British Broadcasting Corporation Home. Andrew Warhola was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Between and Warhol studied at the Carnegie Institute of Technology. In , he moved to New York and changed his name to Warhol. He worked as a commercial artist for magazines and also designed advertising and window displays. In the early s, he began to experiment with reproductions based on advertisements, newspaper headlines and other mass-produced images from American popular culture such as Campbell's soup tins and Coca Cola bottles.
In , he began his series portraits of Marilyn Monroe. Other subjects given similar treatment included Jackie Kennedy and Elvis Presley. The same year he took part in the New Realists exhibition in New York, which was the first important survey of Pop Art. In , Warhol began to make experimental films. His studio, known as the Factory, became a meeting point for young artists, actors, musicians and hangers-on. Many of his creations are very collectible and highly valuable.
Warhol was born on August 6, , in Pittsburgh , Pennsylvania. Warhol's father emigrated to the United States in , and his mother joined him in , after the death of Warhol's grandparents. Warhol's father worked in a coal mine.
John Chrysostom Byzantine Catholic Church. Pavol's son, James Warhola , became a successful children's book illustrator. In third grade, Warhol had Sydenham's chorea also known as St. Vitus' Dance , the nervous system disease that causes involuntary movements of the extremities, which is believed to be a complication of scarlet fever which causes skin pigmentation blotchiness. Warhol later described this period as very important in the development of his personality, skill-set and preferences. When Warhol was 13, his father died in an accident.
As a teenager, Warhol graduated from Schenley High School in Warhol's early career was dedicated to commercial and advertising art, where his first commission had been to draw shoes for Glamour magazine in the late s. He somehow gave each shoe a temperament of its own, a sort of sly, Toulouse-Lautrec kind of sophistication, but the shape and the style came through accurately and the buckle was always in the right place.
The kids in the apartment [which Andy shared in New York — note by Coplans] noticed that the vamps on Andy's shoe drawings kept getting longer and longer but [Israel] Miller didn't mind. Miller loved them. Warhol's "whimsical" ink drawings of shoe advertisements figured in some of his earliest showings at the Bodley Gallery in New York.
Warhol was an early adopter of the silk screen printmaking process as a technique for making paintings. A young Warhol was taught silk screen printmaking techniques by Max Arthur Cohn at his graphic arts business in Manhattan. His use of tracing paper and ink allowed him to repeat the basic image and also to create endless variations on the theme, a method that prefigures his s silk-screen canvas.
Warhol habitually used the expedient of tracing photographs projected with an epidiascope. With the rapid expansion of the record industry , RCA Records hired Warhol, along with another freelance artist, Sid Maurer, to design album covers and promotional materials. He began exhibiting his work during the s. The exhibition marked his West Coast debut of pop art. At the Stable Gallery exhibit, the artist met for the first time poet John Giorno who would star in Warhol's first film, Sleep , in It was during the s that Warhol began to make paintings of iconic American objects such as dollar bills, mushroom clouds , electric chairs , Campbell's Soup Cans , Coca-Cola bottles, celebrities such as Marilyn Monroe , Elvis Presley , Marlon Brando , Troy Donahue , Muhammad Ali , and Elizabeth Taylor , as well as newspaper headlines or photographs of police dogs attacking African-American protesters during the Birmingham campaign in the civil rights movement.
During these years, he founded his studio, " The Factory " and gathered about him a wide range of artists, writers, musicians, and underground celebrities. His work became popular and controversial. Warhol had this to say about Coca-Cola:. What's great about this country is that America started the tradition where the richest consumers buy essentially the same things as the poorest. A Coke is a Coke and no amount of money can get you a better Coke than the one the bum on the corner is drinking. All the Cokes are the same and all the Cokes are good. Liz Taylor knows it, the President knows it, the bum knows it, and you know it.
