Introduction Overuse and abuse of antibiotics resulted in antibiotic resistance of many pathogens during the last decays Materials and Methods Bacterial strains The microorganisms utilized in the study composed of 26 E. Essential oils Cultivated oregano was harvested in mid-summer.
Discussion Essential oils as well as their major components are having a variety of targets on the bacterial cell where exhibiting their action. However, bacteria resistant to chemical antibiotics seem to be capable of overcoming the action of EOs which requires further investigation before the EOs or their components could be utilized either in medicine or in food safety.
References Llor C, Lars B. Antimicrobial resistance: risk associated with antibiotic overuse and initiatives to reduce the problem. Therapeutic advances in drug safety 5 6 Antibiotic resistance—the need for global solutions. The Lancet infectious diseases Apparent antibiotic misuse in environmental ecosystems and food.
Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of cultivated oregano Origanum vulgare , sage Salvia officinalis , and thyme Thymus vulgaris against clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Klebsiella pneumoniae.
Antibacterial activities of essential oils from eight Greek aromatic plants against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. Anaerobe Effect of essential oils on pathogenic bacteria. Pharmaceuticals CrossRef Guenther E. Read Books Ltd, Biological effects of essential oils—a review. Food and Chemical Toxicology Essential oils of aromatic plants with antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and cytotoxic properties—an overview. The antibacterial mechanism of carvacrol and thymol against Escherichia coli.
Letters in Applied Microbiology ; How antibiotics kill bacteria: from targets to networks. Nature Reviews Microbiology Disruption of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Lactobacillus sakei cellular membranes by plant oil aromatics. International Journal of Food Microbiology The phenolic hydroxyl group of carvacrol is essential for action against the food-borne pathogen Bacillus cereus. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 68 A study of the minimum inhibitory concentration and mode of action of oregano essential oil, thymol and carvacrol. Journal of Applied Microbiology Influence of carvacrol on growth and toxin production by Bacillus cereus.
Date: August 1, Homologous and Heterologous Adaptation of Listeria spp. Santos, Michelle C. Martins, Juliana J. Pinelli, Silas R. Isidoro, Roberta H. Date: August 31, In water distillation, the plant material is covered in water and boiled and the essential oils that condense are separated from the water.
In water and steam distillation, the plant material is put in a pot still, covered with water and steam is made to pass through which carries with it the essential oil. And in steam distillation, the dry plant material is subjected to superheated steam to enhance the amount of essential oil extracted per unit of steam. Solvent Extraction: A relatively gentle method of extraction, it is used to extract essential oils of plant material with a very low concentration of the oils like Jasmine.
Penton, and F. In the 18th and 19th centuries, chemists documented the active components of medicinal plants and identified many substances such as caffeine, quinine, morphine, and atropine, which were considered to play an important role in their biological effects [ 9 ]. Averbeck, D. Used Hardcover Quantity Available: 1. They can also be applied internally to protect the wounds from developing infections [ 51 ]. The most important species are peppermint Mentha piperita L. Overuse and abuse of antibiotics resulted in antibiotic resistance of many pathogens during the last decays
The ingredient is first dissolved in a solvent and then evaporated which leaves behind a salve like solid mass that is then further refined with alcohol to finally yield the aromatic absolute. Liquid carbon dioxide is also used in this manner of solvent extraction to isolate the essential oils at a very low temperature. Enfleurage: One of the oldest and most time-consuming methods, enfleurage is used for ingredients that are extremely fragile such as Tuberose.
In this technique, the essential oil is extracted using animal fats. The above methods and their versions are what are generally employed by distillers to extract essential oils. These methods have evolved with time to keep the essential oils pure, debris-free, and to extract complete oils that allow people to create a variety of oil blends.
Essential oils have many very diverse uses but for cosmetic use over the years the aromatherapy industry has developed a specific approach that is quite effective and safe. It is almost always advised for essential oils to be used with carrier oils a medium that helps dilute and aid the properties of the essential oil.
Some oils can also be applied directly on the skin without dilution. Practitioners, researchers and users have all boasted the benefits of essential oils throughout centuries, and their proof of results has helped them become popular and stay in demand by the people! In fact, their heard, read, and experienced benefits have increased their demand like no other ingredients in the cosmetic industry. Depending on the usage, the problem, and the ingredients used, people can see results of using essential oils from as soon as a week, to as long as a few months.
Essential oils have stood their ground with time, and are continuously being used as alternative and natural treatments for various skin problems faced by people of different ages.