La Puissance contre les Pouvoirs Danti-percée (French Edition)

L’invisibilité du tort et le tort de l’invisibilité.
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In particular, it recommends certain precautions, steps and strategies that donors and their partners need to take into consideration when promoting reintegration through development cooperation. Rule of law—based criminal justice responses to terrorism are most effectively ensured when they are practiced within a criminal justice system capable of handling ordinary criminal offenses while protecting the rights of the accused and when all are equally accountable under the law.

Building the capacity of weak criminal justice systems to safeguard mutual rights and responsibilities of governments and their citizens is essential for the alleviation of a number of conditions conducive to violent extremism and the spread of terrorism. A new wave of multilateral counterterrorism initiatives has the opportunity to recalibrate how criminal justice and rule of law—oriented counterterrorism capacity-building assistance is delivered to developing states with weak institutions.

This policy brief argues that aligning counterterrorism capacity-building agendas within a framework informed by the Paris Principles and the development cooperation experience could greatly enhance the effectiveness and sustainability of criminal justice and rule of law capacity-building assistance in general and in preventing terrorism specifically.

This paper examines the strengths and weaknesses of constitutional choices made after conflict, drawing upon comparative studies of six constitutions and peace agreements. The paper attempts to synthesize the practical lessons drawn from the cases, with a focus on i the constitution-making process; ii the extent of reliance on executive and geographical power-sharing; iii the viability of checks and balances; iv the electoral model; v the role of political parties in the transition; and vi issues of implementation.

To view this publication, please follow this link. This Index provides governments and citizens with information on how their defence ministries and armed forces compare to others in tackling defence corruption. It measures the degree of corruption risk and vulnerability in government defence establishments — the defence ministry, the armed forces, and other government institutions in that country such as auditing institutions that may influence levels of corruption risk in the sector.

It forms a basis for reform for concerned governments, and serves as a tool to identify where to concentrate efforts. The needs assessment is built on desk research, interviews, and a series of local stakeholder consultations conducted in Novi Sad, Kragujevac, Novi Pazar, Bujanovac and Belgrade in the course of March and April They are based on international including regional and national law, standards, good practices, and the writings of experts. They address national security—rather than all grounds for withholding information. All other public grounds for restricting access should at least meet these standards.

Security sector reform SSR is a relatively new concept that now shapes international programmes for development assistance. Recognizing that it is often state security institutions themselves that threaten the security of individuals and society, whether through inefficiency, unprofessionalism, inadequate state regulation, corruption or human rights violations, SSR focuses on the sound management and accountability of the security sector consistent with the principles and practices of good governance.

The objective of SSR is to achieve efficient and effective security institutions that serve the security interests of citizens, society and the state, while respecting human rights and operating within the rule of law and under effective democratic control. Frank Schimmelfennig analyzes the history of the enlargement process and develops a theoretical approach of 'rhetorical action' to explain why it occurred.

While rationalist theory explains the willingness of East European states to join the NATO and EU, it does not explain why member states decided to admit them. Using original data, Schimmelfennig shows that expansion to the East can be understood in terms of liberal democratic community building. Drawing on the works of Jon Elster and Erving Goffman, he demonstrates that the decision to expand was the result of rhetorical action.

Candidates and their supporters used arguments based on collective identity, norms and values of the Western community to shame opponents into acquiescing to enlargement. This landmark book makes an enormous contribution to theory in international relations and to the study of European politics. The subject of learning lessons is fraught with difficulties, not least because lessons,like beauty, are often in the eye of the beholder. Army War College discussing the future of hard and soft power in military operations. In most security sector institutions, women constitute a small minority of the personnel.

Unwelcoming working environments discourage recruitment and retention of women, and thus create a vicious circle that perpetuates their minority status. At the same time, female security sector staff associations have multiplied, promoting networking and offering mutual support among members. Research for this paper focused on 67 international, national, regional, and local female security sector associations and networks in the military, police, corrections, justice system, fire and emergency services, immigration services, and in national security bodies and private security companies from around the world.

It introduces the reader to the breadth and depth of new technologies that are currently available or could potentially be available to monitor and evaluate including measure and disseminate results of peacebuilding programmes. More specifically, the paper focuses on exploring the application of the following ICTs: mobile technology, social media, big data, the digitzation of surveys, and tools to better visualize data. Local ownership is widely considered to be one of the core principles of successful Security Sector Reform SSR programmes.

