Regardless, they stayed in Sweden over six months and continued towards St Petersburg, arriving there in August Latre and Hurtado began their journey to Freiburg in September , and after arriving there they parted once and for all. Neither of them had to carry out any task of a technical nature for the rest of their careers. First they drew a blueprint and built a model of the bore drilling machines, much more efficient and precise than the ones seen before since they were horizontal and hydraulic powered.
They also submitted two plans of the blast furnaces that highlighted their main advantages compared to the current Spanish design. But the most interesting fact is that as a result of this visit they made the first comparative study written by Spanish technicians on the characteristics and respective advantages of hollow casting and solid casting, claiming the latter to be clearly superior.
They did not gather much information of any importance, merely some references to steelmaking in the north of Italy, but it was there where they first heard about the mining and metallurgy courses taught at the Bergakademie of Freiburg Saxony. They considered these courses interesting and worthwile, so that they asked Ensenada for permission to undertake them, claiming that the knowledge they would acquire would make them more efficient when carrying out their mission, and could be applied to the Spanish and American mines.
Ensenada was persuaded by such arguments, and approved of this course of action, reminding them that after their stay in Freiberg they would still have to visit some of the main central European mines, as was originally planned. The minister not only approved this request,16 but made arrangements with the Secretariat of State to provide them with letters of credence.
Before leaving Freiberg they notified Eslava about them having managed to obtain information on two industrial procedures classified as state secrets in Saxony, cobalt extraction and porcelain making. From that point, news about the travellers becomes scarce.
They stayed in Sweden for almost six months, where they visited the main mines and metalworking facilities to their full satisfaction, thanks to the good work of the Spanish ambassador. During their journey they heard that British mining technology was far more advanced than in continental Europe, and that they had started using coal to fuel their foundries. In view of this, they did not hesitate to ask for permission to extend their journey, and went to the Netherlands to wait for an answer. Permission was granted again, so they left for England on July and stayed there for over nine months, leaving no evidence of the information they obtained.
They did not apparently consider returning to Spain even when their stay in England was coming to an end. Such a rare privilege was attained thanks to the mediation of Spanish ambassador in Paris, Jaime Masones, who had recently been appointed General Director of Artillery, and would be their mentor from then on. In early Masones considered that their training was complete and that it was time to end their journey.
So he told the new Secretary of War, Ricardo Wall, advising him to give them a job according to their technical knowledge, and in March they were ordered to come back. They did not arrive in Madrid until August , almost 10 years after their departure, thus making this industrial espionage journey the longest ever made in the eighteenth century.
Sadly, the practical results of this journey did not correspond with its breadth nor with the privileged technical training acquired by its protagonists. After their return, they were well received by Minister Wall, who promoted them to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel and retained them as technical advisors for the Secretariat of War. In July he assigned them the task of introducing the solid casting procedure at the artillery factories of La Cavada but, after over a year of experimentation, the cannons built under their direction did not pass the endurance tests.
Both of them were demoted to the rank of Captain as a consequence of their failure and returned to the army to perform tasks unrelated to the technical matters they had worked on, and to which they would never be assigned again. Conclusions As can be seen, the results of these first industrial espionage journeys were quite irregular. This was due mainly to the very different levels of ability of those who undertook them. In a short span of time slightly over a year he acquired the technical and human resources necessary for a radical modernization of the naval industry.
But for all that, as a whole his mission presents a very heterogeneous appearance and, with a single exception, that of the Cartagena dry docks, did not foster any important practical application. It was a mistake from beginning to end, starting with the selection of the agent, in which Ulloa was the man responsible. The two journeys undertaken by the four artillery officers show a very different profile.
After that, they lost their goal and wasted their time collecting and submitting data of very little interest. But after the technological yield of their journey was clearly diminishing, in spite of which they managed to delay their return to Spain for five more years, giving all kinds of excuses. The worst part came after their return, for they were unable to put in to practice the technical knowledge they had so costly acquired over the course of their decadal European tour.
History of Technolog y, Volume Thirty, Juan Helguera Quijada 11 The industrial espionage journeys were not continued immediately as a means of technology transfer in eighteenth-century Spain. The political fall from grace of Ensenada and the dismantlement of the Real Giro, which had been the system of financing such expensive missions in foreign lands, were responsible for this. The classic reference on industrial espionage in that century is Harris The text for both sets of instructions can be found transcribed in their entirety in Lafuente and Peset — Merino Navarro The information collected in said report was used by Ulloa several years later to write an extensive treatise on the navy, which remained unpublished for more than two centuries.
See Ulloa 45 particularly et seq. A general view of these journeys with precise references can be found in Helguera Quijada This is likely the reason for the change of plans that was behind the order that forced Enriqui to travel to London. However, while recognizing its scientific value, they claimed it barely had practical implications and did not believe it would help solve the problem of how to re-use scrap iron. On the solid casting procedure, see Helguera Quijada Harris, J.
Britain and France in the Eighteenth Century. Helguera Quijada, J. Zaragoza, t. Valladolid, vol. II, pp. Sevilla, pp. Lafuente, A. Peset ed. Madrid, pp. Merino Navarro, J. Revista de Historia Naval, II, 4, pp. Ulloa, A. Preliminary study and editing by J. Helguera Quijada. The choice of this topic requires an explanation because the name of this Spanish engineer is usually associated with the other domains of excellence, such as the steam engine, the theory of machines or public works.
The fact remains, however, that in the career of Betancourt, this early and brilliant intervention in the field of mining appears as an occasional or extra-mural one rather than integral to his central concerns. It manifested itself at various levels and inspired a series of important works in Spain and in France, in England and later in Russia.
