In V i l l e n a accompanied Don Fernando to Andalusia at the start of the campaign against the Moors of Granada. He entered Sevi l le with the Infante'and numerous other knights and dignitaries on Wednesday, June 22 23 of that year. However, there is no record of V i l l e n a having played any part i n the f ighting which took place during this f i r s t campaign.
A document dated February 22, l 4 0 8 records the following 37 ceremony: En aquest dia lo senyor Rey [Don. Martin 1 edif f icha lo monestir de l a orde dels frares Celestins , lo qual fon edificat en. En los fonaments del qual foren posades , lo di t d i a , les pedres segiients, go es: l a primera pedra per l 'archabisbe de C a l l e r ; l a segona langa lo senyor Rey per s i mateix; l a terga langa lo di t senyor per l a senyora Reyna, de bona memoria, muller qui fon de di t senyor; l a quarta l a reyna dona Yolant; l a , v a. Martin de Riquer has made i t quite clear that V i l l e n a not only enjoyed the favour of Martin I , but also his active support i n the matter of V i l l e n a ' s claim to the Maestrazgo.
Martin I wrote several let ters on the subject, and refers constantly to V i l l e n a as Maestre de Calatrava. He con-tinues : 38 Como a nos sia bien cierto que ' l Maestro de Sanct Yago es passado d'esta v i d a , e cubdiciemos muyto que ' l venerable frayre Henric, maestre de Calatrava, cosfn vuestro e nuestro, por t i r a r scandalos inconvenientes e pleytos que en sus feytos se porian seguir, s i no h i era devidament provedido, fues transportado en e l maestrado de Sanct Yago vagant, segund que desuso es d i t o , por muert del gaguero aquell possehint, rogamos-vos , assin affectuosa-ment como podemos , muy caro e muy amado sobrino, que por honra nuestra querades s c r i v i r a l Padre Sancto que placia a l a sua Beatitut provedir de dito maestrado de Sanct Yago a l Maestro de Calatrava desuso d i t o , e u l t r a d'esto tener todas las mellores maneras que poredes que est i feyto, e l qual muyto havemos a coragon, venga a conclusion devida.
Nos e l Rey d'Aragon, vos embiamos muyto a saludar, assin como aquella que mutxo amamos e pora qui querriamos que diesse Dios mucha salut e honra. Reyna muy cara e muy amada cormana: una de las cosas que' mas deseamos e havemos muyto a coragon es que ' l Mestre de Calatrava, vuestro f i l l o , caro sobrino nuestro, possediesse pacificament su maestrado, e que los rebelles a e l l fuessen bien punidos , e retornassen aquellos que partidos ne son a su obediencia e devocion. E por esto escrivimos con nuestras letras a l Rey de C a s t i e l l a , nuestro muy caro e muy amado sobrino, rogando que quiera sobre aquesto de algun buen remedio prevehir, car nos e a l Rey de S i c i l i a , nuestro muy caro primogenito, que aquesto ha sobiranament a coragon, h i entendemos ayudar assin con e l Padre Santo como en otra manera en todo lo que possible sera.
A note at the end of the let ter states that a copy of i t was sent to the Queen of Navarra, Dona Leonor de C a s t i l l a , with hermana replacing cormana. Per que vos rogamos con grant affeccion, rey muy caro e muy amado sobrino, que por honrra nuestra querades mandar a los ditos comendadores que cumplan luego tan tonst e l mandamiento e ordinacion del dito Padre Sancto a ellos feyto sobre las cosas desuso ditas , quar en otra manera e l dito Maestre no trobaria qui le emprestas o bestragues alguna quantia de moneda en las suyas necessidades, e convendria-le a b i v i r con grant vergonya de vos e nuestra, l a qual cosa devemos muyto esquivar.
Now a number of interesting considerations emerge from this corre-spondence. The f i r s t and most obvious point i s that these documents help to f i l l a notable lacuna i n our knowledge of that period of V i l l e n a ' s l i f e when i t was generally thought that he was i n Andalusia with Fernando de Antequera. The second point is that V i l l e n a undoubtedly took advantage of his v i s i t to Barcelona to mingle with the poets , scholars and writers of Martin's Court; we can be f a i r l y certain that he must have come into contact quite frequently with Bernat Metge who, at that time, was secre-tary to the king.
The t h i r d , and most important point , concerns the f i e s t a de l a Gaya Ciencia , held i n Barcelona, which V i l l e n a describes in. Riquer points out that u n t i l now i t has been generally considered that V i l l e n a f i r s t came to the Aragonese 4o Court in l4 l2 in the entourage of Fernando de Antequera, and that the f ies ta described i n the famous passage from the Arte de trovar took place during Fernando's reign as King of Aragon. Alvar Gomez de Castro, the sixteenth-century writer from Toledo, whose abridged and annotated version of the Arte de trovar i s the one which has come down to us, did not know of the documents which we have just examined, and which prove that V i l l e n a was i n Barcelona at least four years before l 4 l 2.
He did know probably through the Cronica de Juan I I , as Riquer suggests that V i l l e n a came to Aragon with Fernando in , and for that reason i t must have seemed l o g i c a l to conclude that the f i e s t a i n which V i l l e n a played such an im-portant part must have taken place during Fernando's reign. However, we now know that V i l l e n a not only enjoyed the friendship and support of Martin I , but that he was i n his Court in l4o8 and l40 Q.
As Riquer says, " s i leemos este pasaje Cdel Arte de trovar3 prescindiendo de las ediciones de Alvar Gomez no cabe duda de que l a f ies ta descrita por don Enrique de 3 0 V i l l e n a l a situaremos en e l reinado de Martinel Humano. As Don Fernando made his triumphant return from Antequera,. On June 28, l 4 l 2 , Don Fernando e l de Antequera was elected King of 41 Aragon by the compromisarios at Caspe, and when, on August 5, l 4 l 2 , he 32 set foot i n his new kingdom, Don Enrique de V i l l e n a went with him.
We must remember, however, that Don Fernando was elected, not unanimously, 33 but on a majority vote only, and that a Catalan faction of considerable power, unsympathetic to the idea of a Cast i l ian monarch i n Aragon, refused to accept the decision of Caspe and r a l l i e d to the support of their favour-i t e , Don Jaime or Jaume , Count of U r g e l l. Jaume d 'Urgel l ' s claim to the throne of Aragon was almost as strong as Fernando's. He was, moreover, a Catalan, and from a family older than the royal house i t s e l f.
History, however, has not treated him kindly , and he emerges from the pages of Ines MacDonald's account of Fernando's reign as a swashbuckling but p o l i t i c a l l y naive adventurer, completely dependent upon his equally incompetent advisers. Much of his conduct at this period can also be explained by the malign influence of his scheming and ambitious mother, the Dowager Countess of U r g e l l , Dofia Margarita, who goaded him con-t i n u a l l y with her uncompromising repetit ion of the motto she had invented: " F i l l , o r e i o no-res.
Although theoretical ly strong enough at the time of Fernando's e lec t ion, to seize the Crown of Aragon for himself, Jaume had by the summer of , allowed himself to be manoeuvred i n both a p o l i t i -cal and mil i tary sense into an indefensible posi t ion. F l u v i a , however, had underestimated the resistance which the towns would offer and, having f a i l e d to capture them, the Count was reduced to the much infer ior plan of making Balaguer his base, but keeping his forces moving in the v i c i n i t y of the c i t y , so that he could harass Fernando's armies and keep himself supplied with food from the r i c h lands of the plain of U r g e l l.
