Alles unter einem Hut: Lyrische Betrachtungen und Gedichte (German Edition)

Peter Rühmkorf
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See also note 19 above. His earlier-expressed commitment to open debate, as well as to Romania's minorities, was increasingly replaced with policies aimed at the uniformisation of Romania's population and the promotion of his own personality cult. The short, direct statements of ideas and points of view favoured in the early s, for instance, made way to longer poems built around loose associations of impressions drawn from daily life.

The language became more obscure and symbolic, the references more hidden. What is more, as the members of the generation matured 26 The activities of the Aktionsgruppe Banat, which emphasised teamwork, are an especially good example of the collaborative process through which the post-war generation of Romanian-German writers developed their skills as poets and critics, as well as a common set of poetic forms and topics.

On the activities of the Echinox circle and magazine, see the article by Klaus F. Despite these formal changes, the poets continued to address social and political issues, to thematise the past and, increasingly, the present of the German minority, and to describe the conditions in Romania's rural and urban centres.

Through the repeated thematisation of these concerns, the poets constituted themselves as a generation throughout their careers in Romania, which, for most, ended with their emigration in the mid to late s. The s Generation in Previous Scholarship The reception of the s generation of Romanian-German poets in previous scholarship is divided into three distinct phases.

The first phase occurred in Romania and started with the very emergence of the generation onto the literary scene in the late s.


It was marked by a careful negotiation of the new theoretical insights of structuralism and the requirements of official socialist discourse. The second phase started in the mid s with the discovery of the generation and of Romanian-German literature in general in West Germany. The public's attention during this discovery was directed through the press and foregrounded the place of origin and the political dimension of the poetry. Against this one-dimensional understanding of the generation's work, 28 Although the experience of emigration is another feature the generation has in common, this momentous change deserves a study of its own and is not included here.

Without the limits imposed by socialist discourse, scholars from both inside and outside Romania have explored various aspects of the generation's work, such as the use of language, the construction of identity, the extensive use of intertextuality. In the first, Romanian, phase, the reception of the s generation of Romanian- German poets consisted largely of reviews and articles published in various periodicals, as well as anthology prefaces and afterwords. Despite being perceived as a generation, the poets were mostly discussed separately, based on their individual volumes.

The evolution of the generation was closely watched, however, and all new appearances on the very small stage of Romanian- German literature were discussed in detail in the Romanian-German press and even hotly debated. Subject of debate were also the purposes and methods of critical analysis. Based on a conversation during a visit from Transylvanian critics Bernd Kolf and Peter Motzan and poet Franz Hodjak to the Bucharest-based journal, the round-table discussion distilled two main criteria of literary analysis, which were to dominate progressive Romanian-German criticism for the next two 29 Authors' ripostes to reviews of their books were not unusual, but critics, too, engaged in debates with each other, whether during round table discussions or in letters to the editor.

Wolf Aichelburg contested the grounds of the review — a structuralist understanding of poetry — prompting a defense of the reviewer and his method by Richard Wagner. In a critical context dominated by the requirements of Socialist Realism, which valued literary works only as manifestations of socialist principles, the structural study of texts, proposed in the round-table discussion, was an attempt to free critical discourse from the dominance of state ideology. Der Einzelfall wird stellvertretend durch die Form: Werkstruktur ist Weltstruktur.

Through the form, the singular becomes the representative: the structure of the work is the structure of the world. According to this argument, the development of Romanian-German literature could only be measured against its own history and not by universal criteria, such as form. Motzan's definition grounded the new theoretical territory introduced by Friedrich's book in the more politically acceptable sociological study of literature. Although literary works continued to be measured against the Romanian-German literary tradition, the idea, introduced by Kolf and refined by Motzan, that texts are highly structured expressions of social experience became the dominant paradigm through which the work of the s generation of writers at the time of the round-table discussion just emerging was viewed both by others and by themselves.