It is this dimension that we wish to investigate. Our analysis will include three parts. Then, we shall analyse, in the light of this experience, a much less known work on the purification of stony coal carried out by Betancourt in in Paris. Although the thread of this story has been well established, some points still remain unclear and among them, the circumstances which incited the chief of the government, the Count of Floridablanca, to appoint Betancourt for this mission.
The mines were driven deeper over the centuries so larger quantities could be extracted. During the eighteenth century, several measures were tried in order to reach these two objectives. The discovery of the new deposits of ore allowed the opening of some new mines while the ancient ones were completely exhausted. However, as extraction continued to be intensified, the mines became deeper: by the end of the eighteenth century, the mine of Castillo for example, reached the record depth of metres, and this strongly aggravated the problems, already complex enough, of extraction, ventilation and drainage.
At the same time, the techniques of water extraction did not evolve much after the sixteenth century: the traditional leather buckets zaca of about fifty litres bailed out by the manual hoisting drums were still in use at the end of the eighteenth century. In the s—70s, some discreet innovations were introduced in this field such as manual iron and wooden suction pumps, pumps with gears and pumps with a pendulum as well as the horse winches malacates.
However, all History of Technolog y, Volume Thirty, Irina Gouzevitch and Dmitri Gouzevitch 15 these measures brought only a partial solution of the global problem so that, by the beginning of s, the techniques of water extraction reached the limit of their capacity. Who was this man and why was he appointed? He was a technician of the same generation as Betancourt but came from a more modest Aragonese family He was born in , had to work from the age of ten, first as an apprentice, then as a worker-craftsman in the different mechanical workshops in Valencia, Zaragoza and Barcelona.
Attracted by the progress of mechanical arts in France, Estala hastened there and, from to , he travelled through the country while diversifying his training. In , the Junta de Comercio of Barcelona assigned him a one year grant of pesos to support his training. However, this proposition remained a dead letter, and the trainee left without means of subsistence and spent two long years in forced inactivity. However, the Fresnes steam engine quoted as a reference, was in reality an old Newcomen model which had been used in this mine from , and was thus already out-ofdate.
It had however a big advantage as it only required two workers for its maintenance, whereas the malacate technique required 20 men and two horses. Nevertheless, even this proposition of Estala appeared too advanced to the official authorities for the simple reason that the use of the steam engines in the mining industry had been ignored in Spain. The journey of Fausto de Elhuyard planned for October finally did not take place. Each of them concerned a different subject: if the first one was dedicated to the problems of water extraction, the second concerned the extraction and the transport of ore, while the third dealt with the process of mercury production.
As for the contents, it shows the solid stamp of a conscientious technician who was able to study the problem at depth and propose honest solutions within the framework of the original mission. The three memoirs have a similar structure: the author attempts at first to explain the specific terminology by providing a small glossary. He then offers a general overview of the situation and proposes a detailed description of the technologies used, by criticizing if necessary the observed failures and by proposing in conclusion measures of improvement and recovery.
As regards the systems of drainage, his preference was for the pumps rather than the zacas which, given their ineffectiveness, he advises against using. In case this cannot be avoided, Betancourt proposes some timely improvements aiming to make them more profitable. The devices used to transport the cinnabar inside and outside the mine are described in the second report.
Improvements are also proposed, and in particular the use of conical drums instead of cylindrical ones or the application of the brake his invention on the existing manual hoists. The study of the process of production of the pure mercury is full of detail on the construction of the furnaces, their loading and unloading, and on the methods of washing and packaging the mercury.
How was this young man who had never studied mining specifically, able in merely a few months to become an expert? The three memoirs reveal that his method was logical, rigorous, and step-by-step, sticking meticulously to the facts drawn from the study of documents and from personal observations. The way Betancourt quotes them bears witness to a reflex of synthetic and critical reading which is in itself a way of learning. The quality of the plates gives evidence that besides classic drawing, Betancourt had mastered technical drawing as well as levelling and the rudiments of geodesy which helped him to approach the specific geodesy of mines.
We can thus suggest that the knowledge of the first group was acquired at the Academy of San Fernando, in its classic drawing course, while those of the second group could be a part of the geometry course at the Royal Studies of San Isidro. As for machines and their composition, the Canarian prelude12 already offered a good introduction, one that the training in Madrid was supposed to enrich.
On one hand, it allowed him to test the History of Technolog y, Volume Thirty, Irina Gouzevitch and Dmitri Gouzevitch 17 cognitive potential of his training which offered, besides a scientific and artistic background, a universal method of progressing. On the other hand, it was not only proof of his talent for techniques but also of his capacities to undertake an official mission. Because it is necessary to face the evidence: its proposals recommended the continuation of a regime of traditional techniques. One can object that there are situations where a well tried traditional technique is worth replacing by a successful innovation.
It all depends on the context. We can surely not ignore that he was then lacking in necessary experience and that he did not appear to be influenced by any open-mindedness resulting from his journeys? His talent was considered as a resource worthy of investment. Considering the orientation of these studies, we can wonder at the choice of France rather than Germany, Bohemia or England, the more usual destinations for improvement of mining knowledge in the last quarter of the eighteenth century. The studies were intended to last three years. Betancourt, with his recent mining experience, was the right man for such an opportunity.
The fact that he received his grant at the beginning of testifies to the alert functioning of, most probably, the diplomatic services, which would have informed the relevant authorities in Spain of the existence of the Parisian school at the very moment when it had just welcomed its first students. Five to eight were admitted at the end of But, contrary to the founding regulations, these student graduated after only six months of studies. The next intake entered the school in and after one year, ten more students graduated.