In the circumstances this was the only feasible alternative which remained, but Jaume at once discarded any chance of success by yielding to the emotional entreaties of his wife and his mother who begged him to remain with them i n the c i t y , rather than r i s k his l i f e i n the uncertainties of g u e r r i l l a warfare with the king's forces.
F luvia once more revealed his complete lack of mi l i ta ry acumen by supporting Dona Margarita and the Count's wife. So i t was that Jaume d 'Urgel l found him-sel f shut up i n Balaguer, a town well provided with both natural and a r t i -f i c i a l defences but, through lack of foresight and the sudden change of plan , most inadequately supplied with everything which a prolonged siege required. Throughout the entire period of the Count's r e b e l l i o n , Fernando had acted with a degree of patience which was in direct contrast to Jaume's impetuous and agressive posturing.
In this way he succeeded i n attracting the support of his subjects, as the Count succeeded i n losing i t. On August 19, l U l 3 , the Duke of Gandia, V i l l e n a ' s uncle, brought up a troop of some men-at-arms at his own expense, and a contingent of Valencians. By a slow process of bribery and bombardment, Fernando gradually weakened the defences and the morale of the town while he made preparations for a f i n a l attack at the end of September. Cotarelo speaks only b r i e f l y of this episode: "Salio e l Rey en Agosto.
Since the publication of his work, however, a copy of Alvar Garcia de Santa Maria's chronicle of the reign of Don Fernando has come to l i g h t , although i t is s t i l l unpublished and has not attracted 36 the attention i t deserves. During the preparations for the general assault on the town, Fernando suddenly began to have second thoughts about the size of the scaling-towers escalas or bastidas.
Doubtless he had unpleasant memories of the siege of Antequera when the bastida had been placed badly, f a i l e d to reach the , 37 top of the walls and was burned by the Moors with fuego de alquitran. To avoid a repeti t ion of this catastrophe, Don Fernando resolved to have the height of the walls measured. The task was entrusted to Don Enrique de V i l l e n a who, i n an attempt to put his book-learning to some pract ica l use and to add some s c i e n t i f i c sophistication to the arts of war, decided 44 to make the calculations with the aid of his astrolabe, just as modern surveyor would use a quadrant or a theodolite.
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No doubt considerations of personal security also influenced his decision to use the astrolabe, as i n this way he could remain at a r e l a t i v e l y safe distance from the truenos , lombardas and other pieces of primitive but potent a r t i l l e r y mounted on the ramparts of Balaguer. Unfortunately, as Alvar Garcia shows us, V i l l e n a had an imperfect grasp of the trigonometrical pr inciple behind the use of the astrolabe i n this fashion. E l rreyaviendo voluntad de l legar las vastidas a l C a s t i l l o del l a ciudad, mando a don Enrrique, e l que diximos en las ystorias antes desto que fue maestre de Calatraua, que fuese medir l a caua por que sy e l escala fuese corta que l a cregiesen antes que se llegasen a l a caba; e don Enrrique fue a medir l a caua del astrolabio.
Lleuo su astrolabio consygo e quiso medir las caua por su arte del astrolabio, e f a l l o que segun su medida que seria corta e l escala, e quando vino a l rrey dixo que sic gelo; e l rrey touo que obo hierro yerro en l a medida e que l a no sopo medir, e por ende e l mariscal Alvaro que l a mediese, e echaron encima de l a torre vn dardo atado con vna cuerda e sopieron e l altura de l a torre e medieron l a caua, e asy sacaron l a medida e fal laron que ' l escala que hera asaz luenga, e do e l rrey estaua enojado que avn tenia que ' l escala no l l e g a r i a , e le venieron desir que hera conplida, obo plazer e dixo a don Enrrique: Echad vuestro astrolabio en rremojo pues tan mal saco l a medida.
Nevertheless, he held out obstinately u n t i l the end of October, , by which time i t became obvious that he would be unable to defend the c i ty against the a l l -out attack which was so clearly imminent. Prepared to surrender, he was not unnaturally fearful for his l i f e , and sent his wife Dofia Isabel to beg the King for mercy.
Don Enrique de V i l l e n a is t h i r d on the l i s t of Caballeros de Aragon who, by the end of the month, had congregated i n Zaragoza for the coronation ceremonies; in a less conspicuous position among the notables Caballeros que de C a s t i l l a vinieron we f ind the name Ul of Ifiigo Lopez de Mendoza, Senor de Hita y Buitrago. This i s , I bel ieve, the earl iest date at which we can be sure that they met, and the future Marques de Santil lana's contacts with Enrique de V i l l e n a during their sojourn in the Aragonese Court must have been frequent and f r u i t f u l.
The coronation of Fernando de Antequera took place on Sunday, Febru-ary 1 1 , l U l U amid elaborate ceremonial and sumptuous feasting. The f e s -t i v i t i e s are described i n great d e t a i l by Alvar Garcia whose chronicle served as a basis for the Coronaciones de los serenissimos reyes de Aragon by h6 Jeronimo de Blancas , printed i n Zaragoza i n l 6 4 l.
The passages from Alvar Garcia transcribed by Blancas were for a long time the only extant portions of the o r i g i n a l chronicle, which explains why Cotarelo only mentions Alvar Garcfa i n connection with the coronation of Fernando. The ceremonies have dwell on them at great length here except to point out that V i l l e n a took part i n them and, during the banquet, served as cuchil lo and sobrecopa at the King's table. A word might be s a i d , however, about the pageants and the a l legor ica l spectacles which took place at the banquet i n the courtyard of the A l j a f e r i a.
A detailed description of them, based on Alvar Garcia's text , may be consulted i n N. Shergold's History of the 43 Spanish Stage and I do not wish to repeat i t here. Suffice i t to say that before each course of the enormous meal, the guests were treated to a juego or entrernes mounted on a lavish and complicated scenario. The banquet began — writes Shergold — with an entry of the gryphon, breathing f i r e and preceding dishes of roast peacock, and while the guests were eating the l a t t e r , God the Father moved the heavens , and a great cloud descended to earth, bearing an angel with a drawn sword who addressed verses to the King.
These reminded the monarch of his royal duties , and also expressed the hope that he would heal the schism i n the Church, and restore the Pope to Rome. The cloud then took the angel back to Heaven, after which each of the seven deadly sins in turn spoke a verse about his particular v i c e. Shergold points out i n a note that these verses have been attributed by some to Enrique de V i l l e n a. This is not quite correct ; the verses which have been attributed to V i l l e n a were those sung i n praise of the King by four f igures , representing Just ice , Truth, Peace and Mercy, which stood on the four towers of a "castle" which the King passed as he l e f t the Cathedral after the coronation ceremony.
The attribution of these verses to Don Enrique seems, then, to have been the invention of Bias Nasarre. However, this has not prevented i t from being repeated down to the present 46 day, in spite of the fact that Amador de los Rios, Cotarelo and others have pointed out the weakness of the supposition. Fernando reached Morella on July 1 , and the Pope arrived on July The following Sunday July 22 , the King prepared a banquet for the benefit of the Pope, the Cardinals and the entire Court.
