These are kusanku and chiang nan. In Itosu helped to get karate introduced into Okinawa's public schools. These forms were taught to children at the elementary school level. Itosu's influence in karate is broad. The forms he created are common across nearly all styles of karate. Itosu is sometimes referred to as "the Grandfather of Modern Karate.
In addition to the three early te styles of karate a fourth Okinawan influence is that of Kanbun Uechi — At the age of 20 he went to Fuzhou in Fujian Province, China, to escape Japanese military conscription. He was a leading figure of Chinese Nanpa Shorin-ken style at that time. Gichin Funakoshi, founder of Shotokan karate, is generally credited with having introduced and popularized karate on the main islands of Japan. In addition many Okinawans were actively teaching, and are thus also responsible for the development of karate on the main islands.
This was a turbulent period in the history of the region. It includes Japan's annexation of the Okinawan island group in , the First Sino-Japanese War — , the Russo-Japanese War — , the annexation of Korea , and the rise of Japanese militarism — Funakoshi also gave Japanese names to many of the kata. These were mostly political changes, rather than changes to the content of the forms, although Funakoshi did introduce some such changes.
In Japan he was influenced by kendo, incorporating some ideas about distancing and timing into his style. He always referred to what he taught as simply karate, but in he built a dojo in Tokyo and the style he left behind is usually called Shotokan after this dojo. Shoto , meaning "pine wave", was Funakoshi's pen name and kan meaning "hall". The modernization and systemization of karate in Japan also included the adoption of the white uniform that consisted of the kimono and the dogi or keikogi —mostly called just karategi —and colored belt ranks.
Both of these innovations were originated and popularized by Jigoro Kano , the founder of judo and one of the men Funakoshi consulted in his efforts to modernize karate.
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It teaches a curriculum that emphasizes aliveness , physical toughness, and full contact sparring. Because of its emphasis on physical, full-force sparring , Kyokushin is now often called " full contact karate ", or " Knockdown karate " after the name for its competition rules. Many other karate organizations and styles are descended from the Kyokushin curriculum. Sport karate places emphasis on exercise and competition. Weapons are an important training activity in some styles of karate. Karate training is commonly divided into kihon basics or fundamentals , kata forms , and kumite sparring.
Kihon means basics and these form the base for everything else in the style including stances, strikes, punches, kicks and blocks. Karate styles place varying importance on kihon. Typically this is training in unison of a technique or a combination of techniques by a group of karateka. Kihon may also be prearranged drills in smaller groups or in pairs. These postures are based on idealized combat applications. The applications when applied in a demonstration with real opponents is referred to as a Bunkai.
The Bunkai shows how every stance and movement is used. Bunkai is a useful tool to understand a kata. To attain a formal rank the karateka must demonstrate competent performance of specific required kata for that level.
The Japanese terminology for grades or ranks is commonly used. Requirements for examinations vary among schools. It literally means "meeting of hands.
Levels of physical contact during sparring vary considerably. Full contact karate has several variants. Knockdown karate such as Kyokushin uses full power techniques to bring an opponent to the ground. In kickboxing variants for example K-1 , the preferred win is by knockout.
Sparring in armour, bogu kumite , allows full power techniques with some safety. Sport kumite in many international competition under the World Karate Federation is free or structured with light contact or semi contact and points are awarded by a referee. In structured kumite yakusoku , prearranged , two participants perform a choreographed series of techniques with one striking while the other blocks.
The form ends with one devastating technique hito tsuki. In free sparring Jiyu Kumite , the two participants have a free choice of scoring techniques. The allowed techniques and contact level are primarily determined by sport or style organization policy, but might be modified according to the age, rank and sex of the participants. Depending upon style, take-downs , sweeps and in some rare cases even time-limited grappling on the ground are also allowed. Free sparring is performed in a marked or closed area. The bout runs for a fixed time 2 to 3 minutes. The time can run continuously iri kume or be stopped for referee judgment.
In full contact karate kumite, points are based on the results of the impact, rather than the formal appearance of the scoring technique. These guidelines apply both in the dojo training hall and in everyday life. Okinawan karate uses supplementary training known as hojo undo. This utilizes simple equipment made of wood and stone.