Although wearing here the critic's cap, Hodjak was outlining an understanding of poetry which 30 also guided him as a writer and which he shared with other members of the s generation. The understanding of the s generation of poets as giving voice to the experience of their social context is evident in the definitions of the generation provided by Gerhardt Csejka and Peter Motzan. Daher versuchten sie es umgekehrt: lakonisch, aussparend, pathosfeindlich, aber auch spiel- und experimentierfreundlich.

They very rightly felt that bombastic rhetoric and highfalutin emphasis would not serve artistic veracity. Thus, they tried the opposite approach: laconic, spare, without pathos, but also playful and open to experimentation. Motzan's groundbreaking study is the first periodisation of post-war Romanian-German poetry up to , the book's date of publication. Despite Motzan's evident sympathy for the generation to which he himself belonged, the wider scope of his study allows him only a limited amount of space in which to discuss the generation's poetry.

This discussion is marked by the necessity — imposed by the historical study — to highlight the formal features which distinguish the generation's poetry from previous Romanian-German verse. Motzan's concise sketch of the most salient formal features of the generation's poetry and his representative and, in some cases, daring selection of quotes, however, make this short essay an important primer to the s generation, while his periodisation of post-war Romanian-German poetry remains authoritative and is widely duplicated despite the limitations imposed by the socio-political climate under which the book appeared.

After the publication of Motzan's book, the preoccupation with the s generation of poets came to a halt in Romania. If the Romanian-German critic had just managed to include all pertinent names into his discussion of the generation,31 the gradual emigration of most of the writers belonging to it during the mid to late s made subsequent studies of the generation 31 The only exception is Klaus Hensel b. Romanian-German literature had slowly made inroads into the consciousness of the West-German critical establishment through the earlier immigration of older authors, such as Dieter Schlesak b.

The strong personal presence and shocking revelations of the Aktionsgruppe members and the easy identification that group membership provided soon led to the group's dominance in critical reception. Marino Sometimes, the whole Romanian-German literature seemed to be subsumed into the image that had been created of the group.

Gerhardt Csejka, himself a close collaborator of the group, is correct in pointing out that the power of the Aktionsgruppe Banat to muddle critical analysis was a function of its context, that is to say of the circumstances of its German reception. Former Aktionsgruppe members and associates William Totok, Richard Wagner, Helmuth Frauendorfer, and Gerhardt Csejka authored four out of the nine lectures making up the forum, among them Richard Wagner's key portrait of the Aktionsgruppe Banat later republished in Ernest Wichner's collection of texts by and about the group.

The proceedings of the Marburger Literaturforum, published in , are one of the most widely cited sources in Romanian-German literary criticism, and the conference's treatment of the Aktionsgruppe Banat assured it critical prominence not only as a group, but also as the most representative instance of the s generation of Romanian-German writers. In the wake of the conference, the Aktionsgruppe became the focus of a collection of primary texts and testimonial essays by group members edited by Ernest Wichner, and two dissertations by Thomas Krause and Diana Schuster respectively.

Werner Kremm is named as part of the group by Diana Schuster, but she does not analyse his works, and he does not appear in the collection of works by the Aktionsgruppe Banat edited by Ernest Wichner.

The Changing German-Jewish Symbiosis, 1945–2000

Alles unter einem hut lyrische betrachtungen und gedichte german edition. Francis sanford coeur ouvert culture ocanienne french edition. Short stories for the. Peter Rühmkorf (Dortmund, 25 October – Roseburg, Schleswig-Holstein, 8 June ) was a German writer who significantly influenced German post-war literature. (with Werner Riegel): Heiße Lyrik, Limes, Wiesbaden [poems] [biography and edition]; Einmalig wie wir alle, Rowohlt, Reinbek

The critic Gerhardt Csejka, who was arrested by the Romanian Securitate together with Gerhard Ortinau, William Totok, and Richard Wagner as a member of the Aktionsgruppe Banat, is usually disregarded in analyses of the group's literary works. Oliveira's book follows Motzan's periodisation, as well as his generational division, but is a more complex study of the historical and cultural circumstances of Romanian-German poetry and its responses to them.