As the King and his principales were to serve at the Pope's table , they ate earl ier i n Fernando's U8 quarters. It i s quite possible that at this meeting with Benedict XIII Fernando had occasion to discuss the marital status of Enrique de V i l l e n a , for i t was during the year iklh that the General Chapter of the Order of Calatrava met to declare n u l l and void V i l l e n a ' s election to the Maestragzo. His r i v a l , Don Luis Gonzalez de Guzman, was o f f i c i a l l y recognized as Maestre, and those members of the Order who continued to support V i l l e n a were pro nounced excommunicate.
As Rubio y Balaguer points out, " s i hemos de dar credito a las palabras del rey, l a h i s t o r i a de aquellas ruidosas divergencias conyugales se nos presentaria bajo luz mucho menos 52 desfavorable para e l famoso Don Enrique de lo que cuentan sus biografos. It is quite l i k e l y , therefore, that his swift return to the married state was an economic ne-cessi ty , and, u n t i l we can prove anything to the contrary, there seems to be l i t t l e reason for revising our or ig inal opinions of the s i tuation.
We do know, however, that the Pope anulled the divorce and ordered the estranged parties to l i v e together; "e quanto en uno duraron siempre vivieron mal 53 avenidos , adds the Croriica de Juan I I. Her plan was to poison Don Fernando and a l l the members of the Royal family, and to release her son, Jaume d ' U r g e l l , from the castle of Uruefia where he had been imprisoned for l i f e.
She had attempted to suborn Pero C a r i l l o de Escalante, who had been placed i n charge of the Count. Escalante, however, was not to be corrupted, and the king was informed of the intrigue. T y p i -c a l l y , before he decided to act , the King waited u n t i l he has acquired incontrovertible evidence against the Dowager Countess.
This reached him while he was holding Court at Montblanc. He promptly dispatched Diego de Vadil lo and the Infante Don Juan to Lerida to arrest the Countess, at which time further evidence, in the form of incriminating l e t t e r s , was uncovered.
Dona Margarita and her accomplices were t r i e d and convicted. The Dowager Countess was condemned to imprisonment in a castle near Valencia, and the Count's sisters were obliged to re t i re into a convent, a l l their possessions having been confiscated by the Crown. Enrique de V i l l e n a seems to have played a part in the t r i a l , as we f ind him named as a witness to the sentence proclaimed against Dona Margarita in the presence of the king on December 2 9 , iklk, i n the Bishop's Palace at Lerida.
It i s , I think, reasonable to assume that V i l l e n a accompanied the Court from Morella to Montblanc and thence to Valencia. He may even have i accompanied Fernando to Perpignan for the conferences with the Pope and the Emperor Sigismund which were intended to terminate the Schism. If this i s the case, we may be f a i r l y certain that he was with the a i l i n g Fernando when he l e f t Perpignan for Castile i n a l i t t e r towards the end of March, lkl6, and may even have been with the king when he died at Igualada near Barcelona on A p r i l 2. But we do not know.
There can be l i t t l e doubt, 50 however, that the death of his friend and protector must have "been a great blow to V i l l e n a , and must have greatly influenced, i f not actually caused, his decision to withdraw almost completely from public l i f e. In A p r i l , lUl7 , he was i n Valencia , at which time he informs us that "avia de estar poco en Valencia e dende entendia tomar mi camino para c a s t i l l a e tenia ya liados mis l i b r o s.
Don Sancho de Rojas , Archbishop of Toledo, intervened on his behalf, and V i l l e n a was granted the 'sefiorio of the town of Iniesta situated between M o t i l l a and Requena, just south of the main road 5 8 from Madrid to Valencia. This town, and his wife's v i l l a de Torralba were to become his pr inc ipal places of residence for the rest of his l i f e , spent largely beyond the public gaze i n the pursuit of knowledge.
His reputation as a scholar and collector of rare books was by now firmly established. In the summer of lUl8, King Alfonso of Aragon sent the convert Jewish poet, Pedro de Santa Fe, from Zaragoza to the residence of Don Enrique de V i l l e n a probably Torralba with the following l e t t e r : -Lo rey d'Arago e de S i c i l i a : Car oncle, sabents certament que vos havets un l l i b r e appellat i s tor ies Trogi i Ponpei affectam aquell molt haver per 5 0 que'n pugam translatar a fer-ne traure un latre per a nostre servir vos pregam axi affectuosament com podem que v i s t a l a present nos trametats aquell per Pere de Santafe, portador de l a present, lo qual per aquesta raho va a vos, e translatat vos manarem tornar, e ago no di la te ts s i 'ns desitjats servir e complaure.
Dada en Caragoca sots nostre segell secret a. Rex Alfonsus. A nostre car oncle don Henrich. Dominus rex mandavit mihi Paulo N i c o l a i. On March 7, , he was present when the 61 Court met i n Madrid to acknowledge the King's coming-of-age, "y desde 62 entonces — says Cotarelo — desaparece enteramente de l a esfera p u b l i c a.
However, since the publication of Cotarelo's study of V i l l e n a , two chronicles, considered lost since the sixteenth century, have come to l i g h t. As we shal l see, the information provided by these chronicles resolves most of the controversy which has surrounded the burning of V i l l e n a ' s books; they also t e s t i f y to V i l l e n a ' s part icipation i n a p o l i t i c a l act of considerable importance whose ultimate fa i lure would seem to shed a considerable amount of l ight upon V i l l e n a ' s exclusion from the affa i rs of the Cast i l ian Court.
With the majority of Juan II in l 4 l 9 , the Crown passed under the influence of powerful favourite , Alvaro de Luna, with his henchmen Juan Hurtado de Mendoza, the Mayordomo mayor, and the l a t t e r ' s nephew Mendoza, Senor de Almazan. In this group staged a successful palace coup i n Tordesi l las , Juan 52 Hurtado and his nephew being imprisoned. The Infante Don Enrique and his followers made their way to the King's chamber where they found him asleep, with Alvaro de Luna at his feet.
The king awoke muy turbado e enojado and the Infante announced: Senor, yo soy aqui venido por vuestro servic io , e por echar e arredrar de vuestra. This remark was doubtless intended to include Alvaro de Luna, but i t was found that the King's perfervid attachment to his favourite was so great.
The favourite was therefore permitted to remain with the King so that he could be made to prevail upon him to do the Infante's bidding. The King and Don Alvaro were removed to Talavera, where they remained v i r t u a l l y prisoners of the Infante de Aragon. However, Alvaro de Luna and those knights who remained f a i t h f u l to the King, succeeded in escaping with him. They made their way to V i l l a l b a with the Infante i n hot pursuit , but finding the place impossible to defend, they continued to the castle of Montalban which they took by surprise, thanks to the promptaction of Pedro C a r r i l l o , the author of the chronicle.
However, there was no food i n the castle and i t was necessary to send for provisions. The following day, Saturday, November 30, , the f i r s t batch of supplies was brought to the castle. Murgia, e Ynigo Lopez de Mendoga, senor de F i t a e de 53 Buitrago, f i j o del almirante don Diego Furtado, que a l a sazon era en l a casa del ynfante don Enrrique, con treynta o quarenta rrogines e tomaronla toda sic The same day saw the a r r i v a l of the Condestable Ruy Lopez Davalos, Pero Manrique and Garci Fernandez Manrique, each with some twenty or t h i r t y escuderos.
