If approved by Congress, the territory became a state, a status achieved by Ohio in Many more western states would follow.
During the angry politics of the s, the Republicans gradually proved the best match for American society. They insisted that a republic needed vigorous debate and public criticism of its leaders. Madison reminded Congress that in a republic "the censorial power is in the people over the government, and not in the government over the people.
Possessing less confidence in the judgment of uneducated voters, the Federalists feared that unregulated political criticism would undermine respect for the government and lead to a violent anarchy that would destroy the republic. During the early s, western settlers violently resisted a new federal excise tax levied on whiskey stills. In the Washington administration sent 12, militiamen into western Pennsylvania to suppress the so-called "Whiskey Rebels. The President angrily blamed the tax resistance on a set of Republican political clubs known as "the Democratic Societies," which he declared "the most diabolical attempt to destroy the best fabric of human government and happiness.
The Federalists dreaded any political activity by privately organized groups outside of the constitutional structure. Of course, the Republicans disagreed, for they had much greater faith in the ability of common white men to make rational decisions if they had free access to political information. The debate over free speech became more heated and dangerous in , during a foreign policy crisis with France.
Irritated by the growing American trade with Great Britain, the French seized American merchant ships on the high seas. Adding insult to injury, the French demanded bribes and tribute from American diplomats in Paris, in a controversy known as the XYZ Affair.
Exploiting popular outrage, the Federalist-dominated federal government prepared for war and denounced the Republicans as French sympathizers. Congress criminalized dissent, particularly when expressed by newly arrived immigrants. Most came from Ireland and supported the Republicans, who shared their hatred of the British Empire. To reduce their political influence, Congress extended the period for naturalization as a citizen to fourteen years from the previous five.
Congress also authorized the President to expel any unnaturalized alien deemed "dangerous to the peace and safety of the United States. Congress also passed a Sedition Act, which applied to citizens as well as aliens. The Sedition Act made it a federal crime to utter or publish "any false, scandalous, and malicious writing or writings against the government of the United States or the President of the United States, with intent to defame.
Ten resulted in conviction and punishment. The Alien and Sedition Acts outraged the Republicans as further proof that the Federalists meant to stifle debate and dissent. In late the Republican-dominated state governments of Kentucky and Virginia adopted resolutions written by Jefferson and Madison respectively. Those resolutions denounced the Alien and Sedition Acts as unconstitutional.
They further hinted that states could nullify enforcement of such laws within their bounds. The other state legislatures, however, blanched at the doctrine of nullification and rejected the Kentucky and Virginia resolves. Instead, the election of would decide the fate of the federal republic and of its union. If the Federalists retained power, Jefferson threatened that Virginia and Kentucky would "sever ourselves from that union we so much value, rather than give up the rights of self government.
In the election, the Republicans prevailed because the Sedition Act and federal taxes proved so unpopular. After a heated race Jefferson won the presidency by seventy-three electoral votes to sixty-five for the Federalist John Adams. The Republicans captured control of Congress as well. In subsequent elections, the Republicans would build their majority, as the Federalists faded. The Friends of the People had triumphed over the Fathers of the People.
Because the election of swept the Federalists from power, Jefferson called his victory the "Revolution of The Sedition Act expired and Jefferson pardoned prisoners convicted under that law. Congress also appealed to immigrants by reducing the period of naturalization from fourteen years back to just five.
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In practice, however, Jefferson and his fellow Republicans proved inconsistent as civil libertarians. In the new president explained, "While we deny that Congress have a right to controul the freedom of the press, we have ever asserted the right of the states, and their exclusive right to do so.
Jefferson also rejected the more regal style of the Federalist presidents, Washington and Adams, who had staged elaborate rituals, worn expensive clothes, and held fancy receptions. The Federalists believed that shows of power helped to build public respect for the government. Of course, the Republicans insisted that these displays sought to dazzle the people into gradually accepting a monarchy and an aristocracy. As president, Jefferson eliminated most of the rituals and receptions. He sold the presidential coaches, horses, and silver harnesses. On public occasions, he walked to Congress, and he often wore drab, simple clothing.
The British ambassador felt insulted when the President received him wearing a bathrobe and slippers. Although quite wealthy, Jefferson made a show of his common touch, setting a tone followed by later presidents. Jefferson regarded this rustic setting as perfect for the weak federal government that he desired, for he sought to decentralize power by reducing the power of the federal government to give a greater share to the states, which he saw as more democratic because they were closer to the people. Jefferson rejected the Federalist vision of a powerful and centralized nation, like those in Europe.
