Such persons, therefore, were able to understand the intentions of the prophets and apostles, otherwise the prophets and apostles would have seemed to be preaching to little boys and infants, not to men endowed with reason.
Baruch Spinoza was a Jewish-Dutch philosopher of Portuguese Sephardi origin. One of the In his Latin works, he used Latin: Benedictus de Spinoza. Logico-Philosophicus, an allusion to Spinoza's Tractatus Theologico-Politicus. Baruch de Spinoza or Benedictus de Spinoza (–) — as a highly controversial, influential and significant figure in the history of Western and Jewish.
Moses, too, would have given his laws in vain, if they could only be comprehended by the faithful, who need no law. Indeed, those who demand supernatural faculties for comprehending the meaning of the prophets and apostles seem truly lacking in natural faculties, so that we should hardly suppose such persons the possessors of a Divine supernatural gift.
It is part of my purpose I will begin with the received opinions concerning the true authors of the sacred books The words of Aben Ezra which occur in his commentary To prove this This shows that the work was of much less length than the Pentateuch, inasmuch as it could be read through at one sitting The book of Joshua may be proved not to be an autograph For instance, that the Israelites worshipped God, after his death, so long as there were any old men alive who remembered him.
For no one by the law of nature is bound to please another, unless he chooses, nor to hold anything to be good or evil, but what he himself, according to his own temperament, pronounces to be so; and, to speak generally, nothing is forbidden by the law of nature, except what is beyond everyone's power But wrongdoing is action which cannot lawfully be committed. For if men by the ordinance of nature were bound to be led by reason, then all of necessity would be so led.
For the ordinances of nature are the ordinances of God But men are chiefly guided by appetite, without reason; yet for all this they do not disturb the course of nature, but follow it of necessity. And, therefore, a man ignorant and weak of mind, is no more bound by natural law to order his life wisely, than a sick man is bound to be sound of body. See the review.
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Share This Book. I have shown that he necessarily exists, that he is one: that he is, and acts solely by the necessity of his own nature; that he is the free cause of all things, and how he is so; that all things are in God, and so depend on him, that without him they could neither exist nor be conceived; lastly, that all things are predetermined by God, not through his free will or absolute fiat, but from the very nature of God or infinite power. Retrieved 11 November Amazon Inspire Digital Educational Resources. Note 2 —No doubt it will be difficult for those who think about things loosely, and have not been accustomed to know them by their primary causes, to comprehend the demonstration of Proposition 7: for such persons make no distinction between the modifications of substances and the substances themselves, and are ignorant of the manner in which things are produced; hence they may attribute to substances the beginning which they observe in natural objects.
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Set up a giveaway. The form of the work as a whole is therefore a mixture of axiomatic proof and philosophical narrative. The Ethics relies on three Jewish sources, which were probably familiar to Spinoza from his early intellectual life. Spinoza had a copy in Spanish in his library. Last, Spinoza seems to have had access to the Gate of Heaven by Abraham Cohen de Herrera, the most philosophically sophisticated Kabbalist of the 17th century. A disciple of Isaac ben Solomon Luria and an early member of the Amsterdam congregation, Herrera knew a vast amount of ancient, Islamic, Jewish, and Christian philosophy, as well as Kabbalistic thought.
The Gate of Heaven , his major work, circulated in Amsterdam in Spanish and appeared in a Hebrew abridgement in Spinoza begins by stating a set of definitions of eight terms: self-caused , finite of its own kind , substance , attribute , mode , God , freedom , and eternity. Spinoza quickly establishes that substance must be existent, self-caused, and unlimited. From this he proves that there cannot be two substances with the same attribute, since each would limit the other. Later in Part I, Spinoza established that everything that occurs necessarily follows from the nature of God and that there can be no contingencies in nature.
Part I concludes with an appended polemic about the misreading of the world by religious and superstitious people who think that God can change the course of events and that the course of events sometimes reflects a divine judgment of human behaviour. Part II explores the two attributes through which human beings understand the world, thought and extension. The latter form of understanding is developed in natural science , the former in logic and psychology.
For Spinoza, there is no problem, as there is for Descartes , of explaining the interaction between mind and body. The two are not distinct entities causally interacting with each other but merely different aspects of the same events. Spinoza accepted the mechanistic physics of Descartes as the right way of understanding the world in terms of extension.
Because God is the only substance, all physical and mental entities are modes of God. Unconsciously, biological modes are also driven by emotions of fear and pleasure to act in certain ways. Human beings, as biological modes, are in a state of bondage as long as they act solely from emotions. The highest form of knowledge consists of an intellectual intuition of things in their existence as modes and attributes of eternal substance, or God; this is what it means to see the world from the aspect of eternity. This kind of knowledge leads to a deeper understanding of God, who is all things, and ultimately to an intellectual love of God amor Dei intellectualis , a form of blessedness amounting to a kind of rational-mystical experience.
Soon after he completed the Ethics , Spinoza was visited by several important people, including Ehrenfried Walter von Tschirnhaus in , a scientist and philosopher, and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz in , who was, like Spinoza, one of the leading rationalists of the time. Leibniz, having heard of Spinoza as an authority on optics, had sent him an optical tract and had then received from Spinoza a copy of the Tractatus Theologico-Politicus , which deeply interested him.
He died in , leaving no heir, and his few possessions were sold at auction. They included about books, the catalog of which has been preserved. Spinoza has an assured place in the intellectual history of the Western world. Because his philosophical system was completely severed from any specific religious or historical perspective, and because he was strongly opposed to any form of supernaturalism, he was almost universally misunderstood and denounced as an atheist for nearly a century after his death.
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Benedict de Spinoza. Brand new Book. The only complete edition in English of Baruch Spinoza's works, this volume features Samuel Shirley's preeminent translations, distinguished at once by the lucidity and fluency with which they convey the flavor and meaning of Spinoza's original texts.
Morgan provides a general introduction that places Spinoza in Western philosophy and culture and sketches the philosophical, scientific, religious, moral and political dimensions of Spinoza's thought. Morgan's brief introductions to each work give a succinct historical, biographical, and philosophical overview. Seller Inventory AAZ Book Description Condition: New. Bookseller Inventory ST Seller Inventory ST New copy - Usually dispatched within 2 working days. Seller Inventory B Book Description Hardback. Not Signed; The only complete edition in English of Baruch Spinoza's works, this volume features Samuel Shirleys preeminent translations, distinguished at once by the lucidity and fluency with which they convey the flavor and meaning of Spinozas original texts.
Morgan provides a general introduction. Seller Inventory M Spinoza: Complete Works. Baruch Spinoza. Publisher: Hackett Publishing Company, Inc. This specific ISBN edition is currently not available. View all copies of this ISBN edition:.