They pitched camp "fasta un t i r o de ballesta de Montal'aan. E fuese a donde abian asentado e l rea l e l condestable, e Pero Manrrique, e Gargi Fernandez Manrrique. E de t a l manera bedaron las biandas, que a l Rey daban por rracion vn quarto de carnero por l a mafiana, e dos pares de gallinas e medio cabrito por semejante en l a noche, e pan e bino lo que le podia abastar. E a todos los que dentro estaban no les consentian meter nenguna bianda. E segun l a poca bianda que tenian los que estaban dentro, de negesidad fueron muertos dos caballos, e fueron luego comidos.
The Infante informed Juan II that he was acting i n his majesty's best interests , that he understood that the King was being held i n Montalban against his w i l l , and would the King make his intentions known. The king assured the Infante that he had come to Montalban of his own v o l i t i o n , that there was nothing to be gained but his disfavour i f the siege continued, and requested the Infante kindly to withdraw. Advised thus of the King's wishes, and having learned that the Infante Don Juan was hastening to the King's support with a large army, the Infante Don Enrique judged i t prudent to retreat.
In , the Infante and his mayordomo, Garci Fernandez, were enticed from Ocana to Madrid where, on Sunday, June 14, they were arrested and imprisoned for 5h 63 their part i n the uprising. No doubt this unsuccessful conclusion to the coup of Tordesillas helps to explain why Villena spent at least the lat t e r half of i n , 69 Aragon. In he was in Torralba where he wrote the Tratado de l a Consolacion, and where, on September 6, he put the finishing touches to his Arte Cisoria.
His ' Expos ic ion del sa,lmo was completed on November 2 8 , , , TO , in Iniesta, and probably in the following year he wrote his Tratado de l a Fascinacion in Torralba. The legal heir to his considerable estates in Ribagorza was Enrique de Villena, but the inheritance was either given to or seized by the Infante Don Juan, now the King of Navarre. Villena's unsuccessful attempts to obtain r e s t i -tution are alluded to i n the letter of dedication to the King of Navarre which prefaces his translation of the Aeneid, begun on September 2 8 , As we have seen in the introductory chapter of this study, Villena also spent the period in translating the Divine Comedy, the Rhetorica ad Herennium, and i n writing otras obras menudas.
Somewhere between and he wrote, in Iniesta, his Epistbla a Suero de Quinones, and i n his Arte de Trovar. In December, , Villena was in Madrid, possibly in connection with the a r r i v a l on December 6 of the ambassadors from the King of France. Salieronlos a rrescebir e l condestable don Aluaro de Luna, e e l adelantado Pero Manrrique, e e l conde de Venabente don Rodrigo Alfonso Pimentel, e l conde de Castafieda don Gargi Fernandes Manrrique, e don Enrrique de Villena; perlados, el argobispo de Toledo don Jhoan de Luna, hermano del condestable, e don Pedro, nieto del rrey don Pedro, obispo de Osma.
The Croriica del Halcbnero t e l l s us that. Tanto, que no podia beuer con sus manos ni menearse de los p ies , que sus escuderos lo caualgauan e descaualgauan. Estando e l Rey en Madrid, miercoles quinze dias de dizienbre deste ano de m i l l e quatrocientos e treynta ' e quatro afios , murio a l i i don Enrrique de V i l l e n a , en e l monesterio de Sant Frangisco, donde estaua aposentado.
Este don Enrrique era f i j o de don Pedro, f i j o de don Alfonso, marques de V i l l e n a , e de dofia Juana, f i j a del rrey don Enrrique e l Vie jo. E fue casado con dofia Maria de Albornoz, f i j a del conde don T e l l o , senora de Alcoger e de Torralua e de Salmeron. E porque e l rrey don Enrrique, f i j o del rrey don Juan, le queriabien, f i z o l e conde de Cangas y Tineo. E despues que murio e l maestre de Caltraua don Gongalo Nunez de Gusman, este don Enrrique touo manera de se quitar de su muger, e fuele dado e l maestrazgo de Calatraua.
E dexo a Cangas e a Tineo. E despues que f a l l e s c i o e l rrey don Enrrique, con j u s t i g i a le fue tirado e l maestradgo de Calatraua, por ser casado; en t a l manera que no le quedo e l maestradgo nin e l condado. E despues que se vido dipuesto de lo vno y de lo otro, touo manera con su muger que se boluise a e l. E suplico a l Rey que le f iz iese alguna merged e limosna en que biuiese , pues de derecho e l marquesado de V i l l e n a era suyo, por quanto auia seydo del marques don Alfonso su abuelo.
E diole mas giento e cinquenta m i l l marauedis para su mantenimiento. Este don Enrrique fue muy grant sabio en todas giengias en espegial en l a Theologia e Nigromangia, e avn fue grant alquimista. Y con todo esto vino a tan grant menester, a l 56 tienpo que fa l lesgio non se f a l l o en su camara con que le pudiesen enterrar.
E e l maestro catolos, e f a l l o bien ginquenta volunes de l ibros de malas artes. E dio por consejo a l Rey que los mandase quemar. E l Rey dio cargo dello a l dicho maestro, e e l pusolo en esecugion, e todos ellos fueron quemados. It may be appropriate to make a few concluding remarks i n order to assess the extent to which the conclusions reached by V i l l e n a ' s previous biographers should be modified by the new information which we now possess about his l i f e.
In very general terms, V i l l e n a s t i l l emerges as a man of much learning, but with l i t t l e aptitude for the pract ica l necessities of l i f e. In matters of d e t a i l , however, we may do well to reconsider one or two points. It now seems f a i r l y clear that some of Perez de Guzman's statements must refer to the last ten years or so of V i l l e n a ' s l i f e , es-pecia l ly his remark, that V i l l e n a "fue avido en pequeria reputagion de los 75 reyes de su tienpo e en poca reverengia de los caval leros.
V i l l e n a enjoyed the friendship and support of Martin I of Aragon whose patronage of the Gaya Ciencia i s well known, and who was not averse to dabbling i n alchemical 76 experiments. His nephew, Alfonso,V, also appreciated his accomplish-ments as a scholar, as did Don Juan, King of Navarre, when he asked V i l l e n a 57 to provide him with a translation of the Aeneid.
It i s r e a l l y only after V i l l e n a ' s active intervention on the side of the Infante Don Enrique at the cerco de Montalban, following the ultimately unsuccessful gblpe de Tordesillas , that we have any indication of his having incurred the d i s -favour of the Cast i l ian court. The apparently complete withdrawal from public l i f e does not occur u n t i l , after which date most of his extant works were written. Almost a l l of them contain scarcely vei led references to his "curiales e familares ocupaciones" and the "adversidades de l a movible fortuna" which, i n several cases, seem to have prevented him from completing the works according to his or ig inal plan.
Perez de Guzman i s probably more accurate when he says that V i l l e n a was held "en poca reverencia de los cavalleros. Santi l lana's contacts with V i l l e n a , though largely undocumented, must have been considerably. For him V i l l e n a composed his Arte de trobar and trans-lated the Divine Comedy; his translation of the Aeneid also found i t s way into Santil lana's l i b r a r y. V i l l e n a ' s death was lamented by Santillana in a poem which, taking i t s inspirat ion from the f i r s t canto of the Inferno, and reca l l ing Dante's apotheosis of Vergi l i n the fourth canto of the same, i s probably unique i n the medieval vernacular l i terature of the Peninsula.