Published in , Oliveira's book represents a transition period in the reception of the s generation. While the second part of her study, which focuses on the subversive tendencies of the s generation harkens back to an earlier stage of the generation's reception 36 See Oliveira In addition to offering an overview of the generation's reception up to the mid s, Kegelmann's study also underlines aspects such as linguistic reflection, conceptions of home and foreignness, and the poetic re-working of personal experience. Kegelmann's investigation is driven by the question of whether Romanian-German literature ended or continued after the emigration of a significant number of authors in the mid to late s.

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Present Methodology and Selection of Materials The steady output of dissertations on the subject of Romanian-German literature since the s is matched by a stream of articles taking up various aspects of post-war Romanian- German poetry. Despite the growing interest in Romanian-German literature and the declared importance of the s generation within it, the study of the generation has remained fragmentary, however, with emphasis on the Aktionsgruppe Banat or individual generation members, as illustrated above.


During that time he volunteered at the theater and attended lectures at the University of Greifswald. Unification exposed tensions due to religious, linguistic, social, and cultural differences among the inhabit. In "Ein Ross Artzney Biichlein," pages, was published. A Hollander who has migrated to America writes of his home: Hew up de ganze Welt nix sehn Wat di to gliken war. October - The Wall Street Crash of marks a major turning point in Germany: following prosperity under the government of the Weimar Republic, foreign investors withdraw their German interests, beginning the crumbling of the Republican government in favor of Nazism. To get this man as patron shows their ambition for the orchestra. Reichard should act as editor for the Committee, as he had already given the matter of a bibliography of Pennsylvania-German Litera- ture considerable study and had also gathered much ma- terial along that line.

Likewise, no critical works dedicated to Romanian-German poetry have appeared since Claire de Oliveira's diachronic study, and no extended study of Romanian-German literature has ever been published in English. While indebted to Motzan and Oliveira's groundbreaking studies of post-war Romanian-German poetry, my analysis does not seek to account for the whole post-war period. The more limited scope of my study offers an in-depth look at only the two decades, from to , in which the s generation of poets were active in Romania. My study further eschews exact chronological divisions in favour of tracing thematic continuities — as well as probing for breaks within these — in the generation's work.

The present work examines the development of three major themes, through whose elaboration the group of poets under analysis constituted themselves as a literary generation and which differentiate them from their literary predecessors. Each chapter provides both a synchronic and a diachronic analysis of a separate theme, investigating how each theme is picked up and developed almost simultaneously by a variety of poets, as well as how these thematic threads are pursued and re-fashioned by the group over time.

Starting with the poets' self- identification as socially engaged, which is echoed in much of the critical literature, the chapter examines how the possibilities and limitations of this engagement are articulated in verse and how the nature of this engagement changes through the s and 80s. Chapter three discusses the generation's relationship with the Romanian-German minority, which provides a constant point of reference in the generation's poetry, despite changing attitudes.

Chapter four provides the first description in critical literature of the generation's poetry of urban experience, the generation's most important generic innovation, mapping the stages of the generation's evolution against the changing city landscape. While the information presented in this chapter provides a general context for the analysis of the poetry, each subsequent chapter elaborates on the socio-historical circumstances 40 of the texts under discussion.

In doing so, however, my analysis does not mean to separate a socio-historical reality from its literary reflection, as I believe the latter is constitutive of the former. Instead, I aim to strike a balance between the horizon of expectation of the generation and its audience and a contemporary perspective which allows us to view the s generation and the implications of its work in a wider network of literary and extra-literary interdependencies. This aim and the thematic plurality of the material further necessitate the reading of the texts within several different discourses, both contemporaneous to the texts of the s generation and contemporary to my analysis, each of which is briefly delineated in the appropriate chapter.