Nonetheless, there remains a gap between policy and practice. This article examines reasons for this gap, including concerns regarding limited capacity and lack of expertise, time and cost constraints, the allure of quantifiable results and quick wins, and the need to ensure that other principles inherent to SSR are not disregarded. In analysing what is meant by local ownership, this article will also argue that, in practice, the concept is narrowly interpreted both in terms of how SSR programmes are controlled and the extent to which those at the level of the community are actively engaged.

This is despite policy guidance underscoring the importance of SSR programmes being inclusive and local ownership being meaningful. It will be argued that without ensuring meaningful and inclusive local ownership of SSR programmes, state security and justice sector institutions will not be accountable or responsive to the needs of the people and will, therefore, lack public trust and confidence. The relationship between the state and its people will be weak and people will feel divorced from the decisions that affect their security and their futures.

All this will leave the state prone to further outbreaks of conflict. This article will suggest that the requisite public confidence and trust in state security and justice sector institutions, and ultimately, the state itself, could be promoted by SSR programmes incorporating community safety structures.

Recent events in Mali, Libya, Syria, Afghanistan, Iraq, and elsewhere demonstrate that building professional indigenous forces is imperative to regional stability, yet few success stories exist. Liberia suffered a year civil war replete with human rights atrocities that killed , people and displaced a third of its population. This monograph explores the theory and practice behind the successful disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration DDR of the legacy military and security sector reform SSR that built the new one.

It also considers some of the benefits and difficulties of contracting out the making of militaries. This is significant since the private sector will probably participate increasingly in security sector reform. The monograph concludes with 28 concrete recommendations for practitioners and 6 recommendations for the U. Army on how to expand this capability. Finally, this monograph is written by a practitioner for practitioners.

To access the article, follow this link. Since the attacks of September 11, , and the subsequent declaration of the "Global War on Terror" GOWT , US international security assistance has increased substantially, with billions of dollars going to support security forces in Afghanistan, Iraq, and other "frontline" states. The United States has also adopted a new approach to security assistance, called security sector reform SSR. In principle, SSR moves security assistance well beyond the traditional "train and equip" approach and takes the physical security of the state's population and protection of human rights from the sidelines to mid-field.

In practice, US-supported SSR efforts often continue to focus primarily on training and equipping military and police forces, especially in connection with counter-insurgency and counter-terrorism operations. In Iraq and Afghanistan, reliance on the US military and private contractors to plan and implement US SSR efforts has strongly reinforced the focus on operational capacity over accountability to civilian authority and respect for human rights.

Private contractors engaged in SSR have been involved in well-publicized abusive practices, including the killing of unarmed civilians. Rather than directly implement changes necessary for SSR, these advisors must persuasively articulate suggestions to their local counterparts. Ministerial and governmental advising is not the exclusive purview of any one entity.

Rather, advising is undertaken by a diverse range of individuals from U. These actors have correspondingly diverse objectives and approaches to SSR; without coordination or consensus on SSR programming, advisors may find themselves working at cross-purposes. Furthermore, the multiplicity of advisors and institutions makes sharing best practices and improving over time and across conflicts extremely difficult.

Monrovia, Liberia is on the front lines for security sector reform SSR in nations devastated by extended, violent conflict and civil war. SSR initiatives in Liberia are among the most comprehensive in the world in the context of post-conflict reconstruction. As such, these efforts represent a critical opportunity to assess SSR as an element of U.

The program in Liberia has broken new ground for SSR in several different areas. This article describes the activities related to civil society's engagement with the question of security sector reform SSR in Liberia since the signing of the Accra Comprehensive Peace Accord CPA in August , identifies the challenges it faces and draws lessons learned from this engagement; particularly the need to develop local capacity, networks of support and national ownership. Consideration is given to the specifics of the rapidly evolving post-conflict context in which such reforms are taking place and their connection to the field of transitional justice as a means of addressing a history of human rights abuses.

The discussion also covers the scope of potential engagement for civil society in the new political landscape in Liberia that has been created by the deployment of one of the world's largest peacekeeping forces and the arrest of former president Charles Taylor. Little more than five years ago, Liberia was emerging from fourteen years of brutal war and pillage that had left it in ruins.