In i t the Muses lament over the death of Don Enrique whom they regard as the last and most distinguished p i l l a r of the Temple of Poetry. Even granted the customary hyperbole which such panegyrics required, the poem is s t i l l a powerful statement. V i l l e n a is exalted as a worthy successor to Dante, Petrarch, and the poets and sages of antiquity. Herein l i e s the o r i g i n a l i t y of the poem, for Santillana i s g lor i fy ing his friend i n 58 a manner which was t r a d i t i o n a l l y reserved for the poets of Class ica l Antiquity.
It is also, as. Another admirer was Juan de Mena who, i n his Laberinto de Fortuna, refers to V i l l e n a as "onra de Espana e del siglo presente. Mena laments the loss of V i l l e n a ' s books, "metidos a l avido fuego," but then embarksupon a vituperative attack against those who "escudrifian las dafiadas ar tes , " culminating i n a passionate request to Juan II to "facer destruir los falsos saberes. Did i t contain an implied c r i t i c i sm of the King, or did Mena f a i l to realize the apparent contradiction?
The simplest expla-nation would seem to be that Mena considered that the artes which V i l l e n a pursued were l i c i t a s rather than i l i c i t a s , which may suggest that he was acquainted with V i l l e n a ' s s c i e n t i f i c studies and therefore incl ined to dismiss as nonsense the rumours of Black Magic which must surely have 79 reached his ears.
Be that as i t may; the fact remains that both Santillana and Mena held V i l l e n a i n the highest esteem, and as his friends and admirers, lavished upon him much voluble praise. Mention of Juan de Mena brings us naturally to the question of the fate of V i l l e n a ' s book. It has been known for some time that the destruction 59 of part of V i l l e n a ' s l i b r a r y Cperhaps i n c l u d i n g some of h i s own works was not the r e s u l t of monkish obscurantism, but of r o y a l decree, and that Fray Lope de Barrientos was not quite the v i l l a i n of the piece.
The i m p l i - ' cations of Cibdarreal's Centori e p i s t o l a r i o w i l l not hold water, and, i n s p i t e of Amador de los Rios ' s p i r i t e d i f unconvincing defence of i t s authen-t i c i t y , the work must be considered at worst a forgery and at best un r e l i a b l e.
The Cronica de Juan II states that. En l o cual ansi mesmo parescio l a gran devocion que tu Senoria siempre tuvo a l a r e l i g i o n c r i s t i a n a. E puesto a que esto fue e es de l o a r , pero por otro respecto, en alguna manera, es bueno de guardar los dichos l i b r o s , tanto que estuviesen en guarda e en poder de buenas personas, f i a b l e s que no usasen de e l l o s , salvo que los guardase, a f i n que en algun tiempo podrian aprovechar a l o s sabios l e e r en l o s t a l e s l i b r o s para defension de l a fe e de l a r e l i g i o n c r i s t i a n a , e para confusion de los i d o l a t r a s e nigromantes.
Croniea d e l Halcdnero, we do know th a t he. Tate London: Tamesis Books Limited, 1 9 6 5 , p. Note that the Galindez version published in v o l. Juan de Mata Carriazo in Coleccion de Cronicas. This chronicle w i l l be referred to as Halconero in subsequent notes; the Refundicion de l a cronica del halconero by Lope de Barrientos, edited by Mata Carriazo in v o l.
IX of the same collect ion w i l l be referred to i n subsequent notes as Refundicion. Generaciones y Semblanzas, ed. See also Cotarelo, pp. This was a t i t l e which hitherto had not been used i n Cast i le. Again, this was the f i r s t time the t i t l e had been used in Cast i le.
Cotarelo, p. The importe de l a reclamacion was 60, f l o r i n s ; the Marquisate was worth , doblas in Zuri ta , Anales de Aragon, v o l. Quoted by Cotarelo, p. See Cotarelo, p. Hal conero, p. As we have seen, the l e g a l i t y of the Crown's confiscation of the V i l l e n a estates was somewhat doubtful, a fact that the king must have realised f u l l w e l l.
It may be s igni f i cant , as Hartzenbusch points out, that we have no contemporary information concerning this i l l i c i t relation-ship; the words of the chronicle are open to various interpretations. Antonio Rubio y Lluch, Documents per l ' h i s t o r i a de l a cultura catalana mig-eval, v o l. II Barcelona, , pp. See Cotarelo, pp. Cronica de Juan I I , afio I , cap. Higinio Angles, v o l. Riquer, art. Obras de Bernat Metge, p. Misce lanea. I transcribe the relevant passage from the Arte de trobar; the additions by Alvar Gomez are enclosed in square brackets.
E fizieronse en este tiempo muy asenaladas obras, que fueron dinas de corona. Despues de muerto e l rey don Martin, por los debates que fueron en e l Reyno de Aragon sobre l a sucesion, ovieron de par t i r algunos de los mantenedores e los principales del ' consistorio para Tortosa y ceso lo del collegio de Barcelona. CFue despues elegido e l rey don Fernando, en cuyo servicio vino don Enrrique de V i l l e n a , e l qual procure? Las materiasque se proponian en Barcelona estando a l i i don Enrrique:3 Algunas vezes loores de Santa Maria, otras de armas, otras de amores e de buenas costumbres.
E llegado e l dia pref igido , congregavanse los mantenedores e trobadores en e l palagio donde yo posava, y de a l i i partiamos ordenadamente con los vergueros d e l a n t e. Fernando fue en e l otoho de , a Barcelona, a prestar e l juramento como su Conde, acompanandole D.
Enrique, como e l propio afirma," at which time, Cotarelo implies, V i l l e n a undertook the renovation of the Cbnsistorios de l a gaya ciencia which had been allowed to lapse since the death of Martin I. However, V i l l e n a ' s "affirmation" "fue despues elegido e l rey don Fernando, en cuyo servicio vino don Enrrique de V i l l e n a , e l qual procuro l a reforma-gion del c o n s i s t o r i o.
Unfortunately, I was late in rea l i s ing the importance of this MS for our knowledge of Enrique de V i l l e n a , and was unable to consult i t in s i t u in Par is. Inexpli -cable delays in obtaining a photocopy have made i t impossible to incorporate a l l the material on V i l l e n a contained in the MS in this chapter, and I have therefore r e l i e d on MacDonald's history of Fernando de Antequera, based largely on Alvar Garcia's chronicle, for details of a certain epidsode in V i l l e n a ' s l i f e.
Bastidas were scaling-towers, whereas escalas were more probably scaling-ladders; Alvar Garcia seems to use both words synonymously. I follow MacDonald's transcription of the text, but borrow the punctuation from Millas V a l l i c r o s a , "Medicion de alturas en tiempo de Don Enrique de V i l l e n a , " Bol. Millas inexplicably reads escasso for hierro ; MacDonald confuses e l mariscal Alvaro with Alvar Garcia himself — i t is in fact Don Alvaro de A v i l a. Mil las pp. Cotarelo, pp. Oxford, at the Clarendon Press, 1 9 6 7 , pp. Sainz de Robles in the introduction to his ed.
