There is a need for yarns, weaving and tissues, being possible to work without the use of sizing or high rotations. Tests have shown that a mere raising of the intermingling of yarns - not yielded the desired result - in analogy to spin. Zur Charakterisierung von verwirbelten Garnen wurde bislang der Verwirbelungsgrad bestimmt.
To characterize swirled yarns of entanglement has been determined. This is done by means of known intermingling. Both variables assess the yarn cohesion of the filaments in the yarn. These methods, however, do not allow it to make a statement about the opening behavior of the intermingled yarn under dynamic-mechanical stress, especially about how such a yarn when used will behave as a warp thread on a weaving machine tests to determine the opening behavior of yarns are already Have been carried out. This includes the Upstream Vorverdehneinrichtungen before apparatuses for determining the yarn-circuit, for example, the upstream connection of such equipment before the Reutlinger Interlace Counter comp.
This is an option , the defined thread to be tested and uniaxially vorzuverdehnen. Here, however, there is a static load on the yarn, not all applications, for example, the behavior of the thread on a weaving machine can be sufficiently characterized. Furthermore, it has been shown that it - is useful for trouble-free processing simple free warps of multifilament yarns on modern, high-speed Webmaschinensystemen when the weaving is carried out under carefully controlled conditions - at least in the processing of critical bonds.
Mit der vorliegenden Erfindung wird ein Webverfahren bereitgestellt, mit dem Multifilamentglattgarne als Fadenketten auch unter den Anforderungen moderner, schnell laufender Webmaschinensysteme schlichtefrei verwebbar sind. With the present invention, a weaving method is provided, are weavable without using the multifilament yarns as warps under the requirements of modern, fast-running weaving machine.
Further tissues are provided by the invention, which have been produced without the use of sizing and contain critical for the processing bonds.
Die Erfindung betrifft ein Verfahren zur Herstellung eines Gewebes umfassend die Schritte: The invention relates to a method for manufacturing a fabric comprising the steps of:. For purposes of the present invention, the thread tension of the stabilized and simple free multifilament yarn according to step d is determined with a measuring device which is capable of displaying also, sudden voltage spikes, for example with the Denkendorf Fadenspannungstensor "Defat". The inventive method can be implemented in all conventional weaving machines.
Examples include weaving machine, in which takes place the weft insertion, for example, rifle, projectile, rapier or nozzles water or air. Rapier, projectile, water or air-jet looms, particularly air jet weaving machines are preferred. Including, for example, to be understood that the noise factor per 1, warps and wefts is less than 0. Under the efficiency the ratio of the at predetermined machine settings is to be understood practically required time at full capacity for the theoretically required time in the present invention.
Als Kettgarne werden stabilisierte und schlichtefreie Multifilamentglattgarne eingesetzt. As warp yarns stabilized and size-free multifilament yarns are used. Unter dem Begriff "Multifilamentglattgarn" ist im Rahmen dieser Erfindung ein Multifilamentgarn zu verstehen, das aus einer Vielzahl von Einzelfilamenten aufgebaut ist und das kein hochgedrehtes Garn ist.
The term "multifilament yarn" is meant a multifilament yarn in this invention, which is constructed from a multiplicity of individual filaments and which is not a highly twisted yarn. Als stabilisierte Multifilamentglattgarne eignen sich praktisch alle Garne, die aus Endlosfilamenten aufgebaut sind und bei deren Herstellung bzw. As stabilized multifilament yarns practically all yarns which are composed of continuous filaments and their preparation are suitable and.
Weiterverarbeitung eine Stabilisierung erfolgt ist. Further processing is carried out a stabilization. These include vernitschelte, welded, bonded, fused or especially turbulent flat yarns. Examples include single or multicomponent smooth filament yarns, which have been a stabilization, such as a swirl, preferably an air turbulence subjected.
With regard to the materials garnbildenden yarns of the invention are not restricted, provided that can be produced therefrom yarn of filaments filaments. Es kann sich dabei um Garne aus halbsynthetischen Fasern handeln, beispielsweise um Garne aus Cellulosefasern, oder insbesondere um Garne aus synthetischen Fasern, beispielsweise aus Polyamiden, Polyolefinen, Polyacrylnitril oder insbesondere Polyestern, wie Polyethylenterephthalat oder Polybutylenterephthalat.
These may involve yarn of semi-synthetic fibers, for example yarns made of cellulose fibers or in particular yarn of synthetic fibers, such as polyamides, polyolefins, polyacrylonitrile or in particular polyesters, such as polyethylene terephthalate or polybutylene terephthalate. Besonders bevorzugt werden Filamentgarne aus synthetischen Fasern, insbesondere aus Polyester, die ganz besonders bevorzugt luftverwirbelt sind. Particularly preferred are filament yarns of synthetic fibers, in particular polyesters which are most preferably air entangled.
