chief reformer was Baron vom Stein — , who was influenced by The Enlightenment , especially the free market ideas of Adam Smith. A bank was set up so that landowners could borrow government money to buy land from peasants the peasants were not allowed to use it to borrow money to buy land until The result was that the large landowners obtained larger estates, and many peasants became landless tenants, or moved to the cities or to America.
The other German states imitated Prussia after In sharp contrast to the violence that characterized land reform in the French Revolution, Germany handled it peacefully. In Schleswig the peasants, who had been influenced by the Enlightenment, played an active role; elsewhere they were largely passive.
Indeed, for most peasants, customs and traditions continued largely unchanged, including the old habits of deference to the nobles whose legal authority remained quite strong over the villagers. Although the peasants were no longer tied to the same land as serfs had been, the old paternalistic relationship in East Prussia lasted into the 20th century. The agrarian reforms in northwestern Germany in the era — were driven by progressive governments and local elites. They abolished feudal obligations and divided collectively owned common land into private parcels and thus created a more efficient market-oriented rural economy, which increased productivity and population growth and strengthened the traditional social order because wealthy peasants obtained most of the former common land, while the rural proletariat was left without land; many left for the cities or America.
Meanwhile, the division of the common land served as a buffer preserving social peace between nobles and peasants. Around the Catholic monasteries, which had large land holdings, were nationalized and sold off by the government. A major social change occurring between —, depending on region, was the end of the traditional "whole house" "ganzes Haus" system, in which the owner's family lived together in one large building with the servants and craftsmen he employed.
No longer did the owner's wife take charge of all the females in the different families in the whole house. In the new system, farm owners became more professionalized and profit-oriented. They managed the fields and the household exterior according to the dictates of technology, science, and economics.
Farm wives supervised family care and the household interior, to which strict standards of cleanliness, order, and thrift applied. The result was the spread of formerly urban bourgeois values into rural Germany. The lesser families were now living separately on wages. They had to provide for their own supervision, health, schooling, and old-age.
At the same time, because of the demographic transition, there were far fewer children, allowing for much greater attention to each child. Increasingly the middle-class family valued its privacy and its inward direction, shedding too-close links with the world of work. This allowed for the emergence of working-class organizations. It also allowed for declining religiosity among the working-class, who were no longer monitored on a daily basis.
Since the midth century recognition and application of Enlightenment ideas, higher cultural, intellectual and spiritual standards have lead to higher quality works of art in music, philosophy, science and literature. Philosopher Christian Wolff — was a pioneering author on a near universal number of Enlightenment rationality topics in Germany and established German as the language of philosophic reasoning, scholarly instruction and research. Frederick William offered his co-religionists, who are oppressed and assailed for the sake of the Holy Gospel and its pure doctrine The French Lyceum in Berlin was established in and the French language had by the end of the 17th century replaced Latin to be spoken universally in international diplomacy.
The nobility and the educated middle-class of Prussia and the various German states increasingly used the French language in public conversation in combination with universal cultivated manners. Like no other German state, Prussia had access to and the skill set for the application of pan-European Enlightenment ideas to develop more rational political and administrative institutions. The reforms were aided by the country's strong urban structure and influential commercial groups, who modernized pre Saxony along the lines of classic Enlightenment principles.
Johann Gottfried von Herder — broke new ground in philosophy and poetry, as a leader of the Sturm und Drang movement of proto-Romanticism. Weimar Classicism "Weimarer Klassik" was a cultural and literary movement based in Weimar that sought to establish a new humanism by synthesizing Romantic, classical, and Enlightenment ideas. The movement, from until , involved Herder as well as polymath Johann Wolfgang von Goethe — and Friedrich Schiller — , a poet and historian.
Herder argued that every folk had its own particular identity, which was expressed in its language and culture. This legitimized the promotion of German language and culture and helped shape the development of German nationalism. Schiller's plays expressed the restless spirit of his generation, depicting the hero's struggle against social pressures and the force of destiny. German music, sponsored by the upper classes, came of age under composers Johann Sebastian Bach — , Joseph Haydn — , and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart — Kant's work contained basic tensions that would continue to shape German thought — and indeed all of European philosophy — well into the 20th century.