New York City's Museum of Modern Art hosted a Symposium on pop art in December during which artists such as Warhol were attacked for "capitulating" to consumerism. Critics were scandalized by Warhol's open embrace of market culture. This symposium set the tone for Warhol's reception. The show was presented as a typical U. The exhibit was one of the first mass events that directly confronted the general public with both pop art and the perennial question of what art is. As an advertisement illustrator in the s, Warhol used assistants to increase his productivity.
Collaboration would remain a defining and controversial aspect of his working methods throughout his career; this was particularly true in the s. One of the most important collaborators during this period was Gerard Malanga. Malanga assisted the artist with the production of silkscreens, films, sculpture, and other works at " The Factory ", Warhol's aluminum foil -and-silver-paint-lined studio on 47th Street later moved to Broadway. These people all participated in the Factory films, and some—like Berlin—remained friends with Warhol until his death. Less well known was his support and collaboration with several teen-agers during this era, who would achieve prominence later in life including writer David Dalton,  photographer Stephen Shore  and artist Bibbe Hansen mother of pop musician Beck.
She authored in the S. Manifesto ,  a separatist feminist tract that advocated the elimination of men; and appeared in the Warhol film I, a Man. Earlier on the day of the attack, Solanas had been turned away from the Factory after asking for the return of a script she had given to Warhol. The script had apparently been misplaced. Amaya received only minor injuries and was released from the hospital later the same day.
Warhol was seriously wounded by the attack and barely survived: surgeons opened his chest and massaged his heart to help stimulate its movement again. He suffered physical effects for the rest of his life, including being required to wear a surgical corset. Solanas was arrested the day after the assault, after turning herself in to police. By way of explanation, she said that Warhol "had too much control over my life. After the shooting, the Factory scene heavily increased security, and for many the "Factory 60s" ended.
Warhol had this to say about the attack: "Before I was shot, I always thought that I was more half-there than all-there—I always suspected that I was watching TV instead of living life. People sometimes say that the way things happen in movies is unreal, but actually it's the way things happen in life that's unreal.
The movies make emotions look so strong and real, whereas when things really do happen to you, it's like watching television—you don't feel anything. Right when I was being shot and ever since, I knew that I was watching television. The channels switch, but it's all television.
SoHo: Solomon R. Retrieved September 29, The Guardian. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. A new exhibition at the Dali Museum in Saint Petersburg, Florida, plays tribute the friendship and influence of the painter and fashion designer.
Compared to the success and scandal of Warhol's work in the s, the s were a much quieter decade, as he became more entrepreneurial. An idea expressed in the book: "Making money is art, and working is art and good business is the best art. Art critic Robert Hughes called him "the white mole of Union Square.
Warhol had a re-emergence of critical and financial success in the s, partially due to his affiliation and friendships with a number of prolific younger artists, who were dominating the " bull market " of s New York art: Jean-Michel Basquiat , Julian Schnabel , David Salle and other so-called Neo-Expressionists , as well as members of the Transavantgarde movement in Europe, including Francesco Clemente and Enzo Cucchi. By this time, graffiti artist Fab Five Freddy paid homage to Warhol when he painted an entire train with Campbell soup cans.
This was instrumental in Freddy becoming involved in the underground NYC art scene and becoming an affiliate of Basquiat. By this period, Warhol was being criticized for becoming merely a "business artist". They also criticized his exhibit of 10 portraits at the Jewish Museum in Manhattan, entitled Jewish Geniuses , which Warhol—who was uninterested in Judaism and Jews—had described in his diary as "They're going to sell.
Warhol also had an appreciation for intense Hollywood glamour. He once said: "I love Los Angeles. I love Hollywood. They're so beautiful. Everything's plastic, but I love plastic. I want to be plastic. In Vanity Fair commissioned Warhol to produce a portrait of Prince , in order to accompany an article that celebrated the success of Purple Rain and its accompanying movie. The facial features and hair are screen-printed in black over the orange background. In the Andy Warhol Diaries , Warhol recorded how excited he was to see Prince and Billy Idol together at a party in the mid s, and he compared them to the Hollywood movie stars of the s and s who also inspired his portraits: " By the beginning of the s, pop art was an experimental form that several artists were independently adopting; some of these pioneers, such as Roy Lichtenstein , would later become synonymous with the movement.