Such a hypothesis seems plausible because there is no information giving evidence that Betancourt had ever attended this school. In view of the training given by this institution, Betancourt conceived his own project, which aimed to promote in Spain a profile for a new technical expert, the hydraulic engineer. The professional career of Betancourt thus followed, from this moment, a different path.
The history of this work can be clarified thanks to Antonio Bonet Correa. A glance at the early history of this society suggests a paradoxical answer: it was interest in the mineral coal that made it possible to carry the idea of its creation to execution. The problem was then one of the central concerns of the Spanish enlightened elites. Indeed, the industrial modernization initiated by Charles III was directly dependent on the more rational exploitation of energy resources.
At the same time, in Spain as everywhere else in Europe, History of Technolog y, Volume Thirty, Irina Gouzevitch and Dmitri Gouzevitch 19 the traditional use of charcoal began to show its limits, and this awareness encouraged active minds to look for alternative solutions.
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In , Asturian coal became an object of a study which aimed to investigate its possible use in the state foundries, and soon afterwards the Council of Castile invited the local authorities to stimulate the prospecting for coal deposits in the region. The former was the instigator of the order issued by the Council of Castile in which formalized the call for prospecting. The latter was involved on his own account in mineralogical prospecting. He regarded the society as a wonderful opportunity for bringing to light the problems in dealing with the exploitation of the stony coal.
In , the society elected as an honorary member, the Count of Aranda, Spanish ambassador in Paris. In the absence of documents specifying the conditions in which Betancourt had to carry out this work, we can however suppose that being a trainee of the Spanish mining administration he must have been interested in the problem of coal purification that generally preoccupied mining engineers in several European countries. The content of the report confirms this suggestion. This text of 16 handwritten pages, with three plates drawn by the author, consists of three parts.
Part 1 is a brief overview of the way in which the industrial properties of stony coal were discovered in different countries of Europe, and in particular Germany Becher , Sweden Swedenborg and England. Having underlined the pioneering contribution of everyone in the process of coal distillation, Betancourt mentions the French mining engineers, in particular Jars22 and Gensanne,23, who thanks to their famous metallurgical journeys introduced the innovations of their European colleagues in France. The device under discussion was designed to recover the products of coking released during the combustion of coal, in particular the tar and the volatile alkali whose contribution to medicine and arts was then predicted.
Even though his first attempts were successful, the furnaces had a complication which was difficult to verify consequently, even if he copied them from those of Ireland, they were very far from being invented with the same economy and simplicity with which Englishmen executed their big operations of art. Compared with the memoirs of Almaden, this text is more academic. The technical part reveals a good knowledge of the examined systems and an alert creative mind, while the historic incursion is surprisingly well informed. Some fragments in both texts are even almost identical, with the only difference being the language used.
Becher is the Spanish version of the same passage of Faujas. Even the reference to the work of Becher with a publication date of instead of — is similar in both authors. The opposite seems much more plausible, and even the earlier date of the Spanish memoir with regard to the French book does not contradict this assertion.
Certain peculiarities of the memoir suggest that Betancourt would have been able to take notes during the oral presentation. Nevertheless, the first two names are those of eminent scientists in the field of mineral chemistry, while the third distinguished himself by his inventions in the field of distillation and the industrial use of tar and volatile alkali for which he obtained patents in England. Faujas of Saint-Fond mentions these three experts and their work, stressing in particular those of Dundonald whose brochure in French version he includes in his book.
Betancourt seems to ignore its content, and this confirms our hypothesis concerning the origin of the information which he supplies in the introduction to his own text, based on what was available and History of Technolog y, Volume Thirty, Irina Gouzevitch and Dmitri Gouzevitch 21 accessible.
From this point of view it is worth examining the third part of his memoir. He tries to improve the process of ore combustion, to facilitate the evacuation of vapours and to optimize the process of condensation and separation of the products of coking. So that the mass of the coal diminishes away regularly on the circumference of the furnace, it is necessary to obtain a more uniform heat by adjusting the proportion of necessary air and by insuring its optimum circulation inside the furnace.
In this perspective, Betancourt aims to give to the combustion space a cylindrical shape rather than a parabolic one and to reduce the size of the grid by two-thirds in order to prevent its metal bars breaking under the weight of coal. To facilitate the evacuation of vapours, he proposes that the furnace should be a unique body with the envelope and a fireplace that can be closed and opened at will at the summit. The products of condensation come down in a large receptacle filled with water where the tar, the oil and the volatile alkali are separated according to their specific weights to be finally collected in different bowls.
Far from being fortuitous, this approach had a lively source. In the light of the known facts, we must recognize here the implicit influence of a specific technical culture that was his originally. The context, in both cases, was specifically Spanish and thus quite different from those of Germany, England or France. This was a context in which risks were taken for the most promising projects, because of the lack of skills, material and adequate equipment. It is enough to look at the furnaces for the processing of mercury described by Betancourt in , to find cylindrical internal chambers ending in a segment of a sphere and forming a single body with the envelope, or the fireplaces at the top for the extraction of excess vapours.
For us here, it is important to delimit the field of referential knowledge available to Betancourt at that time. Two years later, enriched by new experience, he mobilizes for the benefit of Spain the potential of his Parisian contacts, in addition to his vast knowledge. Even Faujas de Saint-Fond, although directly involved in this work, did not mention it in his book of Two hypotheses may explain this silence: either the French mineralogist ignored the existence of the memoir, or he did not consider it worth mentioning. Quite cunning and adapted to the conditions of Spain, the project failed because the Asturians did not manage to build the device correctly.