Vida espanola eh l a epoca gotica Barcelona, 1 9 4 3 , p. Los doze trabajos de Hercules, ed. Margherita Morreale, p. See note 2. Refundicion, p. The letter is dated December 13, ; in i t Valera states that he would have written to Villena much earlier, but that Villena was in Aragon: "Lo qual, senor, antes de agora suplicara a vuestra mered, salvo porque lo mas deste tienpo aveys sido en Aragon. But see part II of this chapter for a possible revision of this dating. There is a slight problem in the dating of this work which I shall deal with in part II of this chapter.
She stayed behind with some friends. This'll delay my trip a long time. I have to set my watch back; it's very fast. My watch loses ten minutes a day. I think we're getting behind in this work. The backwardness of that country's well known. The bullet pierced his arm. I've crossed the Atlantic several times. A truck stopped crosswise in the middle of the road.
He doesn't dare to tell me. What a horrible thing! An automobile ran over him. If you want to do a good job, don't rush through it. We can't tolerate such an outrage. Three pedestrians were victims of an accident. So much noise rattles me. He was stunned and didn't know what to answer.
We can still get there on time. Even now it wouldn't be possible. He hasn't come yet. Even if he doesn't come we'll have to begin. Though I wasn't born in the country, I know it very well. He left the class because he was feeling sick. Is there enough room in the car for everybody? Which is cheaper, the bus or the street car?
He couldn't maintain his authority. They reported it to the authorities. The car moved very slowly. We're not making any progress in our work. The floods ruined the crops. He agreed to what they said. He's a very promising young man. He gets ahead of everybody in his work. He shamed his whole family by his conduct. After he said it, he was ashamed. The mechanic repaired the damage without delay. The shipment was damaged by the rain. We have to notify the police. I'm warning you for the last time. They revived the fire by putting on more wood. Why don't you keep your eyes open?
Step lively; it's very late. Wake up; you're half asleep. I want to help him carry the packages.
Don't smoke on an empty stomach. Let's take that chance. He likes games of chance. He chose them at random. This would embarrass anyone. When I told him that he was very much embarrassed. The sugar industry. The enemy suffered many casualties. There was a general fall in prices. He dropped out of the club. For lack of payment they dropped him from the subscription list. Let's go down the stairs slowly. The temperature fell. Bring the suitcase down from my room.
Will you help me take the suitcases down from the rack? They saw us as they were getting off the train. He bent over to tie his shoe. I want a low table. He's shorter than his brother. They were speaking in a low voice. Let's put the basses on the left. The temperature's fallen below zero.
The superintendent lives on the ground floor. What's my bank balance this month? Don't rock in the chair; it's going to break. Three shots were heard. He had three bullet wounds in his chest. This bucket leaks. They're giving tickets free. He tried to get her on the phone without success. Can I cash my check in this bank?
All the benches are taken. The skirt had three red bands. He wore a red sash across his chest. That band gives me a headache. A gang of thieves works these parts. Please bathe the children. I'm going to take a bath. It's very pretty and besides it's cheap. They sell things very cheap in this store. There's a sale today in that department store. He eats too much. Don't talk nonsense.
What he did was an outrage. I like her an awful lot. How many times have you made the trip by boat? We need an iron bar. The spectators cheered the players on. See bastar enough! He dicho que te calles. That's enough! I told you to shut up! Do you have enough money? She's a rather pretty woman. There wasn't enough food for all. The suit's made of very rough material. Please beat the eggs. He defeated his enemy. They haven't unpacked their trunks yet. He doesn't appreciate favors.
The profits were very high. He doesn't know the difference between good and evil. He spoke very well. The beer's very cold. He has a great deal of property. He's rich rather than poor. All right or Correct. Pay close attention to what I tell you. Have you bought the tickets? Give me the money in fives and tens. You have to put a screen in front of the door. I wish I'd bought a white dress! There are white people, Indians, and Negroes in this city. They hit the target. Leave this sheet blank. They hit the mark three times. The soldiers had target practice in the morning. He didn't open his mouth all afternoon.
The subway entrance is on the corner. The child's sleeping on his stomach. He was lying on his back on the beach. What an embarrassing situation that was! What sultry weather we're having! What a shameful action! Blow the horn so that car'll let us pass. I'm out of breath. Give me that iron ball. We bought some tennis balls. There was a crowd of people at the entrance of the theater. She carried a silk purse. I need a paper bag to put it in. I don't know what the quotations are on the exchange today. They used a pump to take out the water.
The bomb destroyed three houses. It struck like a bombshell! Where is there a filling station? Se puso una bomba. He got drunk [ Am ]. Three bulbs have burned out. Thank you for your kindness. Please wait a moment. It's dirt-cheap. He was lying on the bed. Be careful, don't throw away those papers. They've fired him. Look how that ball bounces.
I want a can of tomatoes. When he heard it he jumped. The theater was jammed. Be careful, it's a fierce bull. He got very mad. I don't like this paper; it's too shiny. He gave her a diamond bracelet. Let's drink to your health! He's always joking. I said it as a joke. He takes everything lightly. He's abrupt in his way of speaking. That's a very good car.
It was a good opportunity. I'm not feeling very well. Bueno, nos veremos a las cinco. All right, we'll meet at five. He gave it to me willingly. Good morning. They made a terrible racket. He went out with a bundle of clothes in his hand. He has a swelling on his head. As soon as he saw what he had to do, he ducked out.
They were making fun of him. Put these letters in the mail box. He's a perfect gentleman. Here's your bill, sir. She wears her hair loose. Nothing else will fit in the trunk. The piano won't go through that door. There's no doubt that he's English. That child has a very large head. He was the leader of the movement. You have to use your brains in this work. He plunged into the water head first. Business is in a mess. He never loses his head. Ese proyecto no tiene pies ni cabeza. There's no rhyme or reason to that plan. From end to end.
We can't leave any loose ends. They passed the Cape of Good Hope. He has corporal's stripes. They put an end to the conversation. I know the story from beginning to end. They carried out the plan right away. Take this junk out of here. Every day he says something different. Every one paid for his own meal. He asks me for it every time he sees me.
A heavy rain fell. He dropped to his knees. The suit's becoming to him. His birthday falls on Sunday. He was taken sick a few days ago. I didn't realize it until much later. She fell down the stairs. Be careful, don't drop the tray. He was lame after the fall. The opposition of the House caused the fall of the government. He gave her a box. He put a lot of money in the savings bank. They keep their jewelry in the safe.
Look and see how much the cash register rings up. We have to see how much cash we have on hand. I'm going to buy a pack of cigarettes. They've lost the key to the drawer. They received a box of books. She turned him down. They flunked him in geometry. He got a cramp while he was swimming. The dagger penetrated to his heart. I got home drenched. He pulled his hat down to his eyes. Let's figure out the cost of the trip. Please heat the water. They warmed themselves in the sun.
He's had a fever for the past few days. Is this good material? Be careful, the soup's very hot. Why are you so quiet? He kept quiet while we were talking. He kept the truth from us. Shut up! You're talking too much. Se callaron de repente. All of a sudden they stopped talking. What street do you live on? I had no choice but to throw him out. When his business failed he was left penniless. We're in a blind alley. There was a calm after the storm. He takes his time when he works. These pills will ease the pain.
He didn't calm down until much later. I don't like the heat. It's very warm today. I'm warm. Everything he's saying is slander. What size shoe do you wear? I'm going to chock the wheels so the car won't move. Please make my bed. He's been confined to bed for the past three months. What kind of a camera do you have? They were talking together like old pals. The maid hasn't made up the room yet.
