The Poetics of Philosophical Language: Plato, Poets and Presocratics in the Republic (Sozomena)

The Poetics of Philosophical Language
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This is but a small tribute; my debt to them cannot be repaid in words or deeds. Piraeus Contents 1.

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Plato, however, is well-known for his irony and one should be somewhat cautious before taking his various statements here at face value Nehamas Chapters 1 and 2. They have heard plenty of eloquence, not like our own unsteadied discourse, but full of balanced phrases and artfully matched antithesis ; but a man with a character so finely balanced as to be a match for the ideal of virtue in word and deed, ruling in a society as perfect as himself that they have never yet seen in a single instance. Naddaf and Brisson On dialectic in the Seventh Epistle, see Gonzalez with further bibliography. Chaniotis Ed. Education for all can be more effectively provided through the services, programmes and activities of the school library tailored to the needs of the school community.

Section One: The Theory 1. Aims and perspectives. Mythos and eikn. Imagistic discourse. Imagistic language, the dramatization of language and metaphoric language. Platonic Eikones: A homoisis? Section Two: The Republic 1. Human nature and philosophical style in the Republic Book 5. Philosophical style in the third wave of argument in Book 5. Verbal Images in the Republic Books 2 and 6. Philosophers, non-philosophers and the unjust in the Republic. Introduction 1. The dialogues main theme is the definition of the ethical concept of justice and its prevalence over injustice, but in the course of the discussion Plato examines a series of further issues, the most prominent being his demonstrating that the just life is the happiest form of life for humans e; c5 7.

Plato bases his investigation into the nature of justice and injustice on the analogy of city and soul and defines justice in both b c; b. He argues for the division of the human soul in three parts the appetitive, the spirited and the rational and he also creates in speech an ideal city consisting of three classes: the economic class, the guardian class and the philosopher-kings. He then argues that justice in both city and soul is to be found in each part performing its own task and discusses the way in which this can be achieved in the city and the soul d e. For Plato, Socrates main thesis in the dialogue is that correct education is the only way towards the harmonisation of the tripartite soul and the preservation of the ideal polis once this is created by the city founders.

He then devotes a great part of his discussion to laying out the guidelines and the specific characteristics of this type of education which is directed to the guardians Books 2 and 3 and the philosopher-kings of the ideal polis Book 7. Platos educational programme in the Republic is essentially a reformation or cleansing of current education in contemporary Athens e; d e.

In Books 2 and 3 of the Republic, Socrates condemns the poets for not lying well to their audience for the things that matter most in life, namely the gods and the heroes ec. In this view, the poets also fail to present correctly the simple character of humans a b; Cp. Critias ab. In Book 10 ea , Platos Socrates informs us that the poets fail to depict or convey a correct re presentation of ethical values as regards gods, heroes and simple people because they lack true knowledge of these values Cp.

Contrawise, in the Republics terms, the knowledge of our earthly ethical. According to Socrates in the Republic Book 5, this is a type of knowledge that the majority of people lack, since only very few believe in the existence of the Forms, and even less have the intellectual ability and strength of character to undergo the hard and strenuous education that finally leads to grasping these Forms. Yet, ethical values such as courage, moderation or justice cannot be fully identified in their earthly manifestation unless one knows the Forms which make the very many particular things or actions bear the qualities that people ascribe to them.

For Plato in the Republic, the Forms differ from their visible or sense-perceptible earthly manifestation in that, contrary to the doings in our own mundane sphere of human action, the Forms are transcendent, unaltering and unchanging, eternal, pure and thus truly Real see Jowett II [ ].

Socrates assigns knowledge of this type of Reality only to the Republics philosopher-kings. From this point of view, the poets knowledge and ability to educate the people is then placed very low in this cognitive hierarchy, and on that very basis the poets are finally expelled in Book 10 from the ideal state. Platos main accusation against them is that their compositions endanger the formulation of a correct ethical character. As a result, they must be banished. The above summary of the Republic hardly does justice to the richness of this dialogue and to the many and complex problems posed therein.