Under cover of a 15,strong UN peacekeeping force, it drew both its army and defence ministry to zero, in order to recruit, vet and train the personnel for these institutions from the ground up. Such "root and branch" security sector reform SSR was bold. But, given the many abuses perpetrated by the Armed Forces of Liberia AFL both before and during the civil war, the vast majority of Liberians supported it. How did a U. This paper describes how security sector reform SSR has become a pivotal part of international peacebuilding efforts. The author details how donor agencies and Western governments devote substantial resources to strengthen the legitimacy and efficiency of security systems in war-torn societies.

The paper discusses the SSR process in Liberia in view of the shift from a transitional to a democratically elected government. It identifies dilemmas between the SSR agenda and the objective of ownership, and argues that a more inclusive and less state-centered approach is needed. This paper delivers lessons from the program, generated via an independent evaluation, offering insights of relevance to the broader CVE community of practitioners.

A first overarching conclusion is that programming decisions would have benefitted from a more comprehensive understanding of VE in the local context. The recent agreement between Kosovo and Serbia is a significant accomplishment for the European Union. Still, the agreement marks the beginning, rather than the end, of a long-term process of normalizing relations between Serbia and Kosovo. Par le biais de la motion de MM. The success of Libya's revolution has given way to political disarray, an institutional vacuum, and an extraordinary proliferation of non-state and quasi-state armed groups operating across the country.

L'imaginaire pirate de la mondialisation

However, rather than pursuing political or ideological objectives, these groups increasingly focus on resource predation. Through an empirical study of various axes of violence in contemporary Libya, this report highlights the critical role played by criminal accumulation, land grabs, and protection rackets in the actions of tribal militias and jihadist groups, and in the fighting that has blighted one major urban hub.

Whereas conventional representations of Libya's post-revolutionary period dwell on the political battle between Islamists and secular forces, the reports suggests that the cause of the country's increasing levels of armed violence can be found in the absence of a functional state and the fragmentation of a local, tribal, ethnic and ideological forces, which together make the violent acquisition of material resources essential to group survival. The paper can be found here. As the Arab Spring has renewed Western interest in the political, as well as military, role of Arab armed forces, reform—rather than mere assistance—is crucial.

In this monograph, the author focuses on the structural aspects of reform from which the Arab Spring forces would benefit. Seven features are identified which need to be addressed when attempting Arab military reform in the countries affected by large-scale unrest in an unclear mandate, over-politicization, a challenging ongoing security situation, limited resources, lack of civilian oversight, pockets of paramilitary activity, and, in parts, as well as the lack of an institutional perception of reform need. Their origins are elaborated as much as recommendations for what outside assistance can achieve.

The article is available here.


Until a few years ago, the relationship between Washington and Ankara was perennially troubled and occasionally terrible. Turkey opposed the U. However, Turkey is now seen as responding to its local challenges by moving closer to the West. The United States has called the U. The paper is available here. A free and impartial media should be one of the pillars of a stable society. Media organisations have direct communication with a considerable portion of the population and are in a powerful position to support peace and security-related efforts. In a country like Kosovo, with a violent past, the media needs to pay special attention when covering emotionally charged issues, as failure to do so threatens to heighten tensions.

Currently, there are two regulatory bodies for press and broadcast media, but nothing for online media. In recent months the Pristina-Belgrade dialogue has been prioritised in the media, and though the reporting is generally perceived to be impartial, there is a potential for inciting conflict if there is ambiguity and a perceived lack of objective reporting, particularly the use of conflict-insensitive language. This report concludes with suggestions for how media outlets could work towards more conflict sensitive news coverage. This paper is available in English, Albanian and Serbian on the Saferworld website.

Some of the most lethal episodes of armed violence in recent years have taken place in countries that do not suffer from conflict according to its conventional definitions. At the same time new armed conflicts in Mali and Syria appear to be shaped not just by political differences, but also criminal motives, jihadist ideology and an extraordinary level of violent factionalism.

The hybrid character of both armed violence and conflict stands at the heart of current global security concerns. But the specific challenges posed by armed violence in non-conflict settings have yet to receive a coherent response from peace and development professionals. The coercive power exerted by non-state armed groups over communities and territories, and their connection with transnational networks make it hard to negotiate anything more than short-term deals aimed at reducing violence or providing humanitarian relief.

Legal provisions to protect civilian lives are particularly difficult to enforce. Hostility towards these groups from states and the international community is deep and widespread, particularly when they are associated with terrorist acts or organised crime. However, this report outlines four areas of future research in policy and programming that would be highly relevant to the work of organisations devoted to peace and humanitarian affairs: the nature of an outreach strategy to armed groups, the legal instruments that are available, the sort of community engagement that should be sought, and the approach towards formal economic and political structures.