Ganz besonders bevorzugt sind Glattgarne aus verstreckten Multifilamenten, insbesondere solche mit den Titern dtex 76f, f, 76f64, 50f80 und 50f Very particularly preferably flat yarns of drawn multifilament, in particular those having the titers dtex 76f, f, 76f64, 50f80 and 50f The term "simple free multifilament yarn" is meant a multifilament yarn in this invention, which is practically usable when used in an otherwise conventional weaving process and that no sizing just necessary for the execution weaving. This does not mean that this yarn can comprise any of the usual preparations or finishes, the upstream of the actual weaving process manufacturing or processing steps of the were applied to the yarn, for example, to perform or facilitate.
The present invention is made possible with the knowledge that can be dispensed on the loom to finishing in use, when the yarns are used with a low opening tendency, and if control procedures are simple available for debugging such yarns. Such a control method is the method described above for measuring the opening tendency of the flat multifilament yarn under dynamic-mechanical stress. Using this method, it is possible to simulate the ruling on weaving conditions sufficient and to develop yarns and the setting of machine parameters of the loom to allow the use of simple free thread chains in practice.
The determination of intermingling VG init and VG end of the yarn to be tested can be done in a conventional manner. This does not mean that the determination of VG can only be done with this device. Thus, length and number of closed or open filament segments. With the described control method, the change of the thread-circuit or the change in the degree of intermingling of the yarn according to the invention to be employed is practically determined under a given static yarn tension and under an additional dynamic mechanical loading.
To simulate the thread tension of the yarn in the test section that undergoes a deflection in the track and is guided under a predetermined and not pulse-shaped voltage. To simulate the thread tension of the yarn in the test section is being conveyed between two transport devices under a given static yarn tension.
Die Spannungsregelung kann dabei in an sich bekannter Weise erfolgen, beispielsweise durch die Regelung der Geschwindigkeit der Transportrollen. The voltage regulation can take place in a known per se manner, for example by regulating the speed of the transport rollers. In the test track, the yarn is therefore conducted under a predetermined and not pulse-shaped voltage. The transporters can be any suitable for the yarn transport device. Examples include commercially available motor-driven godets or feed systems, preferably frequency controlled.
Preferably, in the transport devices for pairs of rollers around which is guided the yarn to be tested several times and whose speed can be regulated separately. Thus, the simulation of a voltage is possible, for example as occurs in a thread chain in their manufacture or processing at the weaving machine. To simulate the additional dynamic mechanical load on the yarn in the test section a periodic deflection experiences this in the test section perpendicular to the yarn axis by a predetermined length and a predetermined frequency. This is done by means of a deflecting device which acts within the test section for the tested yarn.
In the deflection device may be any suitable device for this purpose. Examples of Auslenkvorrichtungen are perpendicular to the yarn-working piston or eccentric and in particular perpendicular to the yarn axis rotating blades which exert a defined height and frequency impact pulse onto the moving yarn. For the purposes of the present invention are selected frequency and voltage pulses of a magnitude so that the behavior of a thread chain is simulated on a weaving machine. To test the yarn on size-free weavability at a predetermined warp tension in the weaving machine, the total voltage is preferably chosen at least equal to the warp thread tension occurring to the weaving machine.
Ganz besonders bevorzugt setzt man das oben beschriebene Verfahren zur Charakterisierung von Fadenketten ein. Very particular preference is given to using the method described above for the characterization of thread chains. For this purpose, the yarn is fed to form a thread chain by the test track. The check is performed either sequentially at individual yarn strands or at multiple yarn strands of thread chain or even at all yarn strands of the thread chain. Preferably, the deflecting device acts on a plurality of such yarns. Is obtained from the test method described as the process variables of intermingling VG init and VG end, for example, as the number of intermingling points per unit length of the yarn.
A test statistic is the opening tendency of the yarn according to the invention under test conditions in the test section. The active participation of German-speaking countries in conferences of the Association for Medical Education in Europe AMEE between and A reflection of the development of medical education research? Alignment between learning needs and learning goals of Mini-CEX in clerkships. In: AMEE p. Resonator properties of paranasal sinuses: preliminary results of an anatomical study.
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Prag, Tschechien. The Step 2 Clinical Skills exam. Schmitz, Felix 2 February Was ist gute Usability und warum ist die wichtig? Advances in health sciences education, 18 4 , pp. Dordrecht: Springer Schmitz, Michael Felix Einsatz mobiler digitaler Checklisten zur Fremdbeurteilung medizinischer Fertigkeiten.
Healthcare-IT Schweiz. Antares Computer Verlag GmbH. Learner preferences regarding integrating, sequencing and aligning virtual patients with other activities in the undergraduate medical curriculum: A focus group study. Medical teacher, 35 11 , pp. Challenges for medical educators: results of a survey among members of the German Association for Medical Education. An innovative blended learning approach using virtual patients as preparation for skills laboratory training: perceptions of students and tutors.