From the project to its execution the distance is indeed enormous because the action on the ground has to take into account a multitude of local factors which often manifest themselves only in the building process. Without having visited Asturias nor even managed a construction of this type, how could Betancourt guarantee the feasibility of his invention when the local industrialist turned out to be unable to do it? And it was hardly due to lack of resolve. On the contrary, the Asturian Society welcomed the project enthusiastically. At the beginning of , Betancourt was elected as a member of merit and his project was immediately put to execution.
However, the satisfaction caused by the rise of the furnace quickly yielded to disappointment, because in spite of its considerable cost, the furnace was split by fire. The material losses dissuaded the Asturian society from trying a second test, and the project was abandoned. Thus, the local situation got the better of the innovative effort, and it is necessary to admit that the history of technology abounds in examples of the same kind.
We also have to recognize that the perspicacity of Betancourt had its limits and that he lacked practical experience. Another question would be to know if he was effectively anxious to acquire it. Nothing indicates that his relations with the Asturian Society went beyond the exchange of correspondence relative to his election. Did he even know about the final failure of the project?
Or, as looks most probable, once the memoir was presented to the ambassador, he simply did not worry about it any more. Indeed, the cabinet of machines appears as a true inventory of the techniques of this time but also, on a different note, as the reflection of a specific technical culture of its author.
It is from this double point of view that we need to examine the place accorded to mining in the organization of the collection The mining experience of both authors of the catalogue influenced their choices. The various devices issued from the mining area are rather merged into a multitude of machines relative to the diverse aspects of the art of construction, and one perceives there an attempt, albeit fragile, to consider them in application to public works. But the main problem seems to lie in the fact that the two versions of the catalogue are just early attempts to classify various machines and mechanisms, and this classification still obeys the functional principle.
However, even in this initial stage, the indications concerning the localization of objects according to their purpose in manufacturing or use, in the case of machines at least, are reduced to the bare minimum in order to stress their prevailing role as prototypes.
The following step, the total abstraction of all which is not typical, will be made later, during the creation of the Essai sur la composition des machines published in Paris in Nevertheless, it did not prevent Betancourt from applying his mining experience to another concrete work about which, until now, very few things are known. It was a mill to crush flint driven by a water wheel and History of Technolog y, Volume Thirty, 24 Augustin Betancourt and Mining Technologies designed for the pottery factory located on the Severn, near Coalbrookdale. Known essentially thanks to some watercolours and sketches found in various academic collections,34 this mill was designed by Betancourt in , within the framework of his collaboration with William Reynolds, a protagonist in the British industrial revolution.
Changing of Scale: Russia In Russia, where Betancourt spent the last 15 years of its life —24 , his technical initiatives increased in scale. He was Chief Director of Ways of Communication —22 and the engineering corps of the same name reported to him, and he was also chief of the institute of this corps which trained qualified specialists in public works36 — It was as a highranking expert, initiator of prospectings and organizer of the large-scale works that he intervened this time in the domain of mining by privileging their applications for public works, such as technical geology and building materials.
These activities were organized according to two axes: scientific research and training. Thus, the Institute of the Engineers of Ways of Communication was one of the first technical high schools in Russia to include in its curriculum a set of disciplines relative to the diverse aspects of mining, such as mineralogy, technical geology and engineering prospectings. The processes of mercury production and that of manufacturing binders consist, however, of two technological stages; they also require the use of equipment and devices of the same type.
It is the nature of the deposits that makes the difference. The following processes, which can be inverted, are also of the same order: the grinding of ores, the products of firing and the firing itself. Thus, in both cases mills and furnaces need to be used. From the construction point of view, the differences between the equipment designed for the treatment of cinnabar and of limestone are not fundamental: they appear rather in the details of the respective technological processes.
The problem of binders was common in all European countries where the hydraulic works were carried out on a large scale particularly in England and France, Spain and Russia. Once in Russia and charged with the general direction of its ways of communication, Betancourt had to face this problem on quite an unpredicted scale.
The necessity of importing binders from Europe at enormous cost weighed heavily on the the national budget. This History of Technolog y, Volume Thirty, Irina Gouzevitch and Dmitri Gouzevitch 25 problem could be solved by organizing the production of binders locally, and this was the undoubtedly strategic task which conditioned the development of hydraulic works and transport networks of the immense Russian empire, and finally the recovery of an economy weakened by the war.
Betancourt did all that was possible to resolve the problem. He had to face all kinds of proposals which assailed him from all manner of prospectors wanting to sell their projects Among the more serious attempts was that quoted by the French mechanician Poidebard. To do so, it would be necessary to find suitable deposits, elaborate the technologies of the treatment of ores and then train specialists able to apply them and to develop the field later. It is on these objectives that Betancourt focused his efforts.
The breakthrough took place in —2 when French polytechnician Antoine Raucourt, freshly hired by the Crown service, was commissioned by Betancourt for two concomitant missions, managing the construction of the Narva bridge and teaching the constructions course at the Institute of the Corps of Engineers of Ways of Communications. The Narva was a deep tidal stormy river with a strong current. For that reason, the structures of the bridge had to be made of solid materials, particularly those parts beneath the water line. The question of hydraulic binders thus became central. From this point of view, Raucourt was the right man for performing this task: his name was indeed already famous in French professional milieux as a pupil of Vicat who had distinguished himself by his experiences with binders in Toulon in — As for Betancourt, the gratitude of Raucourt towards him remained intact.
The experiences were held in the workshops of the Ist district of ways of communication headed by another professor of the Institute, French polytechnician Pierre-Dominique Bazaine, and their results were immediately integrated into the syllabus of the construction course43; a quarter of a century later they were taken into account during the organization of a cement factory near St Petersburg, the first enterprise of this kind in Russia.