Establishing a broad network of practitioners, scholars and policymakers is suggested as a means to make progress on all these fronts. Publication is available here. Since the December January uprising, Tunisia has successfully overcome successive political crises, yet seems less able to absorb the impact of major jihadi attacks.

As a result of the successful national dialogue, began on a note of optimism that led to a significant reduction in political tensions, but concerns are growing again. At the heart of this anxiety are an increase in violence along the Algerian border; the chaotic situation in Libya; and the advance of radical Islamism in the Middle East — all made all the more acute by an alarmist anti-terrorist discourse. An echo chamber for the conflicts agitating the region, Tunisia needs to tackle terrorism in a calm and depoliticised manner.

The fights against terrorism and organised crime are inextricably linked. In addition to security measures, the government should take new economic and social initiatives that would ensure border communities trust and support the state. Click here to access the report. This brief looks into the implementation of SSR in CAR, the deficiencies of its design, and the missteps made in its implementation. Its central finding is that the failure of the peacebuilding process in CAR was predestined, stemming from the earliest stages of SSR implementation in the country.

This SSR 2. With the burgeoning use of cyberspace and digital applications, individuals, private companies and governments have all become increasingly concerned about the dangers of attacks that target the cyber domain. Cyber security measures designed to mitigate or respond to such technology-driven threats have traditionally been a focus for more developed countries, which enjoy greater connectivity, advanced information and communications technology and a greater sense of vulnerability.

Comprendre le nouveau monde par ses pirates

La Puissance contre les Pouvoirs D'anti-percée (French Edition) - Kindle edition by Dr. D. K. Olukoya. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC. La Puissance contre les Pouvoirs D'anti-percée (French Edition) eBook: Dr. D. K. Olukoya: Kindle Store.

Yet the cyber domain is also a growing concern for developing countries as well. Developing countries have also offered fertile ground for cyber criminals capable of threning developing and developed countries alike. The ESeminar Summary can be accessed here. Mali sits in a precarious position following the crisis that resulted in France's military intervention.

Much of the political and structural problems that led to the country's near collapse remain largely unchanged. This piece provides a useful overview of the challenges facing Mali's government. To read the full CSG Insight paper, click here. Published by the Swedish Defence Research Agency FOI , this report analyses regional peace operations launched by the African Union and sub-regional organisations, identifying advantages, challenges and trends.

It argues that there is currently an international division of peacekeeping, whereby African operations have come to act as a first responder, providing initial stabilisation missions in operational environments where the UN cannot yet go, or to allow the UN time to mobilise a broader operation. The authors also address the lack of predictable and sustainable funding, and further issues of division of roles and responsibilities between actors. Finally, the report highlights some considerations for partners.

Ce rapport existe aussi en anglais. Published by the Carnegie Middle East Center , this paper engages with Egypt and Tunisia's "missed opportunity": four years after popular uprisings forced the countries' longtime leaders from power, police forces and security agencies genuinely accountable to democratically elected civilian authorities have not emerged.

The author argues that, until governments reform their security sectors, rather than appease them, the culture of police impunity will deepen and democratic transition will remain impossible in Egypt and at risk in Tunisia. Read more here. Topics include:.

Global Prison Trends is intended to be an annual publication. Namely, the following questions are addressed:. Find more information and download the article in. Originally published by the China Daily: On Tuesday, Beijing issued its first white paper on military strategy, ushering in greater military transparency by giving details of the direction of its military buildup to other nations.

The document of about 9, Chinese characters revealed a list of new expressions that have never before appeared in Chinese white papers. In the preface it reaffirmed China's adherence to peaceful development and its "active defense" military strategy. The paper highlighted future cooperation with Russian armed forces, saying the PLA will foster a comprehensive, diverse and sustainable framework to promote military relations.

Read article. Further articles. Read full description and download PDF. Burundi is back at the brink. The international community has begun to respond, but should do more, and quickly. In this article, recent USIP research on how to prevent election violence identifies four strategies as being most effective. Peacebuilders can press the security sector to remain politically neutral, can continue monitoring and mapping by those organizations that remain on the ground, and can help the national election commission operate effectively.