Ask the waitress for the menu. I want to reserve a first-class stateroom. He hasn't changed a bit since I saw him. Can you change a ten-peso bill for me? Has there been any change in policy? Do you have any change? What's the rate of exchange on the dollar today? I'll give you this book in exchange for the other one. He's very fond of walking. You have to move cautiously in this matter. Is the road all right to drive on? I don't know how to go about getting it.
They started out the following day. He was in his shirt sleeves. The soldiers will soon return to camp. I didn't hear how many times the clock struck. We lived in the country for many years. She found her first gray hair. She has a lot of gray hair. We passed through the Panama Canal. The boat was approaching the English Channel. They brought us a basket of fruit. There are tennis courts in this park. What's the latest song hit? Light the candle. Give me a light for my cigarette. They decided to exchange prisoners. I'm tired. This man's very tiresome. It's a very tiring job. She gets tired quickly.
He's always harping on the same string. I want to learn that song. The tenor sang very well tonight. I'll have to tell it to him straight from the shoulder. How much do I owe you? He's a singing teacher. I like folk songs. Stand the book on edge. A lot of sugar cane is grown in Cuba. He carried a cane. They have to fix the water pipe; it's clogged. He bought a double-barreled shotgun. Have you seen the Grand Canyon? He wears a Spanish cape.
The door needs another coat of paint. Poor people, they're on the downgrade! This tank has a capacity of thirty liters. He's a very capable business man. I'd like to talk to the foreman. It's a room large enough for a library. He's not capable of such a low trick. I've been told that he's a very competent person. The company has a capital of a million dollars.
They took a trip to the capital. I've read only the first three chapters. Don't pay any attention to her whims. She has a very pretty face. I don't understand the words on the face of the coin. He had to face the music. He's a man of very good character. Everything she does shows she has character.
You have to put more coal in the stove. They were splitting their sides. He doesn't have enough money to travel. This mule can't carry a heavier load. It's a cargo ship. They're taking the freight out of the car. They loaded the truck. The battery has to be charged. The cavalry charged the enemy. I'm charging this amount to your bill. He was very affectionate with his parents. My best regards to your family. I usually eat meat once a day. This cold weather gives me goose flesh. Do you want beef or pork? The objective is over there. We are counting on the traffic signals to protect and guide us on our way.
The cars, our archrivals, have been stopped by our ally, the red light. If we want to, we can jump with joy. We have arrived! What else? Scorpions, eagles. GIRL 2 Turtles. There are also turtles, very good. There are also cats. IKER My sister is a horse. To Iker Get up, now! IKER Tito is a mosquito, one of those that never stops bugging you… even at night. No, otherwise, what happened to me the other day will happen to you, too… Remember what happened with the cookies. IKER What would they say if they knew my secret? Yes, look. IKER But, why? IKER And why can that boy get through? BOY 5 Because this is our territory.
IKER Leave him alone! IKER My mom is a parrot, like all mothers. BOY 5 Hey, hey, hey, hey, this can go through. IKER Hey, give me my ball! Poor baby! BOYS Dance! Ballerina girl! BOY 5 The baby girl is going to cry. BOY 3 Do you want it?
Do you want it? BOY 4 Ah, poor baby. Come here! BOY 5 Four eyes, baby four eyes, you want it? Come on, come and get it! BOY 3 He looks like a zombie! BOY 5 No, the hot water heater exploded near him! IKER Ahhhhh!!! I was just about to give it back to you. BOY 6 Hey, your hair is really cool. IKER Ah, thanks. BOY 6 What do you do to make it stay like that? I can even put things in it. BOY 6 Wow! BOY 6 Well, yeah. Do you want to play soccer? The scarecrow wondered why no one wanted to be his friend. The crow was shivering and hungry. The scarecrow decided to take care of him.
After several days, the blind crow got better. They were evil and despicable beings, monsters. Once again, the scarecrow had no friends. He woke his master and told him that he wanted a different job. He no longer wanted to scare birds. He told them that his scarecrow had come to life, which could only be the work of the devil. His friends told him that the villagers were burning a windmill because a scarecrow with a very long scarf was trying to hide there. The blind crow explained that he was the good scarecrow, the one who had saved his life.
Moved by his story, the crows tried to save the scarecrow. It was already too late. He worked on a wheat field. With no one to talk to, the days and nights seemed eternal. The only thing he could do was watch the birds. Every time they passed by, he would say hello to them. But they never responded; it was as if they were afraid of him. One day, the scarecrow broke the rules. From the highest point, they scattered the ashes through the air. The wind carried the ashes over the entire region. The ashes flew alongside the birds, and in this way, the scarecrow was never alone again, because his ashes now flew with his new friends.
In memory of the tragic death of the scarecrow, the blind crow and all of his friends decided to dress in mourning. Therefore, in a way, it came, well, it came from inside of me through my genetic code. I really had so little time to, to practice, because I needed so, so much time, so many hours to study. I think that it is one of the most, most powerful instruments. And when you see someone who comes up and has to interpret a piece, someone who is about to play the piano, and it really is… is imposing for you to have to sit in front of such a grand instrument.
But it was in high school where it all started. I did my high school studies at the same time as the three years of preparatory studies here at the music school. MAN 4 And, you are truly letting them decide for you. MAN 5 There are 52 million young people in Mexico. MAN 2 These elections will be the most hardfought in the history of our country. MAN 9 Vote! MAN 10 Come on, vote. Se pueden observar las piedras incandescentes, sobre todo en la noche Hay para todos los gustos Un buen momento para visitar las aguas termales es a media tarde o durante la noche. Para Flash cultura, soy Alberto Cuadra.
Los espero en otra aventura de Flash cultura. Pura vida. Pero hoy vamos a hablar de algo que no se puede ver en la superficie de esta ciudad. O los camiones, microbuses y taxis. O sea todas las historias O sea, si no vienes leyendo, si no vienes haciendo nada, ves a alguien y voyeuristamente [sic] te armas la historia de toda su vida. Viajamos diariamente para nuestro trabajo, buscando empleo, y yo creo que es importante este transporte Pero antes de irnos, vamos a repasar lo que aprendiste hoy.
Todos quieren llegar al trabajo a tiempo. Todos van con prisas. No hay espacio en las calles, en los buses, en los trenes. Los autobuses y los trenes van tan llenos que casi no se puede respirar Veamos lo que piensan Es que llevamos nosotros Para comprar el pan, para los museos, para ir al cine sobre todo. Todo lo que sea cultura, siempre hay cola.
Nos levantamos pronto para llegar al puesto de trabajo. Es una distancia muy grande. Luego son demasiadas horas de trabajo, y llegas a casa por la noche y te espera la familia, la casa Pero algunos prefieren simplemente venir a tomar una siesta No hay que molestarles Hola, Patricia O puedes remar en un bote en el estanque De momento te veo como solo. El Medina Mayrit ofrece tres salas con aguas a diferentes temperaturas. Ahora me encuentro en la sala caldarium, con agua tan calentita y deliciosa Espero que hayas disfrutado en esta singular aventura de Flash cultura. Ahora, repasemos lo que has aprendido hoy.