To weaken the federal government, Jefferson sought to pay off and eliminate the national debt, which Hamilton had regarded as an essential bond of the union. At the same time, Jefferson reduced taxes and eliminated the hated whiskey tax. Jefferson accomplished this goal, in part, by reducing federal government to a bare minimum, and by cutting back on the Army and the Navy. He limited the American foreign service to just three countries: the ambassadors to France, Spain, and Great Britain. But he primarily reduced the debt thanks to a great increase in federal revenue from two sources: a surge in imports increased the funds generated by the tariff, and an acceleration of western migration enhanced the sale of federal lands.
Jefferson sought to provide frontier farms for a growing American population that doubled every twenty-five years. He insisted that a republic needed a broad distribution of property in the hands of many small farmers. Jefferson expected American migration to overwhelm the Spanish empire, which claimed Florida and the immense territory west of the Mississippi known as Louisiana, but the Spanish threatened that vision by selling Louisiana to the French in A ruthless general, Napoleon Bonaparte, had seized power in France, and he meant to build a global empire. The purchase added to the national debt that he had vowed to reduce.
It also violated his very strict and literal construction of the federal Constitution, which did not explicitly authorize the purchase of new territory. Rather than lose the prize, Jefferson set aside his constitutional scruples and, with the support of the Senate, ratified the purchase treaty. Jefferson also expanded federal power to wage an overseas war—something far beyond the ambitions of the Federalists, who had clung to neutrality in the conflicts on the other side of the Atlantic. By paying protection money, the Washington and Adams administrations had bought peace with the Barbary emirates of North Africa, which deployed pirates against the ships of non-Muslim nations.
Determined to cut the federal budget, Jefferson cancelled the payments, which reaped a war with Tripoli. That war proved far more expensive than tribute, and it compelled Jefferson to keep the small deepwater navy that he had wanted to dissolve. Jefferson expected a quick, easy, and cheap victory in "the Barbary War. Making the most of their shallow waters and heavily fortified seaport, the Tripolitans fended off the larger American warships, and Americans reaped a logistical and financial nightmare trying to sustain a blockading fleet in the distant Mediterranean.
In the ruler of Tripoli made a face-saving treaty with the Americans. Americans celebrated the Tripoli war as a great school for naval heroes and as a great victory for liberty over a land of slavery for white men. But within a few years, the pirates resumed attacking American ships, and did so with impunity because the United States had been sucked into another war with Great Britain.
To pay down the national debt, the Jefferson administration relied on a great surge in American overseas commerce, which enhanced the tariff revenue. Between and , trade increased as American merchant ships exploited their neutral status to take trade away from the two great belligerents, France and Britain.
American seaports and shipyards boomed. The booming American trade appalled the British, for it rescued the French economy from a British blockade and, as the premier commercial power in the world, the British resented the rise of the United States as a formidable rival. So in the British began to seize American merchant ships that carried goods from France or any of the French colonies. British naval captains aggressively enforced the new hard line, for they received a share in the auctioned value of confiscated ships and cargo.
To fill vacancies in Royal Navy crews, the captains also seized sailors from the American ships, a practice known as "impressment. Often the sailors were immigrants from Britain, but the British refused to recognize any American right to naturalize British subjects. Between and the British impressed over 6, sailors who claimed to be American citizens. For want of a larger navy of expensive ships, the United States could do little to resist the British seizures of American merchant ships and sailors.
In June , a British warship attacked and captured an American warship to impress some of its sailors. Still Jefferson balked at an overt war with the British. Instead, he settled for an "embargo" that ordered all American merchant ships to stay in port, barred from trading anywhere in the world.
Jefferson reasoned that the British needed American trade more than America needed to trade with them. As an industrializing country with many workers, the British depended on importing food from, and exporting manufactures to, the United States. Jefferson was mistaken.
Watrous were appointed secretary of the treasury and attorney general, respectively. Congress passed several acts dealing with frontier defense. Kennedy and his associates planned to place families south of the Nueces River, but the colony never materialized. France, Great Britain, and the United States were clamoring for the payment of claims of their citizens against Mexico. If Congress confirmed a claim, a survey was ordered, and eventually, a patent, or title, to the property was issued. Peters and his associates to settle families from the Ohio valley and northeastern states on the northern frontier south of the Red River.