Thus, the discussion of the generation's social and political poetry is informed by contemporaneous discourses of engaged literature, socialist construction, and anti- war and anti-American sentiment, as well as by contemporary conceptions of the public sphere, satire, and metaphorical language. The aim of these juxtapositions is to show not only how these various discourses inform the poetry of the s generation, but also how the poetry often modulates established discursive practices, both indigenous and imported, and to point out paths for future research into the generation's work.

The emphasis on the generation as one constituted through the development of certain themes also allows me to reintegrate into the study of the generation names which — as Motzan's 41 entry in the volume on 20th-century poetry illustrates — have not managed to impose themselves into the canon of post-war Romanian-German literature. In addition to texts by more established authors, such as Franz Hodjak b. Although the list is not and cannot be exhaustive, the wide spectrum of voices gives a fuller account of the s generation than any other previous study.

Also excluded are poets born after or whose debut occurred outside of the formative late s and early s. As well, foregrounding a larger number of writers tends to erase their differences in terms of literary innovation and reception and obscures the significance of individuals for both the group and the literature as a whole. If I take this shortcoming into stride, it is only because I know others have already filled this gap by highlighting the achievements of individual poets.

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The two limits have symbolic, as well as historical value. Also in , the Neue Banater Zeitung started the talent search that would join the youngest members of the generation to those mentioned above. If thus marks the ideological beginning of the generation, marks the end of its literary career in Romania.

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Over those two decades, the poets of the s generation published almost 50 individual volumes of poetry and were featured in numerous anthologies and periodicals. Whenever possible, I refer the reader to poetry volumes and anthologies, which are easier to access than periodicals for further study. For poems which appeared in periodicals first, I refer to this first printing only when its context is of special significance or when the text has been altered in subsequent printings. In the absence of ready English translations of the poems — Robert Elsie's The Pied Poets is an exception, but provides a different selection from mine — and other texts, I have used my own translations from the German throughout the analysis.

While I do not claim a literary standard for my verse translations, in many cases I have felt that mere literal fidelity would 43 neither do justice to the poems nor satisfactorily illuminate the attempted analyses. I have thus chosen to travel the middle ground between a close rendition of the original structure and language and significant departure from both whenever I thought that a too close translation threatened to obscure rather then illuminate the understanding of the poems.

The analyses of the poems are, of course, based on the German version of the texts and include literal translations of the German original to facilitate understanding of the unique features on which the discussion is based. Title translations are almost always literal, in order to convey the original associations with the title words. Unlike writers of the previous generations, they had experienced neither the war nor the deportations and Stalinist terror practices of its aftermath directly, and they were at first confident about the socialist ideals of their upbringing.

What is more, they believed that they could play a role in this transition by helping to question old ideas and disseminate new ones through the medium of the written word, especially poetry. Their attitude was associated in the very beginning with the notion of literary engagement, a term which had reached Romanian-German debates through contemporaneous German poetry and criticism. Unter Engagement aber verstehe ich, die Partei des Sozialismus zu ergreifen.

By engagement I understand taking the side of socialism. What appears here like a natural link, however, was a highly disputed correlation. As defined in the latter round-table discussion from , led by Bernd Kolf and attended by Aktionsgruppe Banat members Michael Bleiziffer, Albert Bohn, Werner Kremm, Johann Lippet, Gerhard Ortinau, Richard Wagner, and Ernest Wichner, engagement denotes participation in the public sphere through poems which reflect critically on current social and political reality. For this reason, poetry was called on to reflect the existing social environment and to reject any form of escapism exemplified especially by literature centred on the traditions of the Romanian-German minority.

The comment is illuminating both for the poets' earlier attitude towards their social roles and for their situation at 47 the time of the interview, less than a decade from their debuts. The Aktionsgruppe Banat, founded in , had been dissolved in , when three of its members — Gerhard Ortinau, Richard Wagner, and William Totok, as well as their friend and collaborator, the critic Gerhardt Csejka — were arrested by the Romanian secret service, the Securitate.