Before the 19th century, young women lived under the economic and disciplinary authority of their fathers until they married and passed under the control of their husbands. In order to secure a satisfactory marriage, a woman needed to bring a substantial dowry. In the wealthier families, daughters received their dowry from their families, whereas the poorer women needed to work in order to save their wages so as to improve their chances to wed.
Under the German laws, women had property rights over their dowries and inheritances, a valuable benefit as high mortality rates resulted in successive marriages. Before , the majority of women lived confined to societys private sphere, the home. The Age of Reason did not bring much more for women: men, including Enlightenment aficionados, believed that women were naturally destined to be principally wives and mothers.
Within the educated classes, there was the belief that women needed to be sufficiently educated to be intelligent and agreeable interlocutors to their husbands.
Het zij zo. There we were met by the director, Klara van Eyll, her deputy, Ulrich S. Caesar wurde bekanntlich ermordet. Cordula A. Locarno paved the way for Germany's admission to the League of Nations in Germanic widows required a male guardian to represent them in court.
However, the lower-class women were expected to be economically productive in order to help their husbands make ends meet. German reaction to the French Revolution was mixed at first. German intellectuals celebrated the outbreak, hoping to see the triumph of Reason and The Enlightenment. The royal courts in Vienna and Berlin denounced the overthrow of the king and the threatened spread of notions of liberty, equality, and fraternity. Reformers said the solution was to have faith in the ability of Germans to reform their laws and institutions in peaceful fashion. Europe was racked by two decades of war revolving around France's efforts to spread its revolutionary ideals, and the opposition of reactionary royalty.
War broke out in as Austria and Prussia invaded France, but were defeated at the Battle of Valmy The German lands saw armies marching back and forth, bringing devastation albeit on a far lower scale than the Thirty Years' War , almost two centuries before , but also bringing new ideas of liberty and civil rights for the people. Prussia and Austria ended their failed wars with France but with Russia partitioned Poland among themselves in and France took control of the Rhineland , imposed French-style reforms, abolished feudalism, established constitutions, promoted freedom of religion, emancipated Jews, opened the bureaucracy to ordinary citizens of talent, and forced the nobility to share power with the rising middle class.
Napoleon created the Kingdom of Westphalia — as a model state. When the French tried to impose the French language, German opposition grew in intensity. Napoleon established direct or indirect control over most of western Europe, including the German states apart from Prussia and Austria. The old Holy Roman Empire was little more than a farce; Napoleon simply abolished it in while forming new countries under his control. Under Frederick William II 's weak rule Induced by the queen and a pro-war party Frederick William joined the Fourth Coalition in October Napoleon easily defeated the Prussian army at the Battle of Jena and occupied Berlin.
Prussia lost its recently acquired territories in western Germany, its army was reduced to 42, men, no trade with Britain was allowed and Berlin had to pay Paris high reparations and fund the French army of occupation. Saxony changed sides to support Napoleon and joined the Confederation of the Rhine. Ruler Frederick Augustus I was rewarded with the title of king and given a slice of Poland taken from Prussia. A series of battles followed and Austria joined the alliance. Napoleon was decisively defeated in the Battle of Leipzig in late The German states of the Confederation of the Rhine defected to the Coalition against Napoleon, who rejected any peace terms.
Coalition forces invaded France in early , Paris fell and in April Napoleon surrendered. Prussia as one of the winners at the Congress of Vienna , gained extensive territory. In continental Europe was in a state of overall turbulence and exhaustion, as a consequence of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. The victorious members of the Coalition had negotiated a new peaceful balance of powers in Vienna and agreed to maintain a stable German heartland that keeps French imperialism at bay. However, the idea of reforming the defunct Holy Roman Empire was discarded.
Napoleon 's reorganization of the German states was continued and the remaining princes were allowed to keep their titles. During the Congress of Vienna the 39 former states of the Confederation of the Rhine joined the German Confederation , a loose agreement for mutual defense. Attempts of economic integration and customs coordination were frustrated by repressive anti-national policies.