Additionally, diplomatic efforts to raise awareness about the impending crisis could bring more resources to the peace effort. This backgrounder explores the larger military dimension of the peace process and how it remains a major sticking point towards reaching a final and sustainable peace agreement. The first section examines the challenges of disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration DDR of such decentralised guerilla organization. The second section explores the military fundamental distrust of the peace process and possible explanations for their ongoing resistance to a final agreement.

Read the article here. As a wave of protests swept through the Arab world in —11, toppling regimes that had long seemed invulnerable to such popular mobilization, the relative stability of the occupied Palestinian territories oPt largely escaped international attention. In a marked break with the unrest and massive sustained popular mobilizations of the past, no significant opposition emerged to challenge the status quo in the oPt, even though dissatisfaction with the status quo runs high in the territories.

The author of this article argues that the reason for this historic quiescence is the conflicted version of the security-led mode of governance in the Fatah-dominated Palestinian Authority PA that the Oslo process has established in the oPt, backed by US and EU financial and technical assistance.

This article is the second contribution in the Center for Security Governance's new blog series that features recent research findings on security sector reform published in international relations academic journals. Mustafa, Tahani, Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding. He suggests that these tools undermine the principle of local ownership in SSR, by keeping the decision-making process in external hands. PRTs were small units that combined diplomatic, military, and development components in an effort to improve stability in Afghanistan through the enhancement of economic viability, rule of law, and public services.

It is based on research originally published here:. Mitchell, D. Blurred Lines? Stability: International Journal of Security and Development. Once again, Haiti finds itself at a crossroads. Having partly recovered from a devastating earthquake in , Haiti is planning to hold multi-tiered elections this year.

The alarming state of the overtaxed United Nations peacekeeping system endangers human rights, genocide prevention, development and the prospects for sustainable peace, USIP board Vice Chairman George Moose told an audience June 5 at the annual membership meeting of the United Nations Association of the National Capital Area.

Read a transcript of his intervention here. Find more about the question here. In his paper, Blackwell posits several recommendations, including the establishment of legal frameworks outlining the responsibilities of both governments and the industry specifically related to the licensing of private security companies, expansion of social protection for workers in the sector, and the introduction of entry requirements and training guidelines.

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Furthermore, Blackwell argues that citizens and businesses must be informed about the capabilities and limitations of security services, while the oversight capacity of the police and courts must improve to combat the impunity currently enjoyed by the industry itself. The article can be downloaded here. Vous trouverez ici le rapport annuel de l'organisation. Vous pouvez consulter l'article ici.

Vous pouvez lire l'article ici. In the absence of a strong state, insurgents, traffickers or tribal warlords may provide political and socioeconomic goods through arrangements we characterize as "complementary governance". When formulating an effective response to this security challenge, policymakers and researchers must account for the complex connections and interactions between multiple non-state governing entities. You can read the full article here.

Supporting efforts ranging from post Cold War statebuilding in southern Africa and Central America, to nation building across Asia, Europe and Africa, DDR remains integral in linking security and development issues in countries recovering from armed conflict. Today DDR is undergoing a significant shift. The advent of interim stabilization measures ISMs , the inclusion of mercenary groups, and those associated with terrorism and the introduction of countering violent extremism CVE permeate this new DDR landscape. Dean Piedmont, the Director for the Peacebuilding, Reintegration and Stabilization Group, has chosen a reading list that provides a sound foundation cross-referencing the fundamentals of DDR and the emerging CVE environment.

Escalation since April in the conflict in South Sudan left little hope a settlement could be reached any time soon. Both government and opposition forces appeared dedicated to a military solution. In the past weeks however renewed hope has come from a series of engagements by 1 the South African government, 2 progress in reconciliation between the G10 group of leaders, and 3 renewed offers of conciliation by President Kiir himself. Those close to the situation however continue to see a major impasse from the various commanders of the opposition forces, who continue to reject deals on offer.

This research article by Matthew Leriche examines the causes and implications of these obstacles, as well as the "new security market" in South Sudan derived from the SSR agenda. Read the piece here. The decision by the South African government to allow him to attend was in defiance of South Africa's obligations under the Rome Statute and a court order preventing his departure from the country on 15 June.

According to the author, this shows that the International Criminal Court is struggling to maintain its legitimacy in Africa. The author of this article examines developments towards the inclusion of police reforms in peace support operations. She argues that getting policing right is at the heart of peace support operations, and therefore the African Union should sufficiently staff the policing department.

In this light, the Police Strategic Support Group is a key actor, due to its role in promoting police, civilian and military cooperation. Read this analysis here.