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Communication Training — Motivational Interviewing: A new e-learning program for medical students at the University of Bern. Zimmermann, PG Formative Workplace-based Assessment in undergraduate medical training: Frequency and impact on student satisfaction of documented learning goals.
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Artificial organs, Aug, no-no. Malden, Mass. Effects of time, gender and given preparation time on the improvement of undergraduate medical student's communicationss skills after self evaluation of recorded videos. Proceedings of the Bled eCommerce Conference. The need of full-featured web-based formative assessment in a medical PBL-curriculum: students', lecturers' and theory's view. Evaluation of a new undergraduate mentoring program in general practitioners' offices: experiences of students and mentors. Goltz, E. New instruments for examination — the OSCE in occupational therapy education.
Thieme Swiss knife, 3, pp. Stuttgart: Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft. Assessment of spatial anatomical knowledge with a 'three-dimensional multiple choice test' 3D-MC. Medical teacher, 31 1 , ee London: Informa Healthcare All diagnostic errors were analyzed by two additional readers. Reader 1 correctly detected 12 of the 22 shoulders with and 42 of the 61 shoulders without calcific tendinitis sensitivity 0.
The corresponding values for reader 2 were 13 of 22 and 40 of 61 cases sensitivity 0. Inter-rater agreement kappa-value was 0.
Small size of the calcific deposits and isointensity compared to the surrounding tissue were the most important reasons for false negative results. Normal hypointense areas within the supraspinatus tendon substance and attachment were the main reason for false positive results. In conclusion, MR arthrography is insufficient in the diagnosis of calcific tendinitis. Normal hypointense parts of the rotator cuff may mimic calcific deposits and calcifications may not be detected when they are isointense compared to the rotator cuff. Therefore, MR imaging should not be interpreted without corresponding radiographs.
Direct MR-arthrography of the shoulder with maximum capsular distension for surgical planning. Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of direct MR arthrography of the glenohumeral joint with maximum distension of the joint capsule in patients with glenohumeral instability for preoperative diagnosis and for determining the method of surgical intervention. Materials and Methods: MR arthrography of the shoulder joint was performed on a 1.
All patients suffered from anterior or bidirectional instability. MR imaging protocol included fat-saturated transversal, oblique-coronal and oblique-sagittal T1-weighted spin-echo, T1-weighted 3-D and transversal T2-weighted Flash-2D. Results: MR imaging revealed significant capsule distention in 22 patients and ventral capsule defects in 9 patients. Labral lesions were depicted in 25 patients, bicipital tendon lesions in 4 patients and partial ruptures of the rotator cuff in 3 patients.
Areas of pathologic laxity of the glenohumeral capsule were correctly described in all cases. In 12 of 15 patients, the best method of intervention could be determined prospectively. In 3 of 15 patients, the necessary operation was overestimated. Gradient-recalled echo sequences in direct shoulder MR arthrography for evaluating the labrum.
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The purpose of this study was to determine the utility of fat-suppressed gradient-recalled echo GRE compared with conventional spin echo T1-weighted T1W sequences in direct shoulder MR arthrography for evaluating labral tears. Three musculoskeletal radiologists retrospectively reviewed MR arthrograms performed over a month period for which surgical correlation was available. Of serial arthrograms, 31 patients had surgery with a mean of 48 days following imaging. Interpretations were correlated with operative reports.
Of 31 shoulders, 25 had labral tears at surgery. Specificities were somewhat lower for GRE. Thin section GRE sequences are more sensitive than T1W for the detection of anterior and posterior labral tears. As the specificity of GRE was lower, it should be considered as an adjunctive imaging sequence that may improve depiction of labral tears, particularly smaller tears, in routine MR arthrography protocols. Conclusion: For evaluating ankle disability, using plain MRI alone is not adequate for correctly detecting lateral collateral ligamentous injury of the ankle joint.
It also helps in assessing coexisting pathologic lesions of ankle joints, especially impingement syndromes and osteochondral lesions, and provides more information for therapeutic decision making. Accuracy of 3-Tesla MR and MR arthrography in diagnosis of meniscal retear in the post-operative knee. This study assesses the accuracy of 3-Tesla 3-T conventional MR imaging, 3-T MR arthrography , and the combined use of conventional MR and MR arthrography in the diagnosis of meniscal retears as compared with arthroscopy. The study also assess whether there are false-negative cases in which injected contrast does not extend into the meniscus despite a meniscal retear being seen on arthroscopy.
One hundred consecutive knee MR arthrograms performed on patients with previous knee surgery were reviewed retrospectively. The criterion used to diagnose a meniscal retear on MR arthrogram was injected contrast tracking into the meniscus. All patients underwent second-look arthroscopy. Seventy-four patients had conventional MR findings consistent with a meniscal retear.