Great Britain approved of the union, convinced that a stable, peaceful entity in central Europe could discourage aggressive moves by France or Russia.
Most historians, however, concluded, that the Confederation was weak and ineffective and an obstacle to German nationalism. The union was undermined by the creation of the Zollverein in , the revolutions , the rivalry between Prussia and Austria and was finally dissolved in the wake of the Austro-Prussian War of ,  to be replaced by the North German Confederation during the same year. Increased agricultural productivity secured a steady food supply, as famines and epidemics declined.
This allowed people to marry earlier, and have more children. The high birthrate was offset by a very high rate of infant mortality and after , large-scale emigration to the United States. Emigration totaled at , in the s, 1,, in the s, and at , in the s. The upper and middle classes first practiced birth control, soon to be universally adopted.
In , Germany's social structure was poorly suited to entrepreneurship or economic development. Domination by France during the French Revolution s to , however, produced important institutional reforms, that included the abolition of feudal restrictions on the sale of large landed estates, the reduction of the power of the guilds in the cities, and the introduction of a new, more efficient commercial law. The idea, that these reforms were beneficial for Industrialization has been contested.
Until , the guilds, the landed aristocracy, the churches and the government bureaucracies maintained many rules and restrictions that held entrepreneurship in low esteem and given little opportunity to develop. From the s and s, Prussia, Saxony and other states introduced agriculture based on sugar beets, turnips and potatoes, that yielded higher crops, which enabled a surplus rural population to move to industrial areas. In the early 19th century the Industrial Revolution was in full swing in Britain, France, and Belgium.
The various small federal states in Germany developed only slowly and independently as competition was strong. Early investments for the railway network during the s came almost exclusively from private hands. Without a central regulatory agency the construction projects were quickly realized. Actual industrialization only took off after in the wake of the railroad construction.
Historian Thomas Nipperdey remarks:. On the whole, industrialisation in Germany must be considered to have been positive in its effects. Not only did it change society and the countryside, and finally the world It solved the problems of population growth, under-employment and pauperism in a stagnating economy, and abolished dependency on the natural conditions of agriculture, and finally hunger.
It created huge improvements in production and both short- and long-term improvements in living standards. However, in terms of social inequality, it can be assumed that it did not change the relative levels of income. On the other hand, new problems arose, in the form of interrupted growth and new crises, such as urbanisation, 'alienation', new underclasses, proletariat and proletarian misery, new injustices and new masters and, eventually, class warfare.
After , the urban population grew rapidly, due to the influx of young people from the rural areas. Berlin grew from , in , to , inhabitants in , Hamburg from , to ,, Munich from 40, to , and Dresden from 60, to , The takeoff stage of economic development came with the railroad revolution in the s, which opened up new markets for local products, created a pool of middle managers, increased the demand for engineers, architects and skilled machinists and stimulated investments in coal and iron.
Political disunity of three dozen states and a pervasive conservatism made it difficult to build railways in the s. However, by the s, trunk lines did link the major cities; each German state was responsible for the lines within its own borders. Economist Friedrich List summed up the advantages to be derived from the development of the railway system in Lacking a technological base at first, engineering and hardware was imported from Britain.
In many cities, the new railway shops were the centres of technological awareness and training, so that by , Germany was self-sufficient in meeting the demands of railroad construction, and the railways were a major impetus for the growth of the new steel industry. Observers found that even as late as , their engineering was inferior to Britain. However, German unification in stimulated consolidation, nationalisation into state-owned companies, and further rapid growth.
Unlike the situation in France, the goal was the support of industrialisation. Eventually numerous lines criss-crossed the Ruhr area and other industrial centers and provided good connections to the major ports of Hamburg and Bremen. By , 9, locomotives pulled 43, passengers and 30, tons of freight a day. While there existed no national newspaper the many states issued a great variety of printed media, although they rarely exceeded regional significance.