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The theoretical referent of this work is the discussion about peacebuilding in fragile states and literature that identifies organized crime as a spoiler. This is the first attempt to apply this perspective to Colombia, and to take the particular characteristics of the country into account while making comparisons with other countries that exhibit similar features in their own post-conflict and transitional phases.

The article comes to the conclusion that in Colombia it is necessary to consider Interim Stabilization Measures, which allow the state to provide an effective response that takes advantage of available resources without losing sight of the need to strengthen local institutions in the mid-term. You can access the brief and its abstract here.

International and Intergovernmental Organizations have a shared desire to ensure peace and stability in post-conflict states. However officials in international institutions have their own agendas as to the conduct and outcomes of security sector reform SSR. It can be argued that these rivalries and contradictory agendas can significantly impede the pursuit of effective SSR programmes. As SSR is a crucial but challenging component of peacebuilding it is essential to identify the sources of this competition, explain its impact, and suggest ways by which impediments to SSR outcomes may be mitigated.

A Tunisian gunman recently massacred 38 people at the major resort of Sousse. It was the second mass attack this year, after the March 18 assault on the well-known Bardo Museum in the capital Tunis that killed 22 people, most of them tourists. Institute of Peace Special Advisor Daniel Brumberg explores the ramifications for Tunisia and the region, as the country shows determination to pursue a democratic transition. Based on two years of research, interviews, and expert workshops, this publication outlines a new conceptual and operational framework aimed at improving outcomes in fragile and conflict-affected states transitioning out of conflict or repression by zeroing in on inclusiveness as a guiding principle.


Transitions are critical junctures in which these states have an important chance to break with cycles of conflict and repression. To help make the most of the opportunity, while managing the tensions and divisions that a transition inevitably brings to the fore, the publication offers practical ideas for leaders at all levels of society to strengthen social cohesion, equality, and a sense of common nationhood. The full publication is available in English, while an overview of its findings is available in English, Spanish, French and Arabic.

Key among these is security. This Africa Center report reviews the most pressing of these challenges, how they have emerged, and actions needed to address these threats. Download the report here. In light of the outbreak of violence in CAR at the end of , the paper aims to decipher the shortfall in preventing conflict in CAR despite repeated international interventions over the last two decades.

Other papers published by the Geneva Peacebuilding Platform are available. This paper focuses on the role of the private sector in the prevention of electoral violence. The positive contribution of the private sector to conflict prevention, mediation and alleviation is increasingly recognised in policy and academic circles, yet little research has been carried out with respect to its role in the prevention of election violence.

To this end, the paper considers the example of Kenya in the hope that novel lessons will be revealed for firms seeking to engage in conflict mitigation strategies related to election-related conflict. Other papers published by the Geneva Peacebuilding platform are available. Lebanon is surviving internal and regional strains remarkably well, but this resilience has become an excuse for tolerating political dysfunction.

If the Lebanese political class does not take immediate steps like holding long-overdue elections, fighting corruption and promoting the rule of law, its complacency will only make an eventual fall harder and costlier.

Les sciences sociales dans leur actualité.

En comptant une moyenne de 3. On ne dira pas : T'as un p'tit zizi Mais : Et c'est quoi ton truc pour faire rire les filles? Ils vont diner au restaurant et en attendant la commande racontent des blagues.. Tu es surpris mais fier que cela vienne de toi.. Ah oui don la lune! Se retourne parfois

Read the executive summary and download the full report here. This report explores the nature of the risks inherent in U. It examines these issues through a review of qualitative and quantitative literature from both the academic and policy fields and through interviews conducted throughout the agencies of the U. The quantitative literature suggests a stark dilemma for those responsible for U. Case studies of security sector assistance in the fragile countries in Africa are used to trace multiple specific pathways by which such assistance can have negative second- and third-order effects.

Finally, the report provides numerous recommendations about ways in which the United States can improve the processes by which it monitors and evaluates, plans, and implements security sector assistance in the fragile states of Africa and more generally. Find out more and download the report here.

It sheds light on the the deshumanisation of the military police during training, accusing the current curriculum and rules of being "antiquated" - therefore not training the police force to protect the population, and further fueling a culture of violence. Read it online. The author uses qualitative and quantitative data, as well as the examination of key factors that set the foundational context and measurement criteria, such as relevant aspects in the history of law enforcement, the organisational structure of law enforcement, the incidence of militarisation, the powers of law enforcement and specific legislative responses to terrorist incidents, societal conflict and societal change.