In 83 of the patients, intraarticular contrast helped in demonstrating a retear. In ten patients, there were MR findings consistent with a meniscal retear despite intra-articular contrast not tracking into the meniscus. Ninety-four of the patients had meniscal retears on second-look arthroscopy. The combined use of 3-T MR and MR arthrography allows for high sensitivity and specificity in meniscal retear detection. In some patients, intraarticular contrast will not track into a meniscal retear. When MR findings are consistent with a meniscal retear but contrast does not extend into the meniscus, a meniscal retear is likely.
Shoulder instability: the role of MR arthrography in diagnosing anteroinferior labroligamentous lesions our experience at king hussein medical center. To determine the reliability and accuracy of magnetic resonance arthrography of the shoulder for the diagnosis of anteroinferior labroligamentous lesions in patients with gleno-humeral joint instability. Twenty eight patients who underwent shoulder MR arthrogram and arthroscopy during a month period were reviewed.
All the twenty eight patients had history of previous shoulder dislocation and clinical suspicion of anteroinferior labroligamentous lesions and glenohumeral joint instability. The series included 24 males and 4 females. The mean average age of the patients was 29 years.
All patients underwent shoulder MR arthrogram and the results of MR arthrogram were compared with the arthroscopic findings which were used as the reference standard. MR arthrograms were analyzed for the presence and type of labroligamentous injuries which include Bankart, anterior labral periosteal sleeve avulsion ALPSA , Perthes, glenolabral articular disruption GLAD , or nonclassifiable lesion. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for the detection and classification of anteroinferior labroligamentous lesions with MR arthrography were calculated.
Seven labral lesions were nonclassifiable at arthroscopy, all of which occurred after a history of chronic instability. When compared with arthroscopic findings, Shoulder MR Arthrography had two false-negative results sensitivity, The sensitivity of shoulder MR Arthrography in detecting anteroinferior labroligamentous lesions was The overall accuracy of Shoulder MR Arthrography in detecting labroligamentous lesions in this study was MR arthrography of the shoulder is reliable and accurate in.
Diagnostic performance of indirect MR arthrography for the diagnosis of rotator cuff tears at 3. Indirect magnetic resonance MR arthrography is a non-invasive method for shoulder imaging. However, there are no studies that have examined the diagnostic performance of indirect MR arthrography for the diagnosis of rotator cuff tears in a large patient population.
To assess the diagnostic performance of indirect fast spin-echo FSE MR arthrography for the diagnosis of rotator cuff tears at 3. A total of patients who had undergone indirect shoulder MR arthrography followed by arthroscopic surgery were enrolled in this retrospective study. Usefulness of MR arthrography of the hip with leg traction in the evaluation of ligamentum teres injuries. To retrospectively evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance MR arthrography of the hip with leg traction in the evaluation of ligamentum teres lesions and to evaluate whether there is increased articular distraction, possibly indicating secondary instability, in hips with ligamentum teres injuries.
Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained for this retrospective study. MR arthrograms of the hip with leg traction of consecutive patients, including men mean age, The MR arthrographic findings were independently assessed by two radiologists who were blinded to the arthroscopic results. The inclusion criteria stipulated no previous surgery, arthroscopy within 1 month after MR arthrography , and availability of a detailed surgical report with ligamentum teres findings.
The arthroscopy findings served as the reference standard. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and K statistics for interobserver and intraobserver agreement were calculated. At arthroscopy, 32 ligamentum teres injuries were found. The ligamentum teres was normal in Articular distraction was significantly increased in patients with complete ruptures of the. Usefulness of sono-guided needle puncture for MR arthrography of the shoulder.
To evaluate the usefulness of sono-guided needle puncture for MR arthrography of the shoulder to locate the path of access and to control the correct placement of the needle into the shoulder. Fifteen patients with suspicion of shoulder pathology were included in this study. Patients were laid in supine positions with the arm extended and slightly abducted, the palm of the hand facing upward. A sonographic unit with a high resolution transducer with 7. Axial images in the anterior aspect of the shoulder were obtained to localize the coracoid process and the anteromedical portion of the humerus.
Using an aseptic technique, a guage needle was advanced into the shoulder joint under ultrasonographic guidance. When the needle made contract with the articular cartilage of the humeral head, the needle was tiled to position is point in the articular cavity. Solution of 0. The intra-articular position of the needle and the compete distension of the shoulder joint were again confirmed by sonography. The needle was accurately placed in 14 out of 15 patients without damage to neighboring structures. It took 10 to 15 minutes to complete the procedure in 14 patients.
No side effects attributable to gadopentetate dimeglumine were found. Sono-guided needle puncture for the shoulder MR arthrography can be a substitutable method for fluoroscopic guidance, with easy access, advantages of lacking radiation hazard and eliminating the need for iodized contrast agents. Rotator cuff tears: assessment with MR arthrography in patients with arthroscopic correlation. We assessed the diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance MR arthrography in the diagnosis of articular-sided partial-thickness and full-thickness rotator cuff tears in a large symptomatic population.