These researches, initiated by Betancourt, made it possible to discover the properties of the lime of the Narva region and to save considerable sums allocated for the purchase of Roman cement in England. The next development was made in by Clapeyron, a French polytechnician and mining engineer working in Russian who was interested in the problem of binders thanks to the experience acquired during his collaboration with Raucourt.
The discovery that he made of the hydraulic lime of Volhov meant that Russia no longer had to import binders. All these activities had a considerable impact on the training of civil engineers. The Institute of the Corps of Engineers of Ways of Communication adopted a pioneering role in this field. To begin with, Raucourt as a professor of construction, integrated hydraulic lime into his syllabus. Later on, his work on mortars served as a base for drafting the first Russian textbooks in this topic, such as The presentation of rules to compose cements of the lime by the native engineer Matvej Volkov who succeeded to Raucourt as professor of construction.
The last initiative of Betancourt to be mentioned, before concluding, is somewhat hypothetical because until now, no documents could be found to support it. The technical inheritance of the Spanish engineer from which the architect benefited well beyond his death, included a complex of mechanisms to transport, raise and settle the weights of scaffolding and rope, which served to erect this patrimonial building.
Betancourt died in , whereas the gilding History of Technolog y, Volume Thirty, Irina Gouzevitch and Dmitri Gouzevitch 27 works took place in —43, and this gap explains probably the fact that the link between Betancourt and the process of mercury gilding was never established. As a result, the origins of this technology remained unexplained.
The problem will be better understood if we are reminded that in Russia mercury gilding, or fire gilding, was hardly a common process, in the domain of construction at least. The case of St Isaac is quoted to highlight the pioneering and innovative character of this technology. The enormous surface to be gilded is another peculiarity which makes this example exceptional. Among the arguments which can support this hypothesis is the fact that the gilding were undertaken by Charles Baird, Scottish engineer and manufacturer, the owner of the most important mechanical works in St Petersburg, a close friend and permanent collaborator of Betancourt.
If we suppose that there was somebody, other than Montferrand, that Betancourt would have informed about this process, it was doubtlessly Charles Baird to whom this work was entrusted. Regrettably, the information relative to this process which can be found in different sources is extremely concise. It hardly exceeds the following quotations: Among the technical innovations, it is necessary to count the fire gilding of the domes of the cathedral which preserve, this day, their primitive shine, without having been subject to any restoration.
The procedure of gilding was repeated three times. Every sheet was marked with a stamp of the master responsible for the quality of the gilt. In some respects, its impact on his specific technical culture is even comparable with that of his further work in the cabinet of machines. History of Technolog y, Volume Thirty, 28 Augustin Betancourt and Mining Technologies He simply reinvented it in quite a different creative mode, by applying it to the other spheres of his abundant activity. His main works analysed in this article are directly linked to his experience in the fields of mining technology.
These works can be summarized in three words: furnaces, mills, firing. Thanks to the mediating action of Betancourt, all these applications and developments are today an inherent part of the patrimony of both Spain, his homeland, and Russia, his adoptive land. The gilded domes of St Isaac which glitter in the sun, their perfect shine intact, are there to remind us of him. The bibliography relative to Betancourt currently consists of more than items. Main reference works: A. Cioranescu , Agustin de Betancourt: su obra technica y cientifica. Tenerife: La Laguna de Tenerife; A.
Rumeu de Armas. Madrid, Seminarios y Ediciones; A. Las Palmas de Gran Canaria: Domibari. Betancourt A. See A. Javier Villegas. Among the rare exceptions, with the reference to the pioneering works of J. Helguera Quijada and J. Torrejon Chaves, see A. Betancourt y Molina, A. Mansilla Plazaand R. V: El Ochocientos: Pensamiento, profesiones y sociedad. Barcelona: Univ. Fresnes is located in the district of Valenciennes, the northern area of Pas-de-Calais department old province of Hainaut.
It is there that in February , the first low volatile coal in the north has been discovered. Helguera J. William Bowles c. Such an example is well illustrated in: Cantelaube, J. Torrejon Chaves, J. Ayala-Carcedo ed. Barcelona: Valatenea, pp. Moreno, Y. Rumeu de Armas 36 ,. I: — Madrid: Ministerio de Fomento, pp. Verna eds. Turnhout: Brepols, Crabiffosse Cuesta , p. See, f. Bonet Correa This edition of Narrische Weissheit und weise Narrheit is indeed very rare. Some accessible references we could consult gave all as year of publication.
Archibald Cochrane, ninth Count of Dundonald — , chemist and entrepreneur, producer of alkali, British gum and white lead; had built in Culross the retorts for the distillation History of Technolog y, Volume Thirty, 30 Augustin Betancourt and Mining Technologies of tar. London: Quiller Press, pp. Trinder , The Industrial Revolution in Shropshire. Quoted after: F. There is still research to do on this collaboration. For its elements, see: H. Description of W. Reynolds Sketch Book which contains eight entries relating to Betancourt.
SPb, p. My General, You wished that be made on the binders in Russia the experiences similar to those which I had made in France for the application of the processes of Mr. Engineer Vicat; your burning love for the useful things, pushing you to wish that the empire of Russia enjoys the benefits of one of the most important modern discoveries. Raucourt de Charleville A.
Paris: De Malher, p. Raucourt de Charleville , pp.
I—IV, 96—7. Leningrad: Strojizdat, p. SPb: Strojizdat, p. Butikov G. Leningrad: Znanie, p. A sketch of a double action water pump drafted by Betancourt most probably before he left for England, in November , has been recently discovered and identified by D. Gouzevitch in the family archives, in La Orotava. See: I. See M. Industrial engineering was constituted as an academic subject in Spain in The government wanted to promote industry and it was thought that the creation of a new engineering speciality would provide a solid basis for this scheme. Two degrees were created, one in mechanical and one in chemical engineering.