The state's intervention into what had been conceived as a platform of open literary exchange was an unmistakeable signal that such expressions were no longer tolerated. Poetry could no longer be conceived in direct dialectical contact with its environment, as envisioned by Hodjak, but was now understood as a form of communication which relied heavily on the reader's mediation. The continuity was provided by the poets' interest in — or engagement with — current social reality. Like many others, the Romanian-German poets had sought to salvage the expression of their social ideas by limiting their claims as expressions of subjective experience.

Although the poets repeatedly maintained their commitment to a critical evaluation of their environment, they could no longer hope to effect social change through such criticism. The poets' desire to affect public opinion through their writing should not to be confused, of course, with their actual ability to do so.

Although the poets' reception among their intended audience — the Romanian-German minority — has not been studied, the poets themselves do not believe to have had much impact with the wider public Hodjak, Personal interview. However, as their means of expression became more codified in the s, interest in the social observations hidden in their poetry grew, especially outside of Romania. Poetry had become, if not an alternative public sphere, then the only place to articulate alternatives to the official versions of Romania's past and present.

As such, it was engaged in a new kind of criticism: whereas the early poetry was directed towards Romania's social structures, the poetry of the late s and s was directed against Romania's political system. Given the reliance on poetry to provide a corrective to official depictions of life under Romanian communism, it is not surprising that the hidden political criticism has become one of the most discussed aspects of the generation's poetry. This aspect occupies, for instance, a whole chapter in Claire de Oliveira's extensive study of post-war Romanian-German literature. The critic illustrates this concept with examples of hidden and double meanings in poetry and journalism, which could be understood only within a 43 Oliveira See section 3.

However, as this attitude underlies the generation's whole poetic endeavour, it is useful to differentiate between an early poetry of social criticism, whose object was to influence public behaviour, and a later poetry of political criticism, whose aim was to expose the Romanian government's abuse of its citizens. As the expression of disapproval by pointing out faults or shortcomings, criticism is usually understood as a direct form of communication. Within the context of a literature written under conditions of censorship, however, such an understanding of criticism cannot be taken for granted.

Although the limits of what could be written and in what form varied widely between and — the late s and early s being a relatively tolerant period compared to the late s and the s — at no time was literary expression entirely free. This meant that writers could articulate their desire for change only if their doing so did not appear to undermine Romania's socialist enterprise. The communist system and ideology were never open to discussion.

Given these limitations, thematising a taboo topic was already an act of defiance, as was, increasingly, the failure to thematise a desired topic such as the topos of socialist construction discussed below. More or less direct criticism could be articulated instead at the population at large, at international events and players, such as the US involvement in the Vietnam War and the war's reception in the media, and, of course, at one's self. Hidden criticism was expressed instead through the development of a set of metaphors for the abuses of the system and their effects on Romania's citizens.

Against these models, the s generation of poets proposed a poetry reflecting on the current conditions in Romania and the world, expressed in clear, everyday language and offering independent evaluations, including critical ones. The available models for socially engaged poetry at the time of the generation's debut prescribed an exclusively positive view of Romania's social and political transformation since Stiehler used by Party communiques, daily press and radio, as well as actual poetry: the city was only conceivable as a construction site, the country as a blooming garden, the people as heroes of enfranchised work.

These highly stylized depictions, which bore no resemblance to actual living conditions, good or bad, because they lacked any specific detail, only served to underline the rightness of the country's political system and leaders. Fahnen im Wind 6 Out of the newest day shot up our building strong-rooted plant to which all our hearts adhere.