Nevertheless, this sketchy account of the main themes that Plato treats in this dialogue has led us to the core issue of his philosophy and, possibly, to the most important philosophical problem that preoccupied Plato in his writings at large. Standing at the end of Presocratic thought, Platos newly-founded philosophy has been deeply influenced by the innovative ideas of these early thinkers. For Heraclitean influences on Plato, see Irwin Palmers analysis of Platos reception of Parmenides addresses in detail Parmenides influence on Plato. See also Rist According to Parmenides Fr.

Plato adapted to his own ends both Parmenides metaphysics of unity and changelessness and Heraclitus portrayal of the conflicting information that sense-perception communicates to human intellect. In the Republic, in particular, this is most tellingly manifested in the way he treats the various conflicting pairs of opposites that surround us. Plato thus poses the Forms and distinguishes between Being and Becoming. The immutable Forms belong to the transcendent and changeless Reality, whereas the contingent and unstable particulars find their place in the cognitive sphere of Opinion Doxa.

This immediately creates a contrast between eidetic unity and stability on the one hand, and conflict, polymorphy and multiplicity on the other. Thus in trying to reconcile alternation with permanence and changelessness, Plato follows Parmenides in creating two different orders of reality Lloyd The pure realm of Forms is thus freed from polar oppositions and colourful versatility.

These characteristics become prominent features in the realm of Becoming, which never stops changing and for which no true knowledge can be reached on firm grounds. But, while Parmenides refrained from bridging the gap between his two realms by demonstrating the transition from the way of Opinion to the way of Being, Plato views this challenge as remarkably significant. Viewing anew the philosophical problems that the Presocratic thought bestowed upon him, he undertakes to show to his audience how a correct distinction between the world of multiplicity and opposition Becoming and the world of true reality the Forms can be, and has been, mishandled by poets and other thinkers so that appearance.

I use here and throughout in this study the terms metaphysics and ontology to talk about Platos transcendent Forms both anachronistically and as a matter of convenience. I am aware of the fact that both terms are post-Presocratic and post-Platonic in origin. Doxa in Rep. Book 2 is presented deceptively under the guise of true Being. The influence of Parmenides on Plato is also evident in his assessment of sense-perception. In distinguishing between Being and Becoming or between Forms and the many particulars , Plato also distinguishes between the intelligible grasp of the invisible Forms and the sensible perception of the various earthly visible particulars.

In specific terms, according to Plato, when turning to the eidetic level, the pure and immutable Forms can be known only intelligibly. In addition, following the Presocratic tradition on the unreliability of our senses, Plato also reminds us that no true, stable or fixed knowledge can ever come from relying exclusively on them to understand the conflicting and ever-changing level of Becoming.

Yet, it is at this point exactly that Plato departs from Parmenides thought as regards the importance of sense-perception in attaining true Knowledge. In my view, in Plato, and in the Republic in particular, sense-perception and most importantly sight must be trained so as to assist the intellect in grasping true Reality. Human senses then must be put into the service of the intellect and function as a stepping-stone to ones ascent to higher cognitive levels of grasping true Reality. I believe that this is for Plato a major epistemological problem which he treats and seeks to solve in his Republic.

This process is enacted by having Socrates educating his interlocutors in this dialogue on how to view anew the conflicting information they receive from their senses and how they should redirect their senses so that they may make a good start in ascending the different levels of human cognition described in the images of the Line and the Cave in Books 6 and 7 of the Republic. This allows Plato to educate the Socratic interlocutors in ethical matters and address the way opposite ethical concepts, such as justice and injustice, are constantly confused by the majority of people.

In this study, I argue that in order to meet this difficult epistemological challenge, Plato appropriates in his Republic the poets language and invents insightful methods so that poetry and its distinctive features are put into the service of his newly founded philosophy. In this way, Plato achieves the following in the Republic: firstly, he has Socrates demonstrate to his audience the way in which poetry and its performance has failed in presenting correctly the various ethical values; secondly, by appropriating several of the characteristics of poetic discourse to educate the Socratic interlocutors in matters of ethics and politics, Plato shows how a knowledgeable lover of poetry philopoie te s Book These cardinal philosophical issues in Plato are inextricably intertwined with the problem of the dynamics of language as a means to examine and communicate the intricate relation of human cognition with the Real.

