While in Congress earlier in his career, Buchanan had been strongly prosouthern, anxious not to offend over the slavery issue. He continued to act in that manner as president, supporting, for example, the proslavery Lecompton Constitution for Kansas, a policy that damaged him politically in the North. Timid and indecisive, Buchanan was unable to provide the leadership necessary for the country to avoid the ensuing tragedy of secession. Millard Fillmore endured a hardscrabble, rural childhood in New York, eventually becoming a lawyer through self-education and hard work.
He entered political life, rising to become a Whig congressman and chairman of the powerful House Ways and Means committee.
Fillmore was denied renomination by the Whigs in , but four years later the nativist American party nominated him for presidency. Abraham Lincoln was born in rural Hardin now Larue County, Kentucky, the son of an illiterate carpenter and farmer. Young Lincoln received little formal schooling and was largely self-taught. In the family moved to Indiana, and in they moved west again, to Illinois. He held various jobs there, including storekeeper and mill operator.
In , he led a militia contingent in the Black Hawk War, but saw no action. Back in New Salem, Lincoln failed in the grocery business, incurring a heavy debt. He worked as a surveyor and rail-splitter and began the study of law. Beginning his political career as a Whig, Lincoln was elected to the first of four terms in the Illinois legislature in Two years later, he was admitted to the bar and subsequently embarked upon a series of law partnerships, including that with William Herndon, later a Lincoln biographer.
He developed a reputation as a skillful attorney, and became one of the leading Whig politicians in Illinois. Lincoln was elected to Congress in , but quickly got on the wrong side of the voters by opposing the Mexican War and challenging President Polk's assertion that the Mexicans had fired the first shot.
Lincoln's law practice thrived in the early s, but he returned to politics after the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska in His outrage at Illinois SenatorStephen A. Douglas' bill, which opened the American West to the introduction of human slavery, led him to once again seek elective office.
Lincoln was elected to the state legislature, but declined in order to pursue an unsuccessful senatorial bid in That year, Lincoln left the Whigs for the new Republican Party and quickly gained influence in the organization, receiving consideration for a vice presidential nomination that year. The two engaged in the celebrated Lincoln-Douglas debates, in which Lincoln emerged as an articulate critic ofDouglas' doctrine of "popular sovereignty. In it he offered an alternative to abolitionists' stringent critique of slavery, and discussed conciliation efforts with the South.
His nomination came on the convention's third ballot, due largely to skillful campaign management and many delegates' uneasiness about Seward's radical views. The splintering of the Democratic Party into northern and southern wings assured Lincoln's victory. Bartlett, David W. Life and Public Services of Hon. Abraham Lincoln, with a Portrait on Steel. Hannibal Hamlin New York: H. Dayton, Abraham Lincoln, of Illinois, and Hon. Daggett, Dale, William P. Morris, Stephen Arnold Douglas was born in Brandon, Vermont.
He received a basic education, became employed in farm work and, briefly, teaching.
At age 20 he moved to Illinois, his home for the remainder of his life. Douglas began practicing law in , followed quickly by political ventures, including the office of Illinois attorney general, two years in the state legislature and an unsuccessful run for Congress. In , Douglas became Illinois Secretary of State, then served as a judge on the state supreme court from to He was elected to the House of Representatives in and to the Senate in He was an ardent expansionist, advocating the annexation of Cuba and the entirety of the Oregon Territory.
He was a supporter of the Mexican War. In the Senate Douglas chaired the influential Committee on Territories, which guided territories to statehood. When the United States Senate rejected the set of provisions that Henry Clay had fashioned to address the sectional crisis of , Douglas skillfully separated the bills and secured their passage as the Compromise of In the wake of the Compromise, Douglas increasingly called for Americans to use the doctrine of "popular sovereignty" as the solution to the thorny issue of slavery in the territories.
Douglas saw popular sovereignty, which asked the settlers of federal territories to decide the status free or slave under which they would join the Union, as a way to remove the issue of slavery's expansion from national politics. But its application in practice led to a violent struggle between pro-slavery and free-soil settlers hoping to add the new state of Kansas to their portion of the Union. In Douglas stood as one of the Democratic Party's national leaders. In Douglas won the Democratic Party's presidential nomination, but only after the party had splintered into fragments unable to carry the national election in the fall.
First meeting in Charleston, South Carolina, party delegates dissolved their convention when they were unable to agree on a candidate. Many southerners rejected Douglas' notion of "popular sovereignty" as an insufficient guarantee of their right to bring slave property into the territories.
Breckinridgeof Kentucky, was Douglas able to secure the necessary two-thirds vote for nomination at a rump convention held in Baltimore. Despite his political stature, Douglas found little success in the election of Sheahan, James W. The Life of Stephen A. New York: Harper and Brothers, Anthony, Henry B.
Cozans, A Kentucky attorney, John C. Breckinridge began his political career with service in the Kentucky legislature and in the House of Representatives Like the southern Democrats he represented in the pivotal election of , Breckinridge argued that the Constitution did not provide the federal government with the power to restrict slavery in the territories.
Although he believed in the states' right of secession, he did not advocate that course of action during the campaign. In the November election, Breckinridge carried the nine Deep South states and received 72 electoral votes. Serving out his term as Vice President into early , Breckinridge worked to fashion a compromise that would preserve southern slavery in the Union.
When Kentucky declared for the Union in September of , Breckinridge accepted an appointment as brigadier general in the Confederacy. In early he became Confederate Secretary of War and presided over the demise of the Confederate armies.
Outlines of the life and public services, civil and military, of William Henry Harrison Topics Harrison, William Henry, , United States. Army Digitizing sponsorThe Institute of Museum and Library Services through an Indiana State. Bound in paper wrappers, with printed lettering on covers. Engraved portrait of William Henry Harrison on frontispiece. Publisher's advertisements on cover p. .
When the South surrendered, Breckinridge fled to Europe but was permitted to return to the United States by the amnesty proclamation of You already recently rated this item. Your rating has been recorded. Write a review Rate this item: 1 2 3 4 5. Preview this item Preview this item.
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The Winning of the West Volume I. Volume I. Van Buren's son John was a leading figure in the Free Soil party, a third party anxious to resist the extension of slavery. Frances Anne Rollin. American Civil War.
First Lieutenant. Stateside service as pilot during Vietnam War — Bush military service controversy. United States Naval Reserve. Naval aviator in World War II — Shot down and received the Distinguished Flying Cross. Sea duty and stateside service — during the Korean War.
Lieutenant Commander. World War II — ; earned two battle stars for service in the Pacific. Commander . World War II.
Received Silver Star after observation mission in which aircraft he was on came under Japanese attack. Served in combat during World War II. General of the Army.