Initially, only the school of Madrid was authorized to award the degree in industrial engineering. The official route included the initiatives promoted by the central state, such as the Conservatorio de Artes de Madrid In , the Industrial School of Barcelona began bringing the technical and scientific schools of the junta together.
In Barcelona, engineering sprang from a local initiative related to the development of industry and the diffusion of the new sciences. Catalonia had endured the War of the Spanish Succession —14 during which the Catalans had offered stiff resistance to the Bourbon army. Despite this political setback, the Catalan economy would continue to grow, incorporating new industries such as cotton textiles.
His brilliant career brought him recognition and he was elected as a member of the Academy of Practical Medicine of Barcelona in the same year He specialized in clinical medicine paediatrics and also studied natural springs, analysing the composition of the water and its suitability for human consumption. The right side of the chest collapsed; he suffered crushed ribs and his collarbone was broken in several places. They worked with artisans such as the master carpenter Pere Gamell. In the case of Gamell, it may seem strange that a master carpenter should be elected a member of the academy.
Some of these Artistic Academicians, particularly the machinists and instruments makers, collaborated with other scholars in the History of Technolog y, Volume Thirty, 34 The Beginnings of Mechanical Engineering in Spain construction and maintenance of scientific machines and instruments for the academy Puig-Pla He was interested in scientific instruments such as barometers. The entrepreneur Jacint Ramon who ran his own cotton calico printing factory, sought to extend his activities to include spinning. Around a number of Catalan companies were already using the full Arkwright system. The prohibition on the importation of thread in served to stimulate its production in Spain.
Ramon visited England where he was able to see these machines driven by powerful water wheels and also by the steam engine as improved by James Watt. Back in Barcelona he was unsuccessful in his attempt to construct a steam engine on his own, however. It should be noted that communication between the academic world and society at large was dynamic. This junta had been organizing schools and chairs for training since At the beginning of the nineteenth century, a number of schools already existed: the School of Navigation, the School of Arts and Crafts, and a chair of chemistry was being planned.
These notes included the research development he had undertaken since and its analysis provides us an outstanding case of technology transfer to Spain. First of all, he studied the state of the art at the time. It seems that his main reference source was the Nouvelle Architecture Hydraulique by Gaspard Riche de Prony, in which a detailed account of steam engines is presented, including the latest version, that is to say the double-acting engine designed by Betancourt in , after his visit to England Jones ; Payen It was well known at the time that James Watt had introduced important modifications to his steam engine in what he called the double-acting machine.
Nevertheless, the technical solution introduced by Watt was still secret. The double-acting steam engine designed by Betancourt was incorporated into the book by his French colleague Prony. It is worth mentioning that Ignasi March was an outstanding builder who had studied mathematics at the Military Academy of Barcelona, taking advantage of the fact that a certain number of non-military students were admitted Arranz —1. He agreed to go ahead and to learn from their mistakes. The engine was able to work at 16 strokes per minute, moving the spinning machine regularly and uniformly, with results comparable to those achieved using horses.
A high quality thread was obtained. The comparison was easy, given that the test was done in the spinning section of the factory. This trial lasted three weeks. The entrepreneur suggested an additional test, the elevation of water by means of the steam engine. This experiment was twofold. First, the engine was connected to two pumps in such a way that the cylinder of the engine moved one pump in its double movement.
Second, they used the elevation of water to produce a waterfall in order to move a water wheel. This wheel was connected to several machines. The water could thus be used several times, with little waste. Both experiments were successful. This new phase of construction demanded additional tests. The entrepreneur Ramon suggested testing a Rumford fireplace, but the results were not satisfactory; March constructed a new boiler that gave very good results.
He describes the shape of the boiler, the cylinder, the piston, the condenser, and the air pump, but also the additional mechanical devices that he designed himself. Finally his account explains its operation. This was a device to direct the steam alternately from one end of the piston to the other. The register consisted of a double tap with three pipes. The tap was operated by the piston, opening alternately. The power of the steam engine is calculated to have exceeded 7 hp. This particular way of using the engine has been regarded as inadequate, but it should be remembered that the use of steam engines to create a fall of water was very common at this time.
In fact, hydraulic mechanics had shown very good performances, and the steam engine would require many developments to arrive at the same level Hills The shortage of coal in Catalonia interrupted the regular operation of the engine. Two years later, when the Peninsular War broke out , the steam engine ceased to operate. Indeed, the factory remained closed until the end of the war When it was reopened, Ramon did not resume the operation with the steam engine. After the Peninsular War, indeed, wood became increasingly expensive and there was no coal available.
He explains that before the war the English ships carried coal as ballast, but there were no more English ships coming into the harbour of Barcelona. This marked the end of the first experiment to install a steam engine in a factory in Barcelona. There were some previous attempts with double-acting engines but they failed. It would not be until that industry in Catalonia adopted steam power. Between his election to the Royal Academy of Sciences and Arts of Barcelona in and , he presented ten reports on several subjects: applications of machines, including a study on the water mill and History of Technolog y, Volume Thirty, 38 The Beginnings of Mechanical Engineering in Spain another on the steam engine, transportation by canals and also a report on theoretical mechanics Puig-Pla His interest in mechanical subjects included teaching mechanics to artisans and factory owners.
As for the content, he insisted that the course needed to be elementary, presenting the principles of the mechanics of solids and of hydrodynamics, and also insisting on the explanation of the steam engine. This proposal probably formed the basis for the creation, in March , of a new chair of mechanics on the initiative of the Junta de Comercio, after approval from the Junta General de Comercio, in other words the Spanish Ministry of Economy.