A number of Presocratics, as well as certain sophists Gorgias of Leontini c. As regards Gorgias On Not-Being, we lack the original work and what has come down to us are the two paraphrases, of Sextus Empiricus in Against the Professors and that of the anonymous author of MXG Melissus, Xenophanes and Gorgias included in the Aristotelian corpus. The bibliography on Gorgias is vast.

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See Gagarin 38 Note, however, that both the Iliad and the Odyssey are remarkably sophisticated on the communicative effects of language. On the Iliad, in particular, see Martin As regards the Tragedians, see Long on the use of abstract language in Sophocles. On language in Thucydides, see Allison As regards the concept of ale theia, see esp. See also Goldhill, in Rutter, N. For Plato, language poses remarkable philosophical and epistemological intricacies that require painstaking analysis and reflection.

Being our main if not only instrument for putting across our conflicting sense-perceptions, language, if employed correctly, can help us fight against the confusion that our world generates. However, if treated erroneously, language can intensify the diversity that our senses communicate and create even more confusion for humans.

From this perspective, and unless treated with caution, language does not differ much from the deceptive character that Plato attributes to our senses as a means to approaching Reality. My choice of the Republic as my field of investigation is far from incidental. There has long been an established consensus among ancient and modern scholars that Platos dialogues are exceptional in their combination of literary vividness and philosophical vigour.

See also Vegetti, in Long, A.

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This is not to argue, along with Gorgias, that even if an external reality truly exists, it cannot be communicated see discussion in Caston, in Caston, V. Nor do I argue for an esoteric interpretation of the Platonic dialogues, such as is proposed by Gaiser and Kraemer, who placed the true doctrines on ontology and on metaphysics outside the dialogues and argued that what is said about the Form of the Good in Republic Book 6 can become fully meaningful only in the light of Platos unwritten doctrines. In my view, Plato treats problem of this sort variously in his writings.

For a detailed analysis, see Gaiser and 5 37 ; Krmer ; Szlezak But cf. Sayre In addition, see Cornford and Gadamer See also the discussion in the Introduction further below. On the ancient recognition of Platos literary art, and especially on Dionysius of Halicarnassus evaluation of Platos style, see Walsdorff 9 Not so much because of the uneasiness that this would bring upon the traditional neat genre divisions,9 but due to Platos own thesis repeatedly presented throughout the corpus that, despite its authoritative status in Greek society, poetry is utterly incapable of bringing out the Real when framing the world.

Platos attitude then towards poetry in the Republic cannot be seen separately from the broader problems that language raises as philosophys medium for investigating reality and communicating its findings. He rejected the measure of the epic, dramatic and lyrical forms, because he sought to kindle a harmony in thoughts divested of shape and action, and he forbore to invent any regular plan of rhythm which would include under determinate forms, the varied pauses of his style emphasis added. See also Sidney In Schleiermachers most quoted words, spectators of the analysis [will] fail altogether to attain to a knowledge of the philosophy of Plato, for in that, if in anything, form and subject are inseparable, and no proposition is to be rightly understood, except in its own place, and with the combinations and limitations which Plato has assigned to it.

See Schleiermacher trans. William Dobson. See detailed discussion in Tigerstedt ; and Press, in Hart, R. In this study I concur with Nightingale that Plato appropriates several of the characteristic features of poetry and rhetoric in order to construct the identity of his own philosophical discourse. Nonetheless, in doing so, he also demonstrates the way in which his own work and approach to the world differs from that of the poets and the rhetoricians. See also the discussion in Goldhill 80 and Nehamas 3 See also a further detailed discussion in the methodological part of this study in Section Two below.

See also his obser-. Republic, as in this dialogue Plato puts into this work a number of linguistic and stylistic features that can be immediately recognised by his contemporaries as lying in the field of ancient Greek poetry, which he severely criticised in Book 3 and ultimately rejected in Book Consequently, upon promoting his own philosophic ideas in the Republic, Plato appears to be engaging in a dialogue not only with the various thinkers of the pre-Platonic era, but also with another highly influential strand of ancient Greek thought and culture: the poets and their muchperformed productions.