Warhol, who would become famous as the "Pope of Pop", turned to this new style, where popular subjects could be part of the artist's palette. His early paintings show images taken from cartoons and advertisements, hand-painted with paint drips. Marilyn Monroe was a pop art painting that Warhol had done and it was very popular.
Those drips emulated the style of successful abstract expressionists such as Willem de Kooning. Warhol's first pop art paintings were displayed in April , serving as the backdrop for New York Department Store Bonwit Teller's window display. It was the gallerist Muriel Latow who came up with the ideas for both the soup cans and Warhol's dollar paintings. He loved celebrities , so he painted them as well. From these beginnings he developed his later style and subjects. Instead of working on a signature subject matter, as he started out to do, he worked more and more on a signature style, slowly eliminating the handmade from the artistic process.
Warhol frequently used silk-screening ; his later drawings were traced from slide projections. At the height of his fame as a painter, Warhol had several assistants who produced his silk-screen multiples, following his directions to make different versions and variations.
It was reported at the time that, unlike the three artists before him, Warhol opted to paint directly onto the automobile himself instead of letting technicians transfer his scale-model design to the car. Warhol produced both comic and serious works; his subject could be a soup can or an electric chair. Warhol used the same techniques—silkscreens, reproduced serially, and often painted with bright colors—whether he painted celebrities, everyday objects, or images of suicide, car crashes, and disasters, as in the —63 Death and Disaster series.
Some of Warhol's work, as well as his own personality, has been described as being Keatonesque. Warhol has been described as playing dumb to the media. He sometimes refused to explain his work. He has suggested that all one needs to know about his work is "already there 'on the surface'. His Rorschach inkblots are intended as pop comments on art and what art could be. His cow wallpaper literally, wallpaper with a cow motif and his oxidation paintings canvases prepared with copper paint that was then oxidized with urine are also noteworthy in this context.
Equally noteworthy is the way these works—and their means of production —mirrored the atmosphere at Andy's New York "Factory". Biographer Bob Colacello provides some details on Andy's "piss paintings":. He would come to the Factory to urinate on canvases that had already been primed with copper-based paint by Andy or Ronnie Cutrone , a second ghost pisser much appreciated by Andy, who said that the vitamin B that Ronnie took made a prettier color when the acid in the urine turned the copper green.
Did Andy ever use his own urine? My diary shows that when he first began the series, in December , he did, and there were many others: boys who'd come to lunch and drink too much wine, and find it funny or even flattering to be asked to help Andy 'paint'. Andy always had a little extra bounce in his walk as he led them to his studio.
Warhol's first portrait of Basquiat is a black photo-silkscreen over an oxidized copper "piss painting". After many years of silkscreen, oxidation, photography, etc.
I promised you wonderful readers a post on Andy Warhol, the Pop artist who experienced the height of his fame in the s. Warhol explored. When Ai Weiwei visited Pittsburgh in June for the opening of Andy Warhol | Ai Designing an Inclusive Audio Guide Part 3: Talking Tech with Ruben Niculcea.
Andy Warhol was commissioned in by collector and gallerist Alexander Iolas to produce work based on Leonardo da Vinci 's The Last Supper for an exhibition at the old refectory of the Palazzo delle Stelline in Milan , opposite from the Santa Maria delle Grazie where Leonardo da Vinci's mural can be seen. Artist Maurizio Cattelan describes that it is difficult to separate daily encounters from the art of Andy Warhol: "That's probably the greatest thing about Warhol: the way he penetrated and summarized our world, to the point that distinguishing between him and our everyday life is basically impossible, and in any case useless.
In the period just before his death, Warhol was working on Cars , a series of paintings for Mercedes-Benz. The piece silkscreen ink and spray paint on canvas shows Elvis Presley in a gunslinger pose.