The British managed to get enough food elsewhere and to find new markets for their exports in Latin America. Indeed, they were delighted to see the United States suppress the very shipping that the British resented as unwanted competition. The embargo hurt the Americans far more than the British. It threw sailors and laborers out of work, bankrupted many merchants, and left farmers with surplus crops that they could no longer export. The economic pain revived the dying Federalist Party in the Northeast, the region hardest hit by the embargo.
The Federalist comeback spooked the Republicans in that region. They pressured their colleagues in Congress and in the administration to abandon the embargo. Congress did so in March of just as Jefferson left the presidency and its troubles to his friend and successor, James Madison. The great proponent of minimal government, Thomas Jefferson, trapped his administration and party in a massive contradiction. He had dramatically expanded federal power to criminalize, for more than a year, the overseas commerce essential to national prosperity.
By enforcing that misguided policy, Jefferson threatened thousands of Americans with financial ruin while rewarding smugglers with windfall profits.
The two parties had reversed their positions. Jefferson used executive power against citizens, while the Federalist governors and state legislatures in New England threatened to nullify national laws. The failure of the embargo left many Republicans feeling humiliated at their inability to protect American ships and sailors. A group of Jeffersonian congressmen known as War Hawks insisted that there was no alternative but to declare war on Great Britain. But how was the United States to wage war on a maritime superpower like Great Britain? The United States had only seventeen warships compared to the 1, of the Royal Navy.
This could be done cheaply, without the cost of building a large navy or even, they believed, of organizing a large, professional army. The War Hawks boasted that the civilian-soldiers of the state militias would suffice to conquer Canada. Caught up in this enthusiasm, Jefferson insisted that the conquest of Canada was "a mere matter of marching. Waging war with a militia proved even more of a disaster than the embargo had been. Because so many militiamen deserted to avoid combat, the British and their Indian allies repeatedly repelled the invaders, while the American professional army was too small and too badly led to make a difference.
Ironically, the little American Navy did much better, defeating several British warships in battles on the high seas. These unexpected naval victories boosted American morale and frustrated the British, who were used to always winning at sea. But a few small-scale naval victories did little to reduce the vastly superior number of British warships.
During the summer and fall of , British forces went on the offensive, invading the United States from multiple directions. They captured eastern Maine and briefly occupied and partially burned the national capital, Washington, DC—a great humiliation for the Madison administration. But, in general, American forces fought better defending their own country than they had as invaders of Canada.
Weary of the war, British diplomats offered the Americans generous terms in a peace treaty concluded at Ghent in Europe in December. The British agreed to withdraw from the lands they had occupied in eastern Maine, northern Michigan, and western New York. The treaty said nothing about the maritime issues that had led to war. Having failed to conquer Canada or compel British maritime concessions, the Republicans redefined national survival as victory. Average Rating. Herrera, Carlos R. Choose a Format. On Shelf. Main Southwest Room. Place Hold. Date Publisher Phys Desc. Language Availability  University of Oklahoma Press, xii, pages ; 24 cm.
English On Shelf. More Info Place Hold. Add To List. As governor of New Mexico from to , Anza enacted a series of changes in the colony's governance that helped preserve it as a Spanish territory and strengthen the larger empire to which it belonged. Although Anza is best known for his travels to California as a young man, this book, the first comprehensive biography of Anza, shows his greater historical importance as a soldier and administrator in the history of North America.
Historian Carlos R.
Herrera argues that Anza's formative years in Sonora, Mexico, contributed to his success as a colonial administrator. The ruling junta popular was contentious and indecisive, its minutes full of crossed-out sections. On Sept. The man army detachment of Santa Fe, which Gonzales had disbanded, reorganized and marched south to join Armijo. Armijo wrote to the Mexican authorities, explaining the situation, and then marched to Santa Fe.
He met little resistance; indeed Gonzales, who had gone to Taos to visit his family, was arrested in Santa Fe on Sept. While in Santa Fe, Armijo wrote to Mexico again, stating what he had done and asking for troops to complete his victory and re-establish peace Lecompte , pages 50— Though Armijo had only about soldiers, they were much better trained and equipped than the rebels, and Armijo negotiated a peace treaty that was signed Sept. Montoya would later be executed for his part in the Taos Rebellion.
Armijo ordered the execution of Esquibel and the three other prisoners, but to Armijo's anger, his subordinates postponed the execution. Armijo spent the next few months raising funds to feed and pay his soldiers, who were on the point of mutiny.