The makiwara is a striking post. The nigiri game is a large jar used for developing grip strength. These supplementary exercises are designed to increase strength , stamina , speed , and muscle coordination. Karate is divided into style organizations. Tournaments are designed to match members of opposing schools or styles against one another in kata, sparring and weapons demonstration. They are often separated by age, rank and sex with potentially different rules or standards based on these factors.
The tournament may be exclusively for members of a particular style closed or one in which any martial artist from any style may participate within the rules of the tournament open. WKF karate competition has two disciplines: sparring kumite and forms kata. Sparring matches are typically divided by weight, age, gender, and experience. The World Union of Karate-do Federations WUKF  offers different styles and federations a world body they may join, without having to compromise their style or size. The WUKF accepts more than one federation or association per country. Sport organizations use different competition rule systems.
Full contact karate rules used by Kyokushinkai , Seidokaikan and other organizations. Bogu kumite full contact with protective shielding of targets rules are used in the World Koshiki Karate-Do Federation organization. Karate, although not widely used in mixed martial arts , has been effective for some MMA practitioners. In Gichin Funakoshi, founder of Shotokan Karate, adopted the Dan system from the judo founder Jigoro Kano  using a rank scheme with a limited set of belt colors.
Other Okinawan teachers also adopted this practice.
The Dan progression continues from 1st Dan Shodan, or 'beginning dan' to the higher dan grades. Yudansha typically wear a black belt. Requirements of rank differ among styles, organizations, and schools. Speed and power are added at higher grades. Minimum age and time in rank are factors affecting promotion. Testing consists of demonstration of techniques before a panel of examiners.
This will vary by school, but testing may include everything learned at that point, or just new information. The demonstration is an application for new rank shinsa and may include kata , bunkai , self-defense, routines, tameshiwari breaking , and kumite sparring. This is done by listening and being receptive to criticism. He considered courtesy of prime importance. He said that "Karate is properly applied only in those rare situations in which one really must either down another or be downed by him.
He stated that Karate practitioners must "never be easily drawn into a fight. It is clear that those who misuse what they have learned bring dishonor upon themselves. He promoted the character trait of personal conviction. In "time of grave public crisis, one must have the courage Thus the word "karate" was originally a way of expressing "martial art from China. Sino-Japanese relations have never been very good, and especially at the time of the Japanese invasion of Manchuria , referring to the Chinese origins of karate was considered politically incorrect. But in , the masters of the various styles of Okinawan karate conferred to decide a new name for their art.
It is used in many martial arts that survived Japan's transition from feudal culture to modern times. It implies that these arts are not just fighting systems but contain spiritual elements when promoted as disciplines. Examples include aikido , judo , kyudo , and kendo. The next few years witnessed Wado-Ryu Karate going from strength to strength. New dojos were opening and Karate was being taught at universities. Ohtsuka himself was becoming a recognised figure within the world of martial arts.
Up until the s, Wado-Ryu Karate remained on the three small islands of Japan. Wado-Ryu Karate soon became recognised world-wide. Ohtsuka continued to train and instruct Wado-Ryu Karate in Japan.
His return to Plymouth, in July , has allowed him to open up a new branch within British Wadokai B. During the closing ceremony of the WadoEXL Gary was awarded the 'prestigious' commemorative award for the 'Promotion and Preservation of Wadokai and Wado-ryu Karate', an honour he will always be proud of. Keeping it consistent with authentic 'undiluted' Wado-ryu of mainstream British Wadokai Karate.
BWK is a friendly and traditional Wadoryu Karate organisation providing the highest standard of support, guidance and benefits to all students and clubs in membership. PL4 8AP. Tuesday pm.
Instructor: Richard House 3rd Dan. Thursday pm. Instructor: Gary Swift 8th Dan Kyoshi. Assistant Instructor: Mike Diggle 1st Dan. PL4 8AA. Contact: Phone: Email: lucas. Plymouth Karate Club, Pomhett.
PL9 7BL. Tuesday Nights: Open all-year. Closed during Christmas School Holidays only. Tel: Email: britishwadokai yahoo. Website: British Wado Kai Southwest: www. Grey Wolf Wadoryu Karate Club. GL7 5QR. Instructor: Mick Adams 5th Dan. Contact: Tel: Email: mick greywolfkarate.