It was first exhibited in at the Ferus Gallery in Los Angeles. Warhol made 22 versions of the Double Elvis , nine of which are held in museums. Warhol worked across a wide range of media—painting, photography, drawing, and sculpture. In addition, he was a highly prolific filmmaker.
Between and , he made more than 60 films,  plus some short black-and-white " screen test " portraits of Factory visitors. The minute film Blow Job is one continuous shot of the face of DeVeren Bookwalter supposedly receiving oral sex from filmmaker Willard Maas , although the camera never tilts down to see this.
The film Eat consists of a man eating a mushroom for 45 minutes. Warhol attended the premiere of the static composition by LaMonte Young called Trio for Strings and subsequently created his famous series of static films including Kiss , Eat , and Sleep for which Young initially was commissioned to provide music. Uwe Husslein cites filmmaker Jonas Mekas , who accompanied Warhol to the Trio premiere, and who claims Warhol's static films were directly inspired by the performance.
Batman Dracula is a film that was produced and directed by Warhol, without the permission of DC Comics. It was screened only at his art exhibits. A fan of the Batman series, Warhol's movie was an "homage" to the series, and is considered the first appearance of a blatantly campy Batman. The film was until recently thought to have been lost, until scenes from the picture were shown at some length in the documentary Jack Smith and the Destruction of Atlantis.
Legendary underground artist Jack Smith appears in the film Camp. His most popular and critically successful film was Chelsea Girls The film was highly innovative in that it consisted of two 16 mm -films being projected simultaneously, with two different stories being shown in tandem. From the projection booth, the sound would be raised for one film to elucidate that "story" while it was lowered for the other. The multiplication of images evoked Warhol's seminal silk-screen works of the early s. Warhol was a fan of filmmaker Radley Metzger 's film work  and commented that Metzger's film, The Lickerish Quartet , was "an outrageously kinky masterpiece".
After his 3 June shooting, a reclusive Warhol relinquished his personal involvement in filmmaking. His acolyte and assistant director, Paul Morrissey , took over the film-making chores for the Factory collective, steering Warhol-branded cinema towards more mainstream, narrative-based, B-movie exploitation fare with Flesh , Trash , and Heat. All of these films, including the later Andy Warhol's Dracula and Andy Warhol's Frankenstein , were far more mainstream than anything Warhol as a director had attempted.
These latter "Warhol" films starred Joe Dallesandro —more of a Morrissey star than a true Warhol superstar. In the early s, most of the films directed by Warhol were pulled out of circulation by Warhol and the people around him who ran his business. After Warhol's death, the films were slowly restored by the Whitney Museum and are occasionally projected at museums and film festivals. Few of the Warhol-directed films are available on video or DVD. In the mids, Warhol adopted the band the Velvet Underground , making them a crucial element of the Exploding Plastic Inevitable multimedia performance art show.
Warhol, with Paul Morrissey , acted as the band's manager, introducing them to Nico who would perform with the band at Warhol's request.
While managing The Velvet Underground , Andy would have them dressed in all black to perform in front of movies that he was also presenting. His actual participation in the album's production amounted to simply paying for the studio time. After the band's first album, Warhol and band leader Lou Reed started to disagree more about the direction the band should take, and their artistic friendship ended. Warhol designed many album covers for various artists starting with the photographic cover of John Wallowitch 's debut album, This Is John Wallowitch!!!
One of Warhol's last works was a portrait of Aretha Franklin for the cover of her gold album Aretha , which was done in the style of the Reigning Queens series he had completed the year before. Bowie recorded a song called " Andy Warhol " for his album Hunky Dory. He recorded it with the Velvet Underground, and this version was released on the VU album in Bowie would later play Warhol in the movie, Basquiat.