Read the article online. How can a more equitable sharing of the global peacekeeping burden be produced that generates new capabilities for UN operations? Operational partnerships are one potentially useful mechanism to further this agenda. They are partnerships that occur when military units from two or more countries combine to deploy as part of a peacekeeping operation. This report assesses the major benefits and challenges of these partnerships for UN peace operations at both the political and operational levels. The report begins by providing an overview of the different varieties of partnerships in contemporary UN peace operations and describes the major patterns apparent in a new database of forty-one operational partnerships from to The authors explore why some UN member states engage in operational partnerships or might do so in the future, arguing that the reasons include a wide range of both mission-specific concerns and broader political and security-related reasons.

Since , more than 8 million people were killed around the world due to interpersonal violence. Almost half of these homicides are committed in just 23 countries, representing one tenth of the global population. Which characteristcs make these places stages of such high homicide rates? Lack of popular legitimacy in state authorities and failing to deliver basic public goods — including security and justice are some of the common aspects between these nations. Based on these and other reviews, this note presents some of the basic reforms to be conducted in order to effectively reduce the homicide rates.

Is it possible to significantly reduce interpersonal violence in a single generation? This research believes that the answer is yes. Read this "Homicide Dispatch" by Manuel Eisner online. Reconciliation projects face two critical challenges: the situation on the ground in postconflict settings and the gap between reconciliation theory and practice. If the society is to transition successfully to a new path forward, the critical knowledge gap must first be closed.

The first step is assessing work recently completed or now in progress. What activities are being undertaken to that end? What theories underpin intervention strategies? How do organisations measure success? Published by the United States Institute of Peace, this report answers these questions and points the way forward. Lire l'article en ligne sur le site du GRIP. Denmark and Sweden have set the example although both in a somewhat different manner to establish a multi-year consensus on defense.

The purpose of this project is to present key policy-relevant findings from a two-year participatory research project on the timing, sequencing and components of post-war security transitions, from the perspective and self-analysis of conflict stakeholders who have made the shift from being state challengers to being peace- and state-building agents in South Africa, Colombia, El Salvador, Northern Ireland, Kosovo, Burundi, Southern Sudan, Nepal and Aceh.

The waters surrounding the continent are vast depositories of natural resources. From fisheries to hydrocarbons, these resources generate valuable revenue to littoral African states. In addition, they are a source of food and employment for millions of Africans. The seas also serve to connect African countries to their neighbors and to the rest of the world. Maritime security has become a key issue for policy experts, academics, researchers and various stakeholders. The concept of maritime security can best be defined as the security of sea lines of communication SLOC , good governance at sea and serene activities for seaborne trade.

This article from the Security Sector Reform Resource Centre aims at examining crucial aspects of maritime security for Pakistan in the Indian Ocean region by understanding the possible nature of challenges it faces — both internal and external. It argues that it is essential for Pakistan to develop a collective, common, cooperative and comprehensive maritime security strategy in the Indian Ocean region.

A methodology which maps the assumptions which inform planned interventions within all stages of an initiative, ToC is increasingly regarded as an essential tool in designing and appreciating the complex network of factors which influence project outcomes. The review considers the practical aspects of ToC implementation and to develop a more consistent approach which is gaining in reputation and use within the international development community.

Vogel acknowledges that lack of consensus exists around the specific definition of ToC. The review highlights the necessity for flexibility in developing a successful ToC. Through consideration of different approaches, outlining examples of ToC in practice within the appendix, Vogel identifies and draws together a short list of the core elements, generally agreed upon as essential requirements for any discussion centred on theory of change.

The review further examines the most effective means of establishing a logical pathway to desired outcomes using the ToC model. Vogel highlights the need to establish ToC as an ongoing process developed alongside all phases of a programme from inception to impact evaluation and emphasises that assumptions should be made explicit within the organising framework of a project. ToC, as the review makes clear, has the potential to provide an invaluable framework for discussion and critical thinking surrounding project implementation and evaluation.

It allows for subjective analysis to be discussed and represented, through diagrams and visuals, which can in turn support more dynamic exchange between policy actors, grantees and donors. The relationship between transitional justice and security system — or sector — reform SSR is understudied, yet both contribute to state-building, democratisation and peacebuilding in countries with a legacy of massive human rights abuse. Yet in postconflict environments it usually comprises members of the police, military, secret police, intelligence agencies, armed rebel groups and militia — the groups which are often the most responsible for serious and systemic human rights violations during conflict.