MR arthrograms obtained in patients including a study group of patients with rotator cuff tears proved by arthroscopy and a control group of patients with arthroscopically intact rotator cuff tendons were reviewed in random order. MR arthrograms were analyzed by two radiologists in consensus for articular-sided partial-thickness and full-thickness tears of the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and subscapularis tendons. At arthroscopy, rotator cuff tears were diagnosed, including partial-thickness 93 supraspinatus, nine infraspinatus, three subscapularis and 92 full-thickness 43 supraspinatus, 20 infraspinatus, 29 subscapularis tendon tears.
MR arthrography is highly accurate in the diagnosis of full-thickness rotator cuff tears and is accurate in the diagnosis of articular-sided partial-thickness tears. Limitations in the diagnosis of partial-thickness tears are mainly restricted to small articular-sided tears Ellman grade 1 due to difficulties in differentiation between fiber tearing, tendinitis, synovitic changes, and superficial fraying at tendon margins. Waldt, S. Lee, Marc J. Comparison of three dimensional isotropic and two dimensional conventional indirect MR arthrography for the diagnosis of rotator cuff tears.
To compare the accuracy between a three-dimensional 3D indirect isotropic T1-weighted fast spin-echo FSE magnetic resonance MR arthrography and a conventional two-dimensional 2D T1-weighted sequences of indirect MR arthrography for diagnosing rotator cuff tears. The study was approved by our Institutional Review Board. In total, patients who had undergone indirect shoulder MR arthrography followed by arthroscopic surgery for shoulders were included in this study.
Two radiologists evaluated the images for the presence of full- or partial-thickness tears in the supraspinatus-infraspinatus SSP-ISP tendons and tears in the subscapularis SSC tendons. Using the arthroscopic findings as the reference standard, the diagnostic performances of both methods were analyzed by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve AUC. There was no significant difference between the AUC values of the 2D and 3D sequences in either reader for either type of tear.
The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of traction during MR arthrography of the wrist on joint space widening, cartilage visibility, and detection of tears of the triangular fibrocartilage complex TFCC and intrinsic ligaments. A prospective study included 40 wrists in 39 patients 25 men, 14 women; mean age, 35 years. Two radiologists independently measured wrist and carpal joint space widths and semiquantitatively graded articular cartilage visibility.
Using conventional arthrography as the reference standard and working in consensus, they assessed for the presence of tears of the TFCC, lunotriquetral ligament LTL , and scapholunate ligament SLL. Visibility of a tear before traction was compared with visibility after traction. With traction, all joint spaces in the wrist and carpus were significantly widened change, 0. The results favor more widespread use of traction during MR arthrography of the wrist. Is a single direct MR arthrography series in ABER position as accurate in detecting anteroinferior labroligamentous lesions as conventional MR arthography?
The purpose of this study is to retrospectively compare accuracy of single magnetic resonance MR arthrography series in Abduction External Rotation ABER with conventional MR arthrography for detection and characterisation of anteroinferior labroligamentous lesions, with arthroscopy as reference standard. Inter-observer variability of both protocols was determined. MR arthrograms, including oblique axial fat suppressed T1-weighted images in ABER position and conventional imaging directions of patients men, 80 women; mean age, 36 years , were retrospectively and independently evaluated by three reviewers.
Reviewers were blinded to clinical information and arthroscopic results. Inter-observer agreement was assessed by Kappa statistics for all patients. Ninety-two of patients underwent arthroscopy. According to arthroscopy, 45 of 92 patients had an intact anteroinferior labrum, and in 44 patients, a labroligamentous lesion eight Bankart, seven Perthes, 29 ALPSA and three lesions not otherwise specified was diagnosed. The results of a single MR arthrography series in ABER position are comparable with those of conventional MR arthrography for detecting anteroinferior labroligamentous lesions.
Use of MR arthrography in detecting tears of the ligamentum teres with arthroscopic correlation. Chang, Connie Y. To demonstrate the normal appearance of the ligamentum teres on MR arthrography MRA and evaluate the accuracy of MRA in detecting ligamentum teres tears with arthroscopic correlation. Institutional Review Board approval was obtained with a waiver for informed consent because of the retrospective study design. Marrow edema of the fovea capitis adjacent to the ligamentum teres insertion and the presence of hip plicae were also recorded. The mean thickness and length of the ligamentum teres were 3.
MRA is an accurate method to evaluate the normal morphology and to detect tears of the ligamentum teres. Indirect wrist MR arthrography : the effects of passive motion versus active exercise. Schweitzer, M. In the wrist, to determine whether passive motion or active exercise yields a better indirect MR arthrographic effect following intravenous gadolinium administration. Design and patients. Twenty-six consecutive patients were studied by indirect wrist MR arthrography. In half active exercise and in half passive motion was performed.