In other words, why incorporate in his philosophic discourse vehemently rejected methods such as poetic techniques and diction when these are recognised as detrimental to the way people think about all the important matters in life? See, for example, Most, in Long, A. On the contrary, this is absolutely essential to the construction of Platos philosophical discourse. See, however, Websters insightful article published in [ 79] which brings together issues of philosophy and literature. Relevant publications can be classified in two main categories: on the one hand, there are articles compiled in volumes which aim to demonstrate the diverse character that Plato interpretation has taken in the last few years: Charles L.

Griswolds compilation is a characteristic example of a scholarly attempt to present in one single volume Plato readings which confront each other. Andrew Barkers and Martin Warners volume eds. See also Press ed. See also Fendt, G. Recent literature that seeks to bring together the literary and the philosophical in Plato also includes detailed readings of dialogues by a single scholar: see Miller ; Tejera ; Gilead ; Sayre ; Cook and Schmid In addition, see Annas 9 30 ; Rosen ; Rowe ; and Rowe 7 On the relation of philosophy and literature, see also Iris Murdoch, in Magee, B.

See also Cherniss, in Taran, L. Robb, in Hart, R. Ludwig Edelsteins Platonic Anonymity 1 22 is an indispensable reading on Platos use of the dialogue form and has significantly influenced ensuing discussions. In addition, see Hyland 38 50 ; Benson, in Benson, H. On the relation of form and content in pre-Platonic philosophical compositions and on the birth of the dialogue form, see Tejera b: 63 80 and Kahn Ch. Particularly helpful in this direction is Christopher Gills in Annas, J. In constructing his philosophic logos then, Plato makes full use of traditional linguistic material which he then reshapes to meet his own philosophic ends Morgan I believe, however, that there is still more to be said about the philosophically pertinent reasons that may have motivated Plato to weave into the fabric of his philosophical prose several features that have been traditionally associated with the genre of poetry.

The highly versatile and colourful text of the Republic examined in this study is the ideal environment to raise questions about Platos idiosyncratic authorial relation to poetry and poetic discourse and the dynamics that regulate it, as almost every other Stephanus page seems to reverberate with poetic echoes of one sort or another Halliwell a: 94 Plato both rejects and uses poetrys stylistic features to argue his philosophic ideas almost in the same breath. I will leave aside for the moment the impressive images of the Sun, the Line and the Cave, which scholars in the past have associated with poetry.

He uses the motifs of illumination, light and darkness, sleep and dreaming to describe the characteristic features of the cognitive level of Opinion in Book 5. He compares the use of dialogue by his ancient readers, particularly the Stoics. A crucial point must be made here concerning the relationship between the so-termed dialogical and the literary approaches as regards Plato. Although the dialogical movement remains in its basics a non-doctrinal one, for, as Press tellingly argues in Hart, R. The adoption of a literary perspective in the reading of the dialogues does not entail adherence to a non-doctrinal stance; in other words, the attitude of a Platonic interpreter can be literary with a view to discovering doctrines and dogmas within the dialogues.

The most characteristic example of such a stance can be found in the Platonic interpretations of the Straussian interpreters and the Tubingen school. See also Blondell Note, however, that not all Plato scholars are convinced by the dialogical character of Platos dialogue: see Griswold ed. At the same time, as the discussion on just and unjust souls and states unfolds, numerous lines and poetic quotations are tossed back and forth by Glaucon, Adeimantus and Socrates, especially in Books 2, 8, 9. In Books 8 and 9 in particular, Platos Socrates employs, either in thick clusters or sporadically in his discourse, poetic lines and themes, which consist, for example, of rich animal imagery, to present the characteristics of the unjust souls and polities Adam [] vol.

The subhuman, beast-like image of the tyrant, in particular, has well-rooted origins in poetry. By means of this imagery, Plato identifies baseness, injustice and civic and psychic imbalance with a multi-headed beast, thus appropriating the well established Hesiodic image of Typhon to his own ends Too 19 In re-addressing Platos aim in the dialogue, I am not arguing against the long-received and well-established interpretation of the dialogue as demonstrating the thesis that justice is better than injustice and that it pays more; I am rather claiming that to understand how Platos argumentation works several other philosophically significant questions must also be considered.

In this study, I will venture a close analysis of the Republics language in order to throw new light on the authors decision to construct philosophic discourse and argumentation by remoulding and adapting poetic diction and techniques. According to the interpretation proposed 16 Note that Pindar too appropriates this motif in Pythian I. The Republic is written around B. There is, then, a lapse of fifty years between the so-called dramatic date of the dialogue and its actual writing. This is a common technique in Plato which aims to highlight the fictional character of the dialogues.