The classes finally began on 2 January In , there were inscriptions. In May the classes were interrupted by the war, and after the number of students was more than 40 per year. Among the students there were artisans, but also members of the professional classes and entrepreneurs who were interested History of Technolog y, Volume Thirty, Antoni Roca-Rosell and Carles Puig-Pla 39 in becoming acquainted with the new mechanical technology, i.
It is interesting that he made the construction of canals a priority in accordance with the ideas of Betancourt and his colleagues. To build canals in Spain was really a great challenge, indeed an almost impossible objective, given the low level of rainfall in the country and the complicated topography of the Iberian Peninsula. Betancourt and the first group of civil engineers were committed to the planning of a network of canals to improve communications in the interior of Spain.
However, this project was a complete failure. The mechanics syllabus consisted originally of two courses. The second year should be dedicated to the mechanics of fluids and liquids. This would include the study of their gravity, pressure and equilibrium and currents; the laws of solids submerged in liquids; the properties of atmospheric air; and the study of the expansion of air and steam. This year of study should also embrace pumps, the construction of canals, levelling, and constructional planning through technical drawing.
Unfortunately we do not know how this proposal was received by the Spanish parliament, but no initiative was taken in this field until He would be in charge of the school until his death, in This method was a pedagogical system for teaching mechanics, adapted to students with different levels of knowledge. The headquarters of the junta were in the Barcelona Llotja trade exchange building.
In , Faralt obtained a grant from the junta in order to perfect his craft in Madrid. In December , he requested admission to the Royal Academy of Natural Sciences and Arts of Barcelona and he would become an Artistic Academician at the beginning of The gabinete would become a pioneering centre for the propagation of new technologies among students, engineers, and artisans.
It was opened to the public for two hours every Monday, Thursday and Saturday morning.
Faralt provided teaching there for the artisans and interested persons. He revealed details of the drawings or models of machines and also answered questions. Following the orders of the Junta de Comercio, the best examples of these models or designs [. Despite the fact that the collection is already remarkable, the junta intends to make it larger [ The machinist D. Cayetano Faralt, academician of the Royal Academy of Natural Sciences and Arts in this city, will provide explanations of these machines and their effects, not only for artisans, but even for the curious, who may take notes if they so desire.
It consisted of a number of models of machines for different purposes, such as piercing the pulleys, cutting holes in the keys to the pipes, winding several spindles simultaneously, cutting and History of Technolog y, Volume Thirty, Antoni Roca-Rosell and Carles Puig-Pla 41 bending the ends of carded fibres, winding and spinning in turn, cropping the fibres of plush cotton, the loading and unloading of ships, lifting weights and directing them at will.
There were other models, too: a lathe that engraved as well as turned; a hammer to drive in stakes; a flour mill moved not by draft animals but by manpower, a Swedish stove, another smoke consumer stove or a stool that could be converted into a ladder. This gabinete was among the pioneering Machine Galleries open to the public. The gabinete of the junta also had a further function as a centre for the propagation of technology, as it was the task of the junta to facilitate such transfers Thomson The Memorias de Agricultura y Artes After the Peninsular War, the three schools of the junta — mechanics, chemistry, and agriculture — promoted a new journal, the Memorias de Agricultura y Artes, which appeared from to and can be regarded as the first journal of its kind in Catalonia Puig-Pla —3.
There, he published papers on the new techniques, and on machines or mechanisms. He wrote about Spanish inventions and also about European technological developments with the clear intention of contributing to the transfer of technological knowledge. The French influence was remarkable: a number of articles were prepared by selecting, translating, summarizing, commenting or adapting articles originally in French, most of them from the Annales des arts et manufactures Puig-Pla He demonstrated his knowledge of the subject and his conviction as to the need for an expansion of steam power in industry.
In the junta organized a theoretical-practical mechanics syllabus. It was shared by the professors of mathematics and physics Onofre J. They were only interested in copying and understanding those machines that they thought that would be useful to themselves. Presas and Bordeje were responsible for teaching mechanics at the new Industrial School of Barcelona which was created in However, in , the junta launched other establishments in which theoretical aspects could be developed such as the School of Physics and the School of Mathematics.
Finally, the School of Mechanics reopened as the School of Machinery, with an emphasis now on practical training under the supervision of an engineer, Bordeje, who had been trained with eminent engineers such as Brunel, in London. This new approach located the School of Machinery more firmly in the sphere of engineering.
Industrial engineering became a university subject, thereby joining the elite of Spanish engineering. Nevertheless, the junta and the teachers of the schools had little interest in awarding degrees; they wished only to train citizens, such as artisans, scientists, or technicians, for the purpose of assisting them in their work in industry. See Thomson Reproduced in Roca-Rosell and Puig-Pla — On the academic artists, see Puig-Pla Diario de Barcelona 1 April After Peninsular War, some models were found to be missing or damaged.
BC-JC, caixa , lligall cvi, 6, There are difficulties in the reading of this manuscript. Alder, K. New York: Free Press. Arranz i Herrero, M. Barca, F. Navarro, V. Salavert, M. Corell, E. Moreno, V. Barca-Salom, F. Bernat, M. Pont and C. Chatzis, K, D. Cardoso de Matos, and T. Madrid: Doce Calles, pp. Helguera, J. Barcelona, Valatenea, pp. Hills, R. Barcelona: Rafael Dalmau. Jones, P. Lusa, G. Lusa G. Documentos de la Escuela de Ingenieros Industriales de Barcelona, 15, 13— Nieto, A. Madrid: Nivola. Payen, J. Paris: Mouton. Puig-Pla, C. The purpose of this article is to examine and deconstruct the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender LGBT barrio community of Chueca in Madrid , Spain , from political and sociological perspectives.