Four regions of interest were studied including the distal radioulnar joint, the radiocarpal joint, the midcarpal joint, and the triangular fibrocartilage. Ranges and means of signal intensity were calculated. Surgical follow-up was performed in 22 patients. The joint fluid intensity was greatest in the distal radioulnar joint. Fluid signal intensity was greater and more consistent in the passive motion group although the results did not achieve statistical significance. Active exercise and passive motion yield similar degrees of wrist arthrographic effect, but the effect of passive motion is somewhat more consistent.
Preliminary data show good accuracy for internal derangements. Diagnosis of superior labral lesions: comparison of noncontrast MRI with indirect MR arthrography in unexercised shoulders. To prospectively compare the accuracy of noncontrast magnetic resonance imaging MRI with indirect MR arthrography I-MRa of unexercised shoulders for diagnosis of superior glenoid labral lesions. Institutional Review Board approval and patient informed consent were obtained for this prospective study. Superior labral findings on shoulder MRI and unexercised I-MRa studies of patients were correlated with findings at arthroscopic shoulder surgery.
Two musculoskeletal radiologists independently reviewed the two sets of MR images while blinded to arthroscopic results. For each radiologist, the McNemar test was used to detect statistically significant differences between techniques. The superior labrum was intact in 24 and abnormal in 80 subjects. However, the diagnostic value of I-MRa in shoulders remaining at rest is potentially limited by decreased specificity of the technique.
Ultrasound-guided intraarticular injection for MR arthrography of the shoulder. Indirect MR-arthrography in osteochondral autograft and crushed bone graft with a collagen membrane-Correlation with histology. Streitparth, F. Objective: To analyze the spectrum of findings in indirect MR-arthrography following osteochondral autograft transfer system OATS and crushed bone graft using a magnetic resonance imaging MRI scoring and grading system in relation to histology as the standard of reference.
Gd-DTPA administration and passive joint exercise. The repair tissue was evaluated by two independent radiologists. The MR findings were compared to histology. After crushed bone graft, we found an irregular structure and significant contrast uptake, consistent with remnants of bone grafts surrounded by inflammatory tissue.
Conclusion: Indirect MR-arthrography is an accurate, non-invasive monitoring tool following OATS and crushed bone graft as the MRI scoring and grading system allows a reliable evaluation of normal and pathological osteochondral repair with a high histologic correlation. Comparison of shoulder positions at MR arthrography : change of labroligamentous complex shape and diagnosis of labral tears.
To compare the neutral, internal, and external rotation positions of the glenohumeral joint during magnetic resonance MR arthrography performed to assess changes in the shape of the labroligamentous complex LLC and in the labral tear. MR arthrography of the shoulder was retrospectively evaluated in 36 patients aged mean, 40 years. Axial fat-suppressed T1-weighted spin-echo images were acquired with each shoulder in the neutral position, and with internal and external rotations.
In each position, we measured the angle of rotation between the perpendicular line on the glenoid fossa and the long axis of the humeral head, analyzing the relationship between the rotational angle and changes in the shape of the LLC at each internal and external rotation, relative to the neutral position. In addition, labral tears in 14 arthroscopically confirmed joints were evaluated in each position.
Mean angles of rotation relative to the neutral position were Changes in the anterior LLC occurred in 25 and 24 cases of internal and external rotation, respectively. There was a significantly meaningful relationship between rotational angle and changes in the shape of the anterior LLC during external rotation, and when this changes was noticed, the rotational angle was wider p Indirect MR arthrography of the wrist in the diagnosis of TFCC-lesions. After i. The images were evaluated by two radiologists using a consensus score. The lesions were assigned to the system of Palmer and correlated with arthroscopy.
This means three false positive but no false negative assessments by MRI. Small degenerative changes of the fibres were most common Palmer type IIA. In trauma patients the ligaments usually showed tears near the insertion at the ulna Palmer type IB. Therefore, it is an excellent screening procedure to assess the indication for therapeutic arthroscopy. Tadros, Anthony S. MR images were independently reviewed by two blinded musculoskeletal radiologists. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value PPV , negative predictive value NPV , and accuracy for tendinosis and tear detection were calculated.
Synovial plicae of the hip: evaluation using MR arthrography in patients with hip pain. Bencardino, Jenny T. The appearance and distribution of the intra-articular plicae of the hip have been addressed in few reports in the anatomic and radiological literature. This study aims to determine the prevalence of visible synovial hip plicae using MR arthrography and to measure the association of visible synovial hip plicae with MR arthrographic diagnosis of labral tears, femoroacetabular impingement, and osteoarthritis.
Following institutional review board approval, 63 direct MR arthrographic examinations of the hip in 61 patients with a clinical history of hip pain were retrospectively reviewed by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists in consensus. The surgical reports and arthroscopic images of 10 patients were reviewed. Statistical analysis was performed using the Fisher's exact test. In all 63 cases at least one plica was visualized on MR-arthrographic images. There was no statistically significant association between the presence of labral tears, femoroacetabular impingement, and osteoarthritis among patients with visible labral, neck, and ligamental plicae.