On this technique as regards the Republic, see Pappas 15 16 and Ferrari The rich stylistic diversity of the dialogue reflects the innovative steps Plato is taking towards training his contemporary audience about how philosophic language should be properly used to fight the confusing and highly ambiguous stimuli that our deceiving senses generate. This important philosophical issue is woven into the same fabric as Socrates definition of justice, and is also intertwined with his criticism of poetry as using its dynamics music, motifs and diction inaccurately when presenting the gods, heroes or the simple man.

In other words, Plato repeatedly draws attention to the fact that our investigation of important ethical and ontological matters is not separate either from the language we use to inspect them or from the method we apply in our investigation. This results in the construction of a poeticized philosophic prose that serves as the most appropriate dialect for conveying highly complicated and elusive ethical, ontological and epistemological concepts to people who have not been properly educated in Platonic philosophical thought, such as Socrates interlocutors at Cephalus house b1 c4.

In Section One of this study I clarify my methodological distinction between macrocosmic and microcosmic 18 On the text performing its meaning, see Austin See also discussion the in Goldhill and von Reden, in Goldhill, S. As a result, in Section One I raise questions regarding definitions. In what ways is Platonic language poetic? How does poetry transform into poetics in the Republic, and how does this transformation pay any philosophic dividends to the Republics audience? Firstly, and for specific reasons that I will come to in this study, Plato either embeds in his text direct quotations from the compositions of leading poetic figures mostly Homer and the Dramatists or he adopts recognisable themes and motifs for example, the motifs of katabasis and anabasis, or the route [hodos] motif to construct his discourse.

This authorial strategy takes place on what I call a microcosmic level of discourse. But Platos philosophic endeavour in the Republic is poetic from another point of view as well, and this time is a macrocosmic one. In Republic d, Plato has Socrates call their entire enterprise of constructing a theoretical city, and tracing justice in it and in the soul, a myth mythos. Yet, myths were traditionally recognized as being closely linked with, or falling under, poetry.

Several studies on Platonic myth-making have shown how Plato in his dialogues also ap19 Literary and dramatic interpretations of the dialogues interpenetrate but are not identified. The literary mode of interpretation takes full consideration of objective literary characteristics of the dialogues such as word-choice, syntax and grammar, style, imagery and metaphors, humour and irony, as well as quotations and references.

The dramatic approach, on the other hand, focuses primarily on character building, dramatic settings or narratological frameworks. So Press, in Hart, R. Nonetheless, as I shall show in Section Two below, the two approaches become intertwined as the dialogues drama often requires specific literary features. On the distinction, see my detailed discussion in Section One below. I discuss in detail this term in the methodological part of this study, in Section One below.

See also above n. Plato draws on various discursive and stylistic modes and invents new ones to construct his arguments. Thus a tension between different linguistic styles pervades the Republic throughout. There is a clash between more concrete and less concrete even abstract language. That is to say between highly colourful images of complex poetic metaphors, and another type of language which strives to eschew imagery that echoes its poetic origins.

Lastly, there are other contexts in the dialogue where poetic language is absent altogether and complex mathematics emerge to explain how the ideal city is doomed 23 See Phaedo, 61b e. See Morgan ; Brisson, trans. Naddaf and Brisson Thesleff lists ten classes of style in the Platonic works: colloquial, semi-literary, conversational, rhetorical, pathetic, intellectual, mythic narrative, historical, ceremonious, legal and Onkos ; cf. Thesleffs rigid distinction of styles will not be followed in the present study; on the contrary, I agree with Hathaways remark that Platos own criteria for good prose involved no strict separation of style modes On the Onkos class denoting the variegated, interlaced word-music found in the dialogues see also Denniston On Platos prose, Denniston observes: Plato writes not in one style, but in several, but with such subtle play on the changes that the break is nowhere apparent 17, emphasis added.