Bienvenidos a otra fabulosa aventura de Flash cultura. Nos encontramos nuevamente en Quito, Ecuador, ciudad situada a unos 2. Ahora estamos en la Colina del Panecillo, un mirador desde el cual puedes observar toda la ciudad de Quito. Pero hoy vamos a hablar de algo que nos afecta a todos.
El trabajo, por supuesto. Uno de tus temas favoritos. Hoy conoceremos a varias personas en sus trabajos y las peculiaridades que definen sus puestos de trabajo. La madera es un elemento muy noble con el que se puede hacer cualquier cosa. Soy la jefa. Esto es precisamente lo que hacen muchas de las personas que trabajan en Klein Tours, una agencia de viajes especializada en excursiones por todo el territorio del Ecuador.
Aman su trabajo y se desenvuelven de una manera muy profesional. Muy bienvenidos a otra aventura de Flash cultura. Te invito a conocerlo. Vamos a conocer su obra. Fue pintada entre y Su estilo, sin embargo, era radicalmente diferente. Tanta historia del arte, tanto talento, tantas pinturas. Vamos a repasar lo que hemos aprendido hoy. Soy Diego Palacios. La isla que visitaremos hoy tiene casi cuatro millones de habitantes.
Esto significa que el Congreso tiene autoridad y control sobre la isla, como el caso del Distrito de Columbia. Todo esto sin pagar impuestos federales, pues en la isla se pagan impuestos locales. Hay opiniones de todas clases. Lo que hay es que tratar de mejorar el estado libre asociado de Puerto Rico. Costa Rica in Central America. In the area surrounding the volcano, at distinct locations, there are volcanic hot springs—another natural wonder.
Caution is advised, especially in the hottest pools. Each spa offers varying temperatures and depths, and some pools that also vary in mineral content. A good time to visit the hot springs is mid-afternoon, or at night. Here there are over a hundred volcanoes. For a long time, the volcano was considered inactive until, in , it erupted and destroyed an entire town. Now this volcano is constantly active. Our guide will take us to the foot of the volcano where we can walk over the lava field created by the eruption.
At night, tourists can listen in bed without missing one second of volcanic activity. You can see incandescent rocks, especially at night Listen to the volcano! Until next time, pura vida! Here we are in the Bosque de Chapultepec, in the middle of the city and one of the busiest places. Can you guess what is hidden beneath this enormous park? CARLOS Underneath the park and throughout the city, there is a large network of trains and tunnels that makes life easier for the inhabitants of the Distrito Federal.
For just 18 U. Incredible, right? This transportation system has stations distributed along eleven lines, which run through every section of the city. CARLOS Some of the stations serve only one line and others are called transfer stations, because you can change trains to go to different points in the city. CARLOS In the subway there are aboveground stations that are at street level, others that are elevated, and the majority underground, such as Insurgentes, where the first Metro trip departed in CARLOS Something very important about the Metro is that it is connected with the rest of the transportation systems that serve the 24 million inhabitants of Mexico City.
Or the buses, microbuses, and taxis. GIRL I take the subway every day. Every morning and afternoon to go to school, and regularly to visit friends or family. I mean all the stories We ride daily for our work, looking for work—and I believe that this transportation is important. It is the safest at the national and worldwide level. Not for nothing, the Metro is considered the cheapest in the world and one of the most efficient because of the number of riders it carries.
What stress? In Madrid you can have a phenomenal time! Everyone wants to get to work on time. Everyone is in a hurry. Many drivers get angry easily. And the traffic police try to control them What did you do? Since what time have you been here? KIDS Since two in the morning. You slept here, to get tickets for this show? GIRL 1 Yes. And yesterday we were here until three in the afternoon and we ended up fifteen spots short of the door.
BOY Well, a little bit To buy bread, for museums, especially for the movies. Anything to do with culture always has a line. We get up early to get to work. Then, the work day is too long, and you get home at night and your family, the house are waiting, but, well MAN 2 Well, I have a dog waiting, too. I have a dog named Kurro that is phenomenal Thanks to him, apart from the stress of Madrid, he helps to relax you and take a little walk, right?
More bearable. MAN 1 Excuse me. The end of the line is over there, at the end. MAN 1 Not much, ten little minutes. Something like that. MAN 1 Listen! Excuse me! This is the sala frigidarium But some prefer simply to come take a nap Sorry, sorry. Hi, Patricia Many get together with friends to talk Or you can row boats in the pond If you want to get a massage, you can get one here And you can even consult a fortune-teller, who will tell you the good and bad things that will happen to you in the future. Right now I see you alone.
For the time being there may be a dark-haired woman but there will be a break-up soon She is not your soul mate. Built as an authentic hammam, or Arab bath, Medina Mayrit has the original Arabic name that was used to designate the place that we know today as Madrid. Here they serve a wide variety of teas, infusions, and smoothies, which you can accompany with sweets or Arab pastries. Mmm, delicious! There is also a restaurant whose cuisine blends Arab, Jewish, and Castilian cultures in dishes such as eggplant in honey or lamb couscous.
I could spend the whole day here. I hope you have enjoyed this unique Flash cultura adventure. Here you can take a nap, get together with friends, get a massage, exercise See you next time! Welcome to another fabulous Moreno street, beneath the Presidential Palace in the center of Quito. Ecuador, a city located about 2, meters above sea level, that is, some 9, feet. The highest big city in the United States is Denver, just 5, feet [high]. Therefore, Quito is one of the capitals with the highest elevation in the world. Guess what it is Work, of course. One of your favorite subjects. Daily, Business, Extra!
Do you think that they like them? Wood is a very noble material with which you can do anything. We work from five thirty in the morning to eight thirty at night I do like it. I have the most wonderful job in the world! MAN Who would enjoy working with this huge hat? Imagine that you could travel to exotic locales while you work. This is exactly what many employees do at Klein Tours, a travel agency that specializes in excursions throughout the country of Ecuador. How are you? Welcome to another adventure of Flash cultura. Today we are in Madrid, the capital of Spain, a city full of history, tradition, and culture.
La maja vestida is one of the most talked about and controversial works in art history, along with its companion piece, La maja desnuda The Nude Maja. Madrid is an effervescent city, full of energy, with a sumptuous and exclusive offering of hotels, restaurants, fashion, architecture, theater, sports, flamenco, and especially… art! From here, you can get to three of the most important museums in Madrid: the Prado, the Reina Sofia and the Thyssen-Bornemisza. It contains pieces from the twelfth to the nineteenth century. Apparently, it deals with a domestic scene in which we see in the foreground the Princess Margarita of Austria, surrounded by her maids of honor, or female attendants.
Behind them are three court servants. The masterful play on perspectives and the contrasts of light give this composition a three dimensional effect that is superbly realistic. Observe, for example, the dog. Nowadays, it is dedicated to contemporary art.
Reina Sofia Museum is divided into two floors. On the first, we find works painted from the beginning of the twentieth century until , the end of the Spanish Civil War. The first thing that draws our attention is its enormous size: it measures eight meters long and three and a half meters high. I like the colors a lot, too.
It gives an impression of horror. In his paintings, everything seems like a dream. How strange, right? The paintings in this museum come from an extraordinary private collection that complements the old works of art in the Prado Museum and the modern art in the Reina Sofia Museum. In , the museum opened its doors. Exhibited in its rooms are over a thousand pieces of art from the thirteenth to the twentieth century.