The presence of intra-articular plicae was the only MR-arthrographic finding in 5 of our 63 symptomatic cases. There was no statistically significant association between the presence of labral tears, femoroacetabular impingement, and osteoarthritis and visible labral, neck, and ligamental plicae. Diagnostic performance of direct traction MR arthrography of the hip: detection of chondral and labral lesions with arthroscopic comparison.
To assess diagnostic performance of traction MR arthrography of the hip in detection and grading of chondral and labral lesions with arthroscopic comparison. Traction technique included weight-adapted traction kg , a supporting plate for the contralateral leg, and intra-articular injection of ml local anaesthetic and contrast agent. Patients reported on neuropraxia and on pain. Two blinded readers independently assessed femoroacetabular cartilage and labrum lesions which were correlated with arthroscopy. No procedure had to be stopped. There were no cases of neuropraxia.
Traction MR arthrography safely enabled accurate detection and grading of labral and chondral lesions. Johann in Tyrol, Department of Radiology, St. Johann in Tyrol Austria. Humeral avulsion of the anterior shoulder stabilizing structures after anterior shoulder dislocation: demonstration by MRI and MR arthrography.
To demonstrate the MRI findings of an anterior shoulder capsular avulsion from the humerus, with or without subscapularis rupture, after anterior dislocation or severe abduction external rotation injury. We retrospectively reviewed the MRI and MR arthrographic examinations of seven patients who were identified at surgery with avulsion of the anterior shoulder stabilizers from the humerus.
MRI was correlated with clinical history and surgical results. MRI findings included: inhomogeneity or frank disruption of the anterior capsule at the humeral insertion all , fluid intensity anterior to the shoulder six patients , tear of the subscapularis tendon six patients , dislocation of the biceps tendon four patients , and a Hill-Sachs deformity four patients. MR arthrography additionally found extravasation of contrast through the capsular defect two patients. Our findings suggest that MRI is helpful for diagnosing humeral avulsion of the anterior glenohumeral capsule, especially when a tear of the subscapularis tendon insertion is present.
MR arthrography may be of benefit for diagnosing capsular avulsion without associated subscapularis tendon abnormality. With 4 figs. Inter- and intraobserver variability of MR arthrography in the detection and classification of superior labral anterior posterior SLAP lesions: evaluation in 78 cases with arthroscopic correlation. The purpose of this study was to determine inter- and intraobserver variability of MR arthrography of the shoulder in the detection and classification of superior labral anterior posterior SLAP lesions. MR arthrograms of 78 patients who underwent MR arthrography before arthroscopy were retrospectively analysed by three blinded readers for the presence and type of SLAP lesions.
MR arthrograms were reviewed twice by each reader with a time interval of 4 months between the two readings. MR arthrographic and arthroscopic grading were concurrent for In addition, SLAP lesions can be diagnosed and classified with substantial to excellent inter- and intraobserver agreement. MR arthrography in chondromalacia patellae diagnosis on a low-field open magnet system.
The usability of a restoration object can be guaranteed when no self-occlusion of the common interface of the prepared tooth and restoration object occurring in at least one linear direction of insertion. Identified theories differ regarding addressed subject matters, their coverage, their focus as well as the underlying notion of model understanding, which is exemplarily demonstrated and discussed in this Article. In some diagnostic problems MRA achieves almost the same. Historic Assessment e-Training. Visibility of a tear before traction was compared with visibility after traction. All lesions that could not be classified on MR-arthrography were of stage-I chondromalacia. Fisher, H.
Forty-two patients 50 knees with pain in the anterior part of the knee were prospectively examined with LFOMS, including T1-weighted, proton density-weighted and T2-weighted sequences. All were also examined T1-weighted MRI after intraarticular injection of dilue gadopentetate dimeglumine. Two observers, who reached a consensus interpretation, evaluated each imaging technique independently. Thirty-six of the 50 facets examined had chondromalacia shown by arthroscopy, which was used as the standard of reference. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of each imaging technique in the diagnosis of each stage of CP were determined and compared by using the McNemar two-tailed analysis.
Arthroscopy showed that 16 facets were normal. MRA again showed these findings in all eight patients. All imaging techniques were insensitive to grade 1 lesions and highly sensitive to grade 4 lesion, so that no. MR arthrography of the shoulder: Optimizing pulse sequence protocols for the evaluation of cartilage and labrum. Guermazi, Ali, E-mail: Ali. Guermazi aspetar. Box Qatar ; and others. Objectives: To compare axial T1weighted fat-saturated T1w fs and T1w non-fs sequences, and coronal T1w-fs and T2w-fs sequences, for evaluation of cartilage and labrum using CT arthrography CTA as the reference.