See my discussion in Section Two, Chapter Two below. As I intend to show in this study, the pivot around which Platos linguistic concerns hinge is itself a prominent pair of opposites of documented Presocratic and poetic origins. In this study I argue that throughout this work Platos treatment of philosophical language is organised around the polar opposition of mixture he mixis he krasis and purity to katharon. As a leading characteristic of poetic craftsmanship, the poets skill in mixing his thematic and linguistic stock is integral to composing beautiful poetry.

This phrase also constitutes Platos watchword in this dialogue for the Forms. Note that the word poikilia has strong pictorial connotations. The shifting evaluation given to poikilia in the arts can be vividly exemplified by the positive references to it in Pindar and the negative uses of the term in criticisms of the so-called new music of the later fifth century. Criticisms of the New Musics complexity and diversity are recurrent in the texts, especially in comedy, but often without using the word poikilia or its cognates themselves.

See, especially, Pherecrates fr. Relevant uses of poikil- itself turn up several times in Plato Rep. Plato despised this musical progress and its innovative complex variations. For an extensive discussion see Barker 93 98 and West On poikilia in Pindar, in particular, see Steiner As when painters are decorating offerings , men through cunning well skilled in their craft when they actually seize pigments of many colours in their hands, mixing in harmony more of some and less of others, they produce from them forms resembling all things []: so let not deception overcome your mind and make you think there is any other source of all the countless mortal things that are plain to see, but know this clearly, for the tale you hear comes from a god trans.

Kirk, Raven and Schofield. On Empedocles reference to painting in these lines, see Ierodiakonou, in Cleland, L. See also Ierodiakonou and Skarsouli and esp. Skarsouli focuses on Empedocles use of pharmakon colour and apate deceit in these lines and investigates the association of colours and deceitful words in Empedocles, Gorgias Helen and Plato the Cratylus. On Empedocles use of poikillsin, see Bollack : Une seule fois chez Homre S , o il signifie varier par les forms, modeler.

Ici, appliqu au travail des peintres, il a le sens de varier les couleurs, colorier. Mais la diversit est la notion principale, non la couleur. Aussi le mot pourrait-il reprendre! On poikilia as varietas colorum, diversit de coulerus and poikilos as versicolor, color de couleurs vives synonym to polychrous , see Mugler , with examples. Poikilia carries its meaning as diversity in colours in Pseudo-Aristotles De Coloribus: see Ferrini Note that in Aristotle the word haplous is an established opposite of poikilos. See also Bonitz sv.

Thus, whereas the motif of mixture meignumi , which in poetry is also used to refer to sexual relations, in Plato is often assigned negative connotations,32 the same image of sexual mingling is employed elsewhere to describe the true philosophers rapport with the ultimate Platonic Idea, the Form of the Good, which Socrates presents to his interlocutors in Book 6.

Plato also makes full use of this motif and links it with diversity poikilia in Books 8 and 9, where the diverse and polymorphic status poikilon e thos of the unjust souls receives a very vivid and highly poeticised description. In these two Books, the variegated character poikilon e thos of the most unjust soul that of the tyrant is intended to contrast to the simple and unmixed character akratos and haplous of the just and well-attuned sphrn person, as described in Books 4 and 5.

The motif is particularly prominent in Anaxagoras: see fr. See Arist. A4, a See Kirk, Raven and Schofield 2nd ed. On Anaxargoras, see the excellent discussion in Schofield On the religious aspects of rites of purification, see Hoessly The notion of contamination stands in stark contrast to purity and purification. On purification and the philosophers vision of the colourless Being, see also Rohde [] See also Parker Plato adopts this religious terminology and adapts it to argue new ideas in the Republic.

I discuss in detail Platos treatment of this motif and its philosophical significance in Section One, Chapter One below. Respiration, heat, vital heat, cooling water, A Metaphors, similes, fire in a solidifying role, A B , A 1, par. Lonie, Ian M. Lo Presti, Roberto , Empedocle su percezione e cognizione , p. Roma: Carocci Studi e ricerche.