Carpathian ore is unlocked like a treasure, concrete is mixed and steel is poured for pylons rising from the old ground into heights of blue into the heights of our time. And steel is poured for the traverses of our unity. The metaphor of buildings as flowers equates human activity with natural beauty, order, and inevitability. Already in the title, the construction is represented as belonging to the group, which, as the repetition of the first person singular possessive indicates, includes the speaker. The group is not delimited any further in this stanza and is identified only through the geographical marker of the Carpathians one of the defining features of the Romanian landscape in line 4, thus presumably referring to all Romanian citizens, regardless of ethnicity.

It's not one hand. It's many hands assembling stone for stone the building of our lives. It's the entire country guided by one hand! In the second stanza, the poem recurs to the common synecdoche of the hands as a symbol of the unity of the country under strong leadership. See Kornis Jedes Jahr ist ein Stockwerk am Hochbau des Sozialismus. Wir bauen gut. Lichtkaskaden It wasn't easy, but we were building in the name of our class, were building guided by the party.

Each year is a level in the highrise of socialism. We build well.

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This rigid understanding of construction as the fulfilment of an inherently right project is challenged in the Romanian-German poetry of the post-war generation. Man wird verschieden wohnen zwischen Beton und Glas. Stephani, Befragung heute 69 Building means: making a sleeping place out of concrete and glass. Erecting means: building so that we also make a place for the sun.

Construction workers will fear the concrete, Constructors, however, will open the windows. One will live differently between concrete and glass. While the first definition provides a practical interpretation of building the use of concrete and glass to create a place to sleep , the second surprises by offering a reinterpretation of the first which has nothing to do with practical considerations.

Building better, the stanza suggests, means moving beyond the practical and toward less tangible values, such as beauty, warmth, and harmony. The central opposition on which the poem is structured indicates that there are at least two paths to building a socialist society. Although the poem seems optimistic about the future, the last stanza may also be a warning that one will live only as well as the construction of one's society permits.

Da baut man einen Sozialismus. Was baut man da? Da wird ein Haus gebaut. Da wird ein Feld bebaut.

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Fahnen im Wind 81 A house is being built there. A field is being tilled there. Streets are being laid there. And trees are being planted there. A socialism is being built there. What is being built there? A house is being built there. The repetition is offset by the two lines making up the second stanza: a statement and a question. This simple structure is indeed reminiscent of a song, but the message is hardly one of praise.

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Far from depicting socialism as a series of glorious achievements carried out by a united collective, the poem represents the building of socialism as a limited number of quite ordinary and repetitive actions belonging to unidentified individuals. The reversed order of the two central lines — with the answer preceding the question — suggests that the actions described in the first stanza have been made to fit foregone conclusions.

This differentiation enables the split attitude announced in the title: the possibility of being both supportive and critical of the socialist project. Indeed, as the second stanza indicates, praising and doubting become synonymous, as do building and changing.

This inversion of concepts goes hand in hand with the insistence on the individual's contribution to society. Read in the context of the genre suggested by the title, the poem further articulates a new position for the poet as both praiser and critic. The role of constructor is appropriated for the poet, who uses this capacity not to blindly follow a direction but to initiate change.

Its attributes — gentleness, silence, and smallness — belong to the iconography of the weak feminine and, as such, are devalued in the poem. Large, open, and rough, this markedly masculine environment is one of action. Through 62 the portrayal of another poet, the text also articulates perhaps the best Hodjak's own hope of influencing society through the medium of verse. These details suggest that the building inside the speaker's construction belongs to the socialist system. Despite the speaker's incipient involvement in constructing this system, some of its features have come to dominate and confine him.

Although the interaction seems to proceed normally — the participants greet each other, have conversations, shake hands, etc. This becomes evident in the last stanza, when the speaker's negative remark about the weather is returned by the echo as its polar opposite. Even though the remark seems innocuous, the completeness of its denial is telling. Couched in absurd language, Samson's indictment of the socialist project as one in which people become alienated from both each other and their own opinions requires a great deal of context to make itself understood.