First, we develop a critical framework for understanding the historical, political, social, cultural, and economic changes that took place in Spain after Franco's death in relation to LGBT issues. Ethnographic research was conducted from May to July in the Spanish cities of Madrid , Barcelona, and Ibiza, and focused primarily on the community of Chueca.
A social constructionist perspective was used to examine sociocultural issues in this ethnosexual community through an in-depth study of the dynamics of this barrio. The theoretical framework of intersectionality and the constitutive relations among social identities is exemplified in Chueca. Hence, individuals in Chueca and their intersectionality perspective reveal that their identities influence and shape their beliefs about gender and symbols. We describe how Chueca reflects recent progressive changes in LGBT-related laws and statutes drafted by the federal government and how these have influenced the high level of societal acceptance toward intimate same-sex relationships in Spain.
Additionally, we exemplify and present Chueca as an enclave that has been affected by the globalization of the private market, "gay" identity, and enterprise, having a direct effect on cultural norms and social behaviors. Intrinsic and specific vulnerability of groundwater in central Spain : the risk of nitrate pollution.
The utility of these methods was tested by analyzing the spatial distribution of nitrate concentrations in the different aquifers located in the study area: the Tertiary Detrital Aquifer, the Moor Limestone Aquifer, the Cretaceous Limestone Aquifer and the Quaternary Aquifer. Vulnerability maps based on these four indexes showed very similar results, identifying the Quaternary Aquifer and the lower sub-unit of the Moor Limestone Aquifer as deposits subjected to a high risk of nitrate pollution due to intensive agriculture.
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide, but its spatial distribution is not homogeneous. The objective of this study is to analyze the spatial pattern of mortality from these diseases for men and women, in the populated urban area AUP of the municipality of Madrid , and to identify spatial aggregations. An ecological study was carried out by census tract, for men and women in The results were mapped. SMR higher than 1. Moran's I was 0. The LISA method showed similar patterns to those previously observed.
Policies restricting access to sugary drinks and unhealthy foods in the school environment are associated with healthier consumption patterns. In , Spain approved a Consensus Document regarding Food at Schools with nutritional criteria to improve the nutritional profile of foods and drinks served at schools. The objective of this study was to describe the frequency of food and drink vending machines at secondary schools in Madrid , the products offered at them and their nutritional profile.
Cross-sectional study of a random sample of secondary schools in Madrid in The characteristics of the schools and the existence of vending machines were recorded through the internet and by telephone interview. The products offered in a representative sample of 6 vending machines were identified by in situ inspection, and its nutritional composition was taken from its labeling.
Finally, the nutritional profile of each product was analyzed with the United Kingdom profile model, which classifies products as healthy and less healthy. The prevalence of vending machines was Among the products offered, Vending machines are common at secondary schools in Madrid. Most products are vending machines are still less healthy.
Regional water footprint and water management: the case of Madrid region Spain. Water resources and water footprint of the production and consumption in Madrid region were estimated, considering blue water water resources , green water soil moisture , grey water polluted water and virtual water water trade in products imported and exported in the region.
Water resources in Madrid relay mainly in surface waters and rainfall, so the periodic occurrence of meteorological droughts implies the scarcity of water supply. The main users of blue water are households, munici Full Text Available Road traffic noise is one of the main concerns of large cities.
Most of them have classified their territory in acoustic areas and have constructed strategic noise maps. From both sources we have elaborated seven types of acoustic neighbourhoods according to both their noise gap in regard to the legal standard and the percentage of population exposed to noise. A spatial Durbin model has been selected as the strategy that best models the impact of noise on housing prices. However, results for Madrid do not confirm the hedonic theory and indicate, as one of the possibilities, that the official acoustic areas in Madrid could be incorrectly designed.
Valuation of social and health effects of transport-related air pollution in Madrid Spain. Social impacts of pollutants from mobile sources are a key element in urban design and traffic planning. One of the most relevant impacts is health effects associated with high pollution periods.
Madrid is a city that suffers chronic congestion levels and some periods of very stable atmospheric conditions; as a result, pollution levels exceed air quality standards for certain pollutants. This paper focuses on the social evaluation of transport-related emissions. A new methodology to evaluate those impacts in monetary terms has been designed and applied to Madrid. The method takes into account costs associated with losses in working time, mortality and human suffering; calculated using an impact pathway approach linked to CORINAIR emissions.
This also allows the calculation of social costs associated with greenhouse gas impacts.
As costs have been calculated individually by effect and mode of transport, they can be used to design pricing policies based on real social costs. This paper concludes that the health and social costs of transport-related air pollution in Madrid is Meuro. In these circumstances, the recent public health tax applied in Madrid is clearly correct and sensible with a fair pricing policy on car use.
We present data from a study of mercury concentrations in air and plant specimens from the MAF Herbarium in Madrid Spain. Hg gas emissions from old plant collections treated with mercuric chloride HgCl 2 in herbaria may pose a health risk for staff working in installations of this type. This is an issue not yet properly addressed. The first group induces high concentrations of Hg gas in the main herbarium room, with seasonal variations of ng m -3 late winter and ng m -3 early summer baseline for Hg: 8 ng m A test survey at another herbarium in Madrid showed even higher concentrations of Hg gas above 40, ng m The World Health Organization guidelines for chronic exposure to Hg gas are estimated at a maximum of ng m While staff was aware of the existence of HgCl 2 treated plants the plant specimen sheets are labelled as 'poisoned' , they had no knowledge of the presence of high Hg gas concentrations in the buildings, a situation that may be relatively common in herbaria.
Caresoil: A multidisciplinar Project to characterize, remediate, monitor and evaluate the risk of