Lorusso, AM. Lovejoy, Arthur O. Maass, Ernst , Orpheus. Literarisches , in: Byzantinische Zeitschrift 35, , p. Mace, Sarah T. Fattore di innovazione religiosa, ed. Giovanni Filoramo, Brescia , p. B -. Hegel , p. Malengreau, P. Manetti, D[aniela? Kapitel Empedokles , p. Part 2: Les Origines , in: Mnemosyne 31, , p. Reprinted with light modifications in Critical note: Empedocles and his interpreters , in: Mansfeld J. Mainly for Empedocles: p. Houtman A. Mansfeld und O. Primavesi, Philipp Reclam jun. Manuli, Paola — Vegetti, Mario, Cuore, sangue e cervello. Biologia e antropologia nel pensiero antico , Episteme, Milano being reprinted by Petite Plaisance, Pistoia, ?

Marioti, I. Ianni - I. Mazzini, Macerata , p.

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rapyzure.tk: The Poetics of Philosophical Language: Plato, Poets and Presocratics in the "Republic" (Sozomena) (): Zacharoula Petraki. Petraki, Zacharoula. The Poetics of Philosophical Language. Plato, Poets and Presocratics in the "Republic". Series:Sozomena 9.

On-line at degruyer. Marsoner, Agostino , Sul fr. III, , p. Reprinted in Martano, G. B 6, B 62, B , B , B Alcune considerazioni sul fr. B DK , in: Empedocle: tra poesia, medicina, filosofia e politica, ed. Martin, Hubert, Jr. Mastrofili, M. Matsumoto, A. McClelland, Norman C. McDiarmid, John B. A patchwork of several selected readings. Influenced by Kingsley. McKirahan, Richard D. Fragments and commentaries. See review by J. Atti del convegno internazionale di Madrid, maggio , ed. Guido M. Cappelli, Roma: Salerno, Studi e saggi ; Kahle - M.

Mele, Alfonso , Empedocle e Agrigento , in: Empedocle: tra poesia, medicina, filosofia e politica, ed. Italo Gallo, Napoli , p. B 27a. B 17, Pap. Metropoulos , K. Michelini, Ann N. B N o Turku : Turun Yliopisto, , p. Mikalson, Jon D. Several quotations through the book. Some pages dedicated to Empedocles: p. Minar, Edwin L. Menden B 9, B A 97; a role of blood in Emp. Testimonianze, imitazioni e frammenti.

Introduzione di G. Reale , Milano , p. Rossetti, C. Santaniello , in Hypnos , 17, , p.

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Review in: Hypnos. Montuori, M. Morgan, Kathryn A. Moriani, Fausto , Materia comune e generazione degli elementi in Aristotele , in: Elenchos 9, , p. On the beginning of De gen. Aristotle criticized Emp. Morrison, J. Mortley, R. Most, Glenn W. Bierl, A. Mourelatos, Alexander P. According B. Augusto Mullachio , typis A. Schadii, Berolini 22 p. Starcke , p. Reprinted mostly in , I. Nota a Thesm. Mutschmann, H[ermann? On presence of Emp.

Naiden F. Petersbourg : Eggers et comp. Love and Strife; p. Empedocles and Apollonius Rh. See review by Bollack. Nestle, Iena: E. Diederichs , p. Nilles, J. Norden, Eduard , Agnostos Theos.

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I , in: Classical Philology , 39, 3, , p. Spinelli, E. Pierris, Patras: Institute for Philosophical Research , p. Ethicization and Soteriology in Empedocles: p. J Brunschwig, G. Lloyd, Paris: Flammarion , p. Essays in Honour of John Dillon, ed. Cleary, Aldershot Hampshire - Brookfield Vt. Janke, C. Natali - S. Maso, Amsterdam , p. Reprint in Platon , ed. Dixsaut M. Proceedings of the Fifth Symposium Platonicum Pragense , October, , ed. King, Berlin-New York: W. C: National Capital Press , p.

Oehler, R. Ogle, M. Hippolytus of Rome and the Presocratics , London : Duckworth Martin and O. Osborne, H. Paul Demont, Owens, Joseph , Aristotle on Empedocles Fr. Shiner - J. B 6 and 4 elements in the ancient Egypt. Empedocles' Element theory and Parmenides: p. Kalliopeia is addressing Empedocles in B 2, B 23, B Is Empedocles already a god or not? Sure, he will be a god, when he died.

Empedocles will re-present, as his generic models Hesiod and Parmenides re-presented before him, the revelation he initially received from a divine source. Palumbo, Lidia, Empedocle e il linguaggio poetico , in: Empedocle: tra poesia, medicina, filosofia e politica, ed. Panagiotou, S. Pancamo, E. Discorso , Agrigento-Dima : Liceo classico Empedocle , 26 p. Paolucci, P.