Reforming the system to ensure security agents become protectors of the population and the rule of law is therefore of the utmost urgency, but the political and security context may pose serious challenges to reform. Although effective SSR is highly context-specific, this paper argues that the EU could improve the substance of its SSR programming and implementation by drawing on lessons from these four case studies. Published by the Norwegian Institute of International Affairs NUPI , this paper advocates for a strategic review of African peace operations in the face of increasingly complex security environments.

It formulates a number of key recommendations for the next ten years, including establishing regular discussions between strategic partners and the African Union, fostering inter-departmental coordination and the adoption of common objectives, improving investment in the planning and management of missions, and reinforcing the role of civilians in mission planning. This is the form to use when contributing a Lessons Identified Report. Please read the instructions on the first page carefully. Thank you for sharing your insights!

Establishing the rule of law is fundamental to achieving communities of opportunity and equity—communities that offer sustainable economic development, accountable government, and respect for fundamental rights. The rule of law is the cornerstone to improving public health, safeguarding participation, ensuring security, and fighting poverty.

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This report is the second in an annual series. Indices and indicators are very useful tools. The systematic tracking of infant mortality rates, for instance, has greatly contributed to improving health outcomes around the globe. This policy brief assesses in what aspects of Security Sector Reform the EU is engaged in with Central Asia andin what context these possible activities should be viewed. However, indirect activities such as education programmes that might be beneficial to security and stability in Central Asia will not be ignored.

This volume hopes to initiate a debate within the SSR community of policy and practice on the future of the concept, developing new ideas on the form and content of a second-generation model. If nothing else, it hopes to give shape to a new research agenda that can harness the many lessons learned from a decade of implementation to foster a more informed debate on the future of SSR.

Some can be interpreted as politicaldocuments. Decades of political instability, state fragility, mismanagement, and a series of armed conflicts have led the Central African Republic CAR to a state of widespread violence and poverty. This study provides a better understanding of the scope and magnitude of violence in CAR and its consequences, as well as a snapshot of what the citizens of CAR believe is the best way to restore peace.

It also examines the issue of justice and accountability for the serious crimes that were committed. These prefectures encompass a large geographic area representing 52 percent of the total population of CAR and have experienced varying levels of exposure to the conflicts. Locally trained teams conducted the interviews between November and December Interviewers used an open-ended format and respondents could provide more than one answer to most questions.

The purpose of this paper is to propose an analysis which discloses the various interdependencies that may exist between modes of objectifying the nation and the legitimacy of discursive strategies of nation-building in the context of a grave social conflict. The paper advances two interrelated arguments. Firstly, it argues that the order of conflict in the Congo is contingent on the strictly symbolic efficacy of myths of identity.

The aim of this issue paper is to provide some ideas regarding how best to create suitable conditions for security sector reform SSR in DRC. Throughout the last decade, SSR has become a key component of the international agenda in states affected by conflict. There is a growing consensus amongst donors regarding the necessity of implementing SSR for effective stabilization and reconstruction.

Since , this has resulted in DRC in several donor-supported initiatives to strengthen the police, military, and justice sectors. The results of this research are reflected in this monograph.

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The purpose of this paper is, however, not to add to the extensive literature speculating on various outcomes and their consequences. Serious efforts are currently being made by the parties themselves, the African Union, other regional partners, the UN and other international stakeholders to address the immediate challenges so as to secure a peaceful transition after the expiry of the interim period.

This background report explains the challenges facing Guinea-Bissau. It is the first in a series of reports which will focus on the national and international policies needed to take the country out of its incessant cycle of political crises and become a point of stability in the region. With a national strategy and action plan on SSR in place, Guinea-Bissau has attracted a lot of attention from the international community. While there are favourable circumstances for SSR in Guinea-Bissau such as a willingness and commitment displayed by the national authorities, a number of difficulties and challenges were highlighted during the briefing.

The Army, which is by far the most powerful actor in Guinea-Bissau, has to be brought into the reform process. Ils vous bloquent votre avancement. Ce sont les pouvoirs qui font douter les gens de l'intervention de Dieu dans leur situation. I purchased this book for my American History class. This is one of the best books about paper products and textiles that I have come across in the last 10 years. This reader found that Muir can sometimes "over analyze" a film, reading things into the script that I don't think were ever really there to begin with not even by the makers of the film.

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