A vida na Bélgica (Portuguese Edition)

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SEM Model 3 to 5. Note: Solid line: Model 3; Dotted line: Model 4. Model 5 specifies the six predictors simultaneously. In Step 2 we broke down the composite scores of need satisfaction and need frustration into six distinct indicators to examine whether autonomy, competence and relatedness need satisfaction and frustration predicted unique variance in well-being and ill-being outcomes. Firstly the three T1 need satisfaction measures were entered as simultaneous predictors of T2 well-being, after controlling for baseline T1 well-being.

Secondly the three T1 need frustration scores were entered as simultaneous predictors of T2 ill-being, controlling for baseline T1 ill-being. We expected that the satisfaction of the three needs predicts unique changes on T2 well-being controlling for baseline T1 well-being, but also that the frustration of each need predicts unique changes on T2 ill-being, controlling for baseline T1 ill-being Hypothesis 2. At T2, a sample of Portuguese students girls [ Participants were free to participate in the study at both T1 and T2.

These students did not differ in gender, age or on any psychological measure assessed at T1. The questionnaires were administered after we obtained the necessary permissions from the Portuguese Bureau of Basic and Secondary Education and from the ethical committee of the Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences of the University of Coimbra. Psychological Need satisfaction and Frustration.

The SV scale is a 7-item measure developed to evaluate how alive and alert people have been feeling during the last month e. The Cronbach alpha reported for the Subjective Vitality Scale was. The internal consistency of the scales was.

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Capturing autonomy, competence, and relatedness at work: Construction and initial validation of the Work-related Basic Need Satisfaction. For instance, for students who feel their need for competence frustrated, studying for the national exams would possibly activate failure-oriented thoughts related to the lack of personal competence and ability to perform well in the task, which, subsequently, would increase their levels of anxiety or depressive feelings. Open in a separate window. Secondly the three T1 need frustration scores were entered as simultaneous predictors of T2 ill-being, controlling for baseline T1 ill-being. Long live the King! Vansteenkiste, M.

Items loaded above. The Portuguese version of the item Brief Symptom Inventory Derogatis, ; Canavarro, was used to assess ill-being.

Empirical Work on Need Satisfaction and Need Frustration

The BSI assesses the psychopathological symptoms of anxiety e. A General Severity Index can also be obtained. The internal consistency reported for the 3 subscales ranged between. In the current study we used the General Severity Index as an indicator of ill-being, obtained from averaged total scores on the 18 items. Sample attrition. Then we examined the differences between the data collected at Time 1 and Time 2.

We computed the mean scores of well-being and ill-being for both groups of respondents and carried out between group t -tests. Missing data were, then imputed using the full information maximum likelihood technique that is available in AMOS Descriptive Statistics and Correlations. Table 2 provides descriptive statistics and correlations for the study variables.

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In Sample 2, need satisfaction scores positively associate between themselves, positively relate to satisfaction with life and subjective vitality and negatively relate to anxiety, depression and somatization. On the other hand, need frustration indicators were positively associated to each other, and they were also positively related to anxiety, depression and somatization, but negatively related to satisfaction with life and subjective vitality scores.

Moderate-to-high correlations were observed between subjective vitality and satisfaction with life, as well as between anxiety, depression and somatization. Gender Effects. We checked for interaction effects, but gender was not found to be a significant moderator of anxiety, depression and somatization. Based on these gender differences, we controlled for gender in the primary SEM analysis. Predictive Validity. SEM analyses were used to examine the structural relations specified.

Previous studies of the BPNSFS used cross-sectional designs to examine the effects of psychological needs on life satisfaction, vitality and depressive feelings e. Despite the promising findings of these previous studies, cross-sectional research makes it difficult to probe into the unique predictive role of psychological need satisfaction and frustration on psychological outcomes across time.

Moreover, although these studies covered reasonably large samples of adults and adolescents from diverse cultural backgrounds, including South African adolescents, University students from USA, China, Belgium and Peru, Chinese migrant workers or European pregnant women, the Portuguese context had not yet been targeted. Aligned with these cross-cultural validation studies we carried out the first study examining the concurrent and longitudinal relations of the BPNSFS to well-being and ill-being experienced when Portuguese high school students have to decide whether they intend to continue their studies in higher education or join the labour force.

We conducted two separate studies. Study 1 findings proved that the six-factor model that distinguishes the satisfaction and frustration dimensions of need was the most valid to interpret the dimensionality of the item Portuguese version of the BPNSFS. This result, along with the good internal consistency obtained for the six scales, replicate the results obtained in the original studies Chen, Vansteenkiste et al.

Study 2 findings provide partial support for our hypotheses. In support of Hypothesis 1, the results show that, after controlling for baseline well-being, T1 need satisfaction predicts changes in well-being, but not in T2 ill-being.

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Symmetrically, after controlling for baseline ill-being, T1 need frustration predicts unique variance in T2 ill-being, but not on T2 well-being. This particular finding adds to previous SDT theory and research Bartholomew et al. There is an absent negative relation between need satisfaction and ill-being. Indeed, ill-being was uniquely predicted from experiences of need frustration, but not from experiences of low needs satisfaction. In subsequent analyses, the unique contribution of each of the three needs was tested to explain well-being and ill-being at T2.