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Sassi, Pisa : Edizioni della Normale , p. Casertano, Napoli: Loffredo , Skepsis, 19 , p. Scholia, B 35, B Herausgegeben von M. Curd - D. Graham, Oxford: Oxford University Press That contribution can be read in full on:. See review by R. Janko, Elm - St. Empedocles as a Doctor: p. Empedocles' Physics: p. Philosophie- und Wissenschaftsgeschichte im Jahrhundert, Gerald Hartung ed.

Rechenauer, Basel: Schwabe , p. Short review by J. Mansfeld in Mnemosyne 68, , p. Geburtstag, ed. Louguet, Lille , p. Primavesi on B Cinque incontri sulla cultura classica, ed. Caposso, Lecce: Pensa Multimedia , p. Ragot, P. Rambaldi, Simone. Translation in French of Hippolytus. Nietzsche, p. Grossheim - H. Waschkies, Bonn : Bouvier , p. Stern-Gillet and K. Reconstitution et commentaire , in: Elenchos , 29, fasc. Raynaud, J. Reiche, Harald Anton T. B 27, B 28, B Cohen Beck Gadamer, Darmstadt : Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft 1 , 2 , 3.

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Frazis eds. A critical and interesting review of Graham, D. Michael Erler, Berlin: De Gruyter, B 23, B Rudberg, Gunnar , Empedokles und Evolution , in: Eranos 50, , p. Published by Ares Publishers Inc. Ruocco, Ernesto , Daimon, Sphairos, Ananke. Psicologia e teologia in Empedocle , in: Forme del sapere nei presocratici, ed.

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Mit orig. Radierungen von Bernard Schultze , Tiessen Sangermano , B. Meno 76 D-E , in: Classical Philology Santaniello, Carlo , Ricordo di Renato Laurenti con bibliografia dei suoi scritti , in: Studi filosofici 17, , p. On status of Emp.

Presocratic Philosophy

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The Poetics of Philosophical Language

Gilardoni, Cortona : Calosci Santoro, F. Scarpat, Giuseppe , Salomone astronomo come Empedocle: la vis ventorum nel Libro della Sapienza , in: Studia classica Johanni tarditi oblata, ed. Belloni - G. Milanese - A. Porro, Milano : Vita e pensiero , p. Scarpi, Paolo , Empedocle mago , in: Empedocle: tra poesia, medicina, filosofia e politica, ed. Schibli, Hermann Sadun , Review of P. Schofield, Malcolm , s. An Interpretation , in: The Classical Review A 27; printed also separately in Leipzig Beck , p.

Sciavicco, G. Fortenbaugh - D. Gulas, New Brunswick , p. Monica R. A repetition of Chap. Seeck, Gustav Adolf , Empedokles B The author supposes that evolution of conceptions of souls corresponds to evolution of a model of inner existence and inner cosmos: Anaximenes, Heraclitus, Emp. Not very original, but fairly interesting. In the end of book the poetic translation of Katharmoi is appended. Senis, B. The meaning of concept moira , B 17 etc. Francesco Vattioni, Roma: Edizioni pia unione preziosissimo sangue , p. Shaw, Gregory , Review of P. Shaw, Michael M. Sherman, P. Siegel, Rudolf E.

Chapter V: Empedocles, p. Sisko, John E. Warren - F. Sheffield , New York-London: Routledge , p. B 24, B Millon, , p. Millon, , coll. Horos , p. Reprint in Slings, Simon R. B 28, B B 98, B B , B , B , B , B Sprague, Rosamond K. Grunerti patris filiique Saur , p. Mostly influenced by M. Staugaard, K. Stein, Heinrich , Empedoclis Agrigentini Fragmenta.

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Disposuit recensuit adnotavit H. Stock photo. Brand new: lowest price The lowest-priced brand-new, unused, unopened, undamaged item in its original packaging where packaging is applicable. A close analysis of the Republic's diverse literary styles shows how the peculiarities of verbal texture in Platonic discourse can be explained by Plato's remolding of tropes and techniques from poetry and the Presocratics.

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