In a typical town existed one or two outlets, urban centers, such as Berlin and Leipzig had dozens. The audience was limited to a few percent of male adults, chiefly from the aristocratic and upper middle class. Liberal publishers outnumbered conservative ones by a wide margin. Foreign governments bribed editors to guarantee a favorable image.
After , strict press laws were enforced by Bismarck to contain the Socialists and hostile editors. Editors focused on political commentary, culture, the arts, high culture and the popular serialized novels. Magazines were politically more influential and attracted intellectual authors. The Sturm und Drang romantic movement was embraced and emotion was given free expression in reaction to the perceived rationalism of the Enlightenment. Philosophical principles and methods were revolutionized by Immanuel Kant 's paradigm shift.
Ludwig van Beethoven — was the most influential composer of the period from classical to Romantic music. His use of tonal architecture in such a way as to allow significant expansion of musical forms and structures was immediately recognized as bringing a new dimension to music. His later piano music and string quartets, especially, showed the way to a completely unexplored musical universe, and influenced Franz Schubert — and Robert Schumann — In opera, a new Romantic atmosphere combining supernatural terror and melodramatic plot in a folkloric context was first successfully achieved by Carl Maria von Weber — and perfected by Richard Wagner — in his Ring Cycle.
University professors developed international reputations, especially in the humanities led by history and philology, which brought a new historical perspective to the study of political history, theology, philosophy, language, and literature. The University of Berlin , founded in , became the world's leading university. Von Ranke, for example, professionalized history and set the world standard for historiography.
By the s mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology had emerged with world class science, led by Alexander von Humboldt — in natural science and Carl Friedrich Gauss — in mathematics. Young intellectuals often turned to politics, but their support for the failed revolution of forced many into exile. Gotthold Ephraim Lessing Johann Wolfgang von Goethe — Joseph von Fraunhofer , physicist and optical lens manufacturer Alexander von Humboldt — Ludwig van Beethoven — Friedrich Hegel Carl Friedrich Gauss — Two main developments reshaped religion in Germany.
Across the land, there was a movement to unite the larger Lutheran and the smaller Reformed Protestant churches. The churches themselves brought this about in Baden, Nassau, and Bavaria. His goal was to unify the Protestant churches, and to impose a single standardized liturgy, organization and even architecture. The long-term goal was to have fully centralized royal control of all the Protestant churches.
In a series of proclamations over several decades the Church of the Prussian Union was formed, bringing together the more numerous Lutherans, and the less numerous Reformed Protestants. The government of Prussia now had full control over church affairs, with the king himself recognized as the leading bishop.
Opposition to unification came from the "Old Lutherans" in Silesia who clung tightly to the theological and liturgical forms they had followed since the days of Luther. The government attempted to crack down on them, so they went underground. Where Are We Going? Philosopher in Meditation detail by Rembrandt. The metric expansion of space. The inflationary epoch is the expansion of the metric tensor at left. Hieronymus Bosch 's Ascent of the Blessed depicts a tunnel of light and spiritual figures, often described in reports of near-death experience s.
Map of the Mediterranean in BC. Hannibal's feat in crossing the Alps with war elephants, though many of them did not survive, passed into European legend: Greed is an inordinate or insatiable longing for unneeded excess, especially for excess wealth, status, power, or food.
Or the Offering to Avarice by James Gillray. Avarice , by Jesus Solana. The ruins of Amphipolis as envisaged by E. Most searched books. Post navigation.
The inflationary epoch is the expansion of the metric tensor at left. Hieronymus Bosch 's Ascent of the Blessed depicts a tunnel of light and spiritual figures, often described in reports of near-death experience s. Map of the Mediterranean in BC. Hannibal's feat in crossing the Alps with war elephants, though many of them did not survive, passed into European legend: Greed is an inordinate or insatiable longing for unneeded excess, especially for excess wealth, status, power, or food.
Or the Offering to Avarice by James Gillray. Avarice , by Jesus Solana. The ruins of Amphipolis as envisaged by E. Most searched books. Post navigation. Synonyms and antonyms of Epigrafik in the German dictionary of synonyms.
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