Bowie recalled how meeting Warhol in real life helped him in the role, and recounted his early meetings with him:. I met him a couple of times, but we seldom shared more than platitudes. The first time we saw each other an awkward silence fell till he remarked my bright yellow shoes and started talking enthusiastically. He wanted to be very superficial. And seemingly emotionless, indifferent, just like a dead fish. Lou Reed described him most profoundly when he once told me they should bring a doll of Andy on the market: a doll that you wind up and doesn't do anything. But I managed to observe him well, and that was a helping hand for the film [ Basquiat Even the pockets weren't emptied: they contained pancake, white, deadly pale fond de teint which Andy always smeared on his face, a check torn in pieces, someone's address, lots of homeopathic pills and a wig.
Andy always wore those silver wigs, but he never admitted it were wigs. One of his hairdressers has told me lately that he had his wigs regularly cut, like it were real hair. When the wig was trimmed, he put on another next month as if his hair had grown. The first of several bound self-published books by Warhol was 25 Cats Name Sam and One Blue Pussy , printed in by Seymour Berlin on Arches brand watermarked paper using his blotted line technique for the lithographs.
The original edition was limited to numbered, hand colored copies, using Dr. Martin's ink washes. Most of these were given by Warhol as gifts to clients and friends. Copy No. Warhol's book A La Recherche du Shoe Perdu marked his "transition from commercial to gallery artist". Warhol created the fashion magazine Interview that is still published today.
The loopy title script on the cover is thought to be either his own handwriting or that of his mother, Julia Warhola, who would often do text work for his early commercial pieces. Although Andy Warhol is most known for his paintings and films, he authored works in many different media. He founded the gossip magazine Interview , a stage for celebrities he "endorsed" and a business staffed by his friends.
He collaborated with others on all of his books some of which were written with Pat Hackett. He adopted the young painter Jean-Michel Basquiat , and the band The Velvet Underground , presenting them to the public as his latest interest, and collaborating with them. One might even say that he produced people as in the Warholian "Superstar" and the Warholian portrait. He endorsed products, appeared in commercials, and made frequent celebrity guest appearances on television shows and in films he appeared in everything from Love Boat  to Saturday Night Live  and the Richard Pryor movie Dynamite Chicken .
Warhol was gay. Biographer Bob Colacello , who was present at the interview, felt it was probably true and that what little sex he had was probably "a mixture of voyeurism and masturbation —to use [Andy's] word abstract ". What seduced me was the Andy Warhol who I saw alone. In fact when I was with him in public he kind of got on my nerves I'd say: 'You're just obnoxious, I can't bear you.
It permeated everything. Andy exuded it, along with his great artistic creativity It brought a joy to the whole art world in New York. His boyfriend of 12 years was Jed Johnson , whom he met in , and who later achieved fame as an interior designer.
The fact that Warhol's homosexuality influenced his work and shaped his relationship to the art world is a major subject of scholarship on the artist and is an issue that Warhol himself addressed in interviews, in conversation with his contemporaries, and in his publications e. Throughout his career, Warhol produced erotic photography and drawings of male nudes. Many of his most famous works portraits of Liza Minnelli , Judy Garland , and Elizabeth Taylor , and films such as Blow Job , My Hustler and Lonesome Cowboys draw from gay underground culture or openly explore the complexity of sexuality and desire.
As has been addressed by a range of scholars, many of his films premiered in gay porn theaters, including the New Andy Warhol Garrick Theatre and 55th Street Playhouse, in the late s. The first works that Warhol submitted to a fine art gallery, homoerotic drawings of male nudes, were rejected for being too openly gay. De Antonio explained that Warhol was "too swish and that upsets them.
It was all too true. So I decided I just wasn't going to care, because those were all the things that I didn't want to change anyway, that I didn't think I 'should' want to change Other people could change their attitudes but not me". Some have suggested that his frequent refusal to comment on his work, to speak about himself confining himself in interviews to responses like "Um, no" and "Um, yes", and often allowing others to speak for him —and even the evolution of his pop style—can be traced to the years when Warhol was first dismissed by the inner circles of the New York art world.