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[BOOKS] A vida na Bélgica (Portuguese Edition) by Alda Inácio. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download and read online A vida . Buy O TIBETE DE ÁFRICA (Portuguese Edition): Read Kindle Store Reviews Ana, apaixonada pela vida em Luanda, cidade onde nasceu, é confrontada em fugira à guerra colonial e vivera exilado na Bélgica durante décadas quando.

In partial support for Hypothesis 2, findings show that, after controlling for baseline well-being, T1 autonomy satisfaction was a unique predictor of T2 well-being. A different pattern was found for need frustration. After controlling for baseline ill-being, only T1 competence frustration predicted T2 ill-being.

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We can only speculate about these findings. These findings are in line with previous research e. Furthermore, the results obtained in Study 2 point out the distinct unique contribution of autonomy satisfaction for well-being and of competence frustration for ill-being.

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Such pattern of results provided further support for the substantive distinction between the satisfaction and frustration components of needs. They also suggest that feeling vital and satisfied with life during career preparation periods is closely related to the extent to which students experience a perceived internal locus of causality, volition and the possibility of choice in personal actions. On the other hand, the frustration of competence seems to play a unique effect on maladjustment.

Indeed, a career pathway is a highly selective, competence-focused, achievement-oriented process that is mainly dependent on academic success. In this achievement-based context, the perceived in- ability to perform well at high school might determine whether students experience well-being or ill-being during this period of critical career decision-making. For instance, for students who feel their need for competence frustrated, studying for the national exams would possibly activate failure-oriented thoughts related to the lack of personal competence and ability to perform well in the task, which, subsequently, would increase their levels of anxiety or depressive feelings.

In sum, contexts might differentially trigger or activate need-relevant appraisals of competence that, in turn, determine adaptive or maladaptive adjustment for significant career challenges. From this point of view, competence satisfaction could be considered a protective factor of well-being and need frustration an important risk factor for various maladaptive outcomes, including ill-being Bartholomew et al.

Additional research is, however, needed to support this argument. For instance, future research would need to focus on both contextual antecedents e.

This research has explored the longitudinal associations between the satisfaction and frustration of psychological needs and adjustment across the transition from high school to higher education. Although this study extended previous research on this topic, a number of limitations are noteworthy. First, we based our conclusions on samples of undergraduate and high school students, an aspect that limits the generalization of the findings.

This is relevant because we suspect that students scoring high on need frustration have already dropped-out of the school system. Finally, despite being longitudinal, our research was correlational in nature. Thus, the replicability of the findings and the generalizability to other target groups has yet to be demonstrated. This research extends previous SDT-based studies in two ways. First, it has provided a cross-cultural replication of the 6-factor solution proposed for the BPNSFS, providing additional evidence for the substantive distinction of the need satisfaction and need frustration components of needs.

Second, it provided further insights into the motivational roots of mal adjustment across a major educational transition. The findings encourage the change from a tradition of research deducing need frustration from low scores on need satisfaction, towards an approach that examines the satisfaction and frustration of psychological needs as content-specific constructs. They also open new research questions about the processes and dynamics by which experiences of need satisfaction and frustration differently predict pathways of mal adjustment in the transition to higher education or to the job market.

Additional research is needed to clarify these links.

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However, in the current study the sample is used to answer different research questions. Adie, J. Autonomy support, basic need satisfaction and the optimal functioning of adult male and female sport participants: A test of basic needs theory. Aelterman, N. Bartholomew, K. Psychological need thwarting in the sport context: Assessing the darker side of athletic experience. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology 75— Brenning, K. Byrne, B. Structural equation modeling with AMOS.

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New York: Rutledge. Canavarro, M. Coimbra: Quarteto Editora. Chen, B. Does psychological need satisfaction matter when environmental or financial safety are at risk?. Cordeiro, P. Cognitive-motivational antecedents of career decision-making processes in Portuguese high school students: a longitudinal study. Relations to well-being and ill-being.

Empirical Work on Need Satisfaction and Need Frustration

Costa, S. Predicting the brighter and darker sides of interpersonal relationships: Does psychological need thwarting matter? Deci, E. Intrinsic motivation and Self-Determination in human behavior. Delrue, J. Derogatis, L. Administration, scoring and procedures manual. Diener, E. The satisfaction with life scale. Gillet, N. The impact of organizational factors on psychological needs and their relations with well-being.

Gunnell, K. Psychological need satisfaction and thwarting: A test of Basic Psychological Needs Theory in physical activity contexts. Haerens, L. Distinguishing between the bright and dark side of motivation. Hambleton, R. The next generation of the ITC test translation and adaptation guidelines. Hu, L. Kindt, S. Helping motivation and well-being of chronic pain couples: A daily diary study. Lemos, M. Ferreira, A. Little, R. A test of missing completely at random for multivariate data with missing values.

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