Setting the — possible — achievement of socialist goals in the distant future rather than in the past or in the present, Schmitz's verses take a swipe at the promise inherent in the poetry of socialist construction. The high hopes invested in the socialist project are debunked as mystifications: even the best outcome would fall far short of the mark, while the worst outcome is left to the reader's imagination. From Construction to Communication: Claiming a Space in the Romanian Public Sphere The focus on the socialist topos of construction is largely replaced in the poetry of the s generation with one on communication, especially on the possibilities and limits of public discourse.

In the Romania of the late s, public discussion was, if not entirely free, than at least outwardly encouraged. Although the speech's primary intended application was foreign diplomacy, it was widely understood as an acknowledgement of the right to free public discussion by Romania's intellectuals Gabanyi In this general climate of openness towards matters of public interest, the young generation of Romanian-German poets set out to carve itself a space in the public forum. Although political by definition, the public sphere has its roots in literary assemblies, such as the coffee houses and the salons of the 17th and 18th centuries, and in the printed texts journals, treatises, but also novels and other literary productions that offered them food for thought and discussion: Even before the control over the public sphere by public authority was contested and finally wrested away by the critical reasoning of private persons on political issues, there evolved under its cover a public sphere in apolitical form — the literary precursor of the public sphere operative in the political domain.

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Habermas, The Structural Transformation This rehearsal of political discussions is evident in the poetry of the s generation. Despite the poem's announced aim of clarity and its brevity, its intelligibility is obscured by a complex grammatical and lexical structure. The first stanza consists of four elliptical clauses lacking both subjects and predicates and broken up through the use of enjambment. The roughness of this structure requires the reader to continually readjust his or her perspective, thus modelling the adjustment described by the lines.

If the grammatical structure requires constant readjustment, the lexical structure requires constant interpretation. Rein in die Kessel mit ihnen. Fischer Aus ihren Rezepten dreht euch Fidibusse. Topfguckerei soll von heut an keine Schande mehr sein. Get them into the cauldrons. Let them drown in their own mess. Roll yourselves tapers out of their recipes. From now on, watching the pot boil shan't be a disgrace anymore. Lift the lids from the pots and take a good look in case there's a Gorgon head in there again. Let omission be a sin of the past. Let new cookbooks be printed.

The tone of the second part of the poem, quoted above, is almost giddy, as the speaker calls for what amounts to a revolution. This ambiguity allows the poem to hover somewhere between call for action and indictment of contemporary poetic practice. In both cases, however, the poem evidences the desire for a more inclusive literature and, most importantly, for a literature which is in touch with current political issues. The predominance of Chile and Vietnam as subjects for the young Romanian-Germans is, of course, not accidental. As focal points of international attention, the two crises impacted 74 far more than their immediate environments and are part of the socio-historical location that defined the s generation.

Katharina Findner who was one of Marx's and Anna Hansa's house-maids from to ! Ellison, if she could pose for a photo, to be used in this gallery that had been cunningly planned for a long time Formerly, there were just a handful of houses in the village We go up the creaking stairs and enter the certainly most important room of the whole house: It was in this very room The former house-maid whom he called "Katterl" tells us a good many stories of former times Till late into the night, "the Professor" would compose on a piano that was standing by the wall on the right side where you can now see the lamp.

Right here, I am now about to spend almost two hours sitting on the very chair that has not always had it easy under the heavy weight of the Maestro This ancient, dignified instrument is not the very piano that had been played by Marx himself unfortunately we couldn't trace his piano but, at any rate, this one was made by the family of the composer Robert Stolz more than a hundred years ago, Mrs.

Ellison says Before we have to leave, we take a look at Marx's and Anna's living room and learn that a considerable part of the house's furniture that was used by them is still here After a moving farewell from the ladies and the house that -clearly perceptible for everyone- gives off a special kind of strength and profundity, I take this picture in the beginning dusk Hardly have I photographed his intense facial expression, when the camera conks out.

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