Warhol was a practicing Ruthenian Catholic. He regularly volunteered at homeless shelters in New York City, particularly during the busier times of the year, and described himself as a religious person. In addition, a body of religious-themed works was found posthumously in his estate. During his life, Warhol regularly attended Liturgy , and the priest at Warhol's church, Saint Vincent Ferrer , said that the artist went there almost daily,  although he was not observed taking Communion or going to Confession and sat or knelt in the pews at the back.
His art is noticeably influenced by the Eastern Christian tradition which was so evident in his places of worship. Warhol's brother has described the artist as "really religious, but he didn't want people to know about that because [it was] private". Despite the private nature of his faith, in Warhol's eulogy John Richardson depicted it as devout: "To my certain knowledge, he was responsible for at least one conversion.
He took considerable pride in financing his nephew's studies for the priesthood". Warhol was an avid collector. His friends referred to his numerous collections, which filled not only his four-story townhouse , but also a nearby storage unit, as "Andy's Stuff. Warhol's collections included a Coca-cola memorabilia sign, and 19th century paintings  along with airplane menus, unpaid invoices, pizza dough, pornographic pulp novels, newspapers, stamps, supermarket flyers, and cookie jars, among other eccentricities. It also included significant works of art, such as George Bellows 's Miss Bentham.
Warhol owned more than 40 and felt very protective of his hairpieces, which were sewn by a New York wig-maker from hair imported from Italy. In a girl snatched Warhol's wig off his head. It was later discovered in Warhol's diary entry for that day that he wrote: "I don't know what held me back from pushing her over the balcony.
Another item found in Warhol's boxes at the museum in Pittsburgh was a mummified human foot from Ancient Egypt. The curator of anthropology at Carnegie Museum of Natural History felt that Warhol most likely found it at a flea market. According to news reports, he had been making a good recovery from gallbladder surgery at New York Hospital before dying in his sleep from a sudden post-operative irregular heartbeat. Shortly before Warhol's death, doctors expected Warhol to survive the surgery, though a revaluation of the case about thirty years after his death showed many indications that Warhol's surgery was in fact riskier than originally thought.
Warhol's brothers took his body back to Pittsburgh, where an open-coffin wake was held at the Thomas P. Kunsak Funeral Home. The solid bronze casket had gold-plated rails and white upholstery.
Warhol was dressed in a black cashmere suit, a paisley tie, a platinum wig, and sunglasses. He was laid out holding a small prayer book and a red rose.
The eulogy was given by Monsignor Peter Tay. Yoko Ono and John Richardson were speakers. The coffin was covered with white roses and asparagus ferns. After the liturgy, the coffin was driven to St. At the grave, the priest said a brief prayer and sprinkled holy water on the casket. Before the coffin was lowered, Paige Powell dropped a copy of Interview magazine, an Interview T-shirt, and a bottle of the Estee Lauder perfume "Beautiful" into the grave.
Warhol was buried next to his mother and father. A memorial service was held in Manhattan for Warhol on April 1, , at St. Patrick's Cathedral, New York. Warhol's will dictated that his entire estate—with the exception of a few modest legacies to family members—would go to create a foundation dedicated to the "advancement of the visual arts".
The foundation serves as the estate of Andy Warhol, but also has a mission "to foster innovative artistic expression and the creative process" and is "focused primarily on supporting work of a challenging and often experimental nature. The Artists Rights Society is the U. All digital images of Warhol are exclusively managed by Corbis , while all transparency images of Warhol are managed by Art Resource. I, —; Vol. III, Legacy Program. The foundation donated more than 3, works of art to the museum. Warhol appeared as himself in the film Cocaine Cowboys  and in the film Tootsie Warhol appears as a character in Michael Daugherty 's opera Jackie O Many films by avant-garde cineast Jonas Mekas have caught the moments of Warhol's life.
Sean Gregory Sullivan depicted Warhol in the film 54 In the movie Highway to Hell a group of Andy Warhols are part of the Good Intentions Paving Company where good-intentioned souls are ground into pavement. Agent W is desperate to end his undercover job "I'm so out of ideas I'm painting soup cans and bananas, for Christ sakes! I can't listen to sitar music anymore.