Cartilage was assessed for superficial and full thickness focal and diffuse damage. CTA images were read for the same features. Results: When comparing axial sequences, the diagnostic performance for cartilage lesion detection on T1w non-fs was For labral assessment, it was Comparing coronal sequences, diagnostic performance for cartilage was For the labrum it was Conclusions: Axial T1w fs and T1w non-fs sequences are comparable in their ability to diagnose cartilage and labral lesions.
Coronal T1w fs sequence offers slightly higher sensitivity but slightly lower specificity than T2w fs sequence for diagnosis of cartilage and labral lesions. A total of 33 patients underwent both MR arthrography and 3D isovoxel imaging of the wrist joints using 3T MR, including 11 patients with arthroscopic confirmation.
One radiologist evaluated for the presence of scapholunate or lunotriquetral ligament tear and she determined the grade of the triangular fibrocartilage complex tear and chondromalacia with its location. We compared the two examinations using kappa values. For the eleven cases that underwent arthroscopy, their results of 3D isovoxel MRI were also similar to that of MR arthrography. The clinical and radiological importance of extraarticular contrast material leakage into adjacent synovial compartments on ankle MR arthrography in patients with OCD and anterolateral impingement.
Ogul, Hayri, E-mail: drhogul gmail. Purpose: To evaluate the tibiotalar joint capacity and the localisation, frequency and amount of extravasation in patients with extraarticular contrast material leakage into adjacent synovial compartments on ankle magnetic resonance MR arthrography. Materials and methods: Sites of extravasation were determined in the ankle MR arthrograms of 69 patients. Thirty-four patients without extraarticular contrast material leakage into locations unrelated to the injection path were included as a control group. Volumetric measurements of extraarticular contrast material leakage and the tibiotalar joint capacity were performed on a three dimensional 3D volume measurement workstation.
Results: Extravasation of contrast material occurred through the anterior, posterior, and anterolateral recesses of the tibiotalar joint. The most common site of extravasation was along the flexor hallucis longus tendon synovium Conclusions: Connections between the ankle joint and neighboring synovial compartments can decrease the diagnostic value of ankle MR arthrography examinations due to inadequate joint distention. Iodine contrast medium and gadolinium were injected into the distal radioulnar and midcarpal joints. Comparison between conventional MR arthrograhphy and abduction and external rotation MR arthrography in revealing tears of the antero-inferior glenoid labrum.
To compare, in terms of their demonstration of tears of the anterior glenoid labrum, oblique axial MR arthrography obtained with the patient's shoulder in the abduction and external rotation ABER position, with conventional axial MR arthrography obtained with the patient's arm in the neutral position. MR arthrography of the shoulder, including additional oblique axial sequences with the patient in the ABER position, was performed in 30 patients with a clinical history of recurrent anterior shoulder dislocation. The degree of anterior glenoid labral tear or defect was evaluated in both the conventional axial and the ABER position by two radiologists.
The scores for each imaging sequence were averaged and to compare conventional axial and ABER position scans, Student's t test was performed. Three whose axial scan was grade 1 showed only equivocal evidence of tearing, but their ABER-position scan, in which a contrast material-filled gap between the labrum and the glenoid rim was present, was grade 3. The average grade was 2. The difference between axial and ABER-position scans was statistically significant p MR arthrography with the patient's shoulder in the ABER position is more efficient than conventional axial scanning in revealing the degree of tear or defect of the anterior glenoid labrum.
When equivocal features are seen at. Detection and staging of chondromalacia patellae: relative efficacies of conventional MR imaging, MR arthrography , and CT arthrography. Chondromalacia patellae is a condition characterized by softening, fraying, and ulceration of patellar articular cartilage.
We compare the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of conventional MR imaging, MR arthrography , and CT arthrography in detecting and staging this abnormality. All were also examined with T1-weighted MR imaging after intraarticular injection of dilute gadopentetate dimeglumine and with double-contrast CT arthrography. Each imaging technique was evaluated independently by two observers, who reached a consensus interpretation. The signal characteristics of cartilage on MR images and contour abnormalities noted with all imaging techniques were evaluated and graded according to a modification of the classification of Shahriaree.
Twenty-six of the 54 facets examined had chondromalacia shown by arthroscopy, which was used as the standard of reference. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of each imaging technique in the diagnosis of each stage of chondromalacia patellae were determined and compared by using the McNemar two-tailed analysis.
Arthroscopy showed that 28 facets were normal. Prevalence of the acetabular sublabral sulcus at MR arthrography in patients under 17 years of age: does it exist? To retrospectively determine characteristics of contrast-filled acetabular labral clefts in patients under the age of 17 years at MR arthrography Mra correlated with arthroscopy, which may impact the thinking regarding the existence of a sublabral sulcus.
Fisher's exact and the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test were performed. Interreader agreement was calculated with Cohen's k. None of the clefts fulfilled the criteria for a sublabral sulcus at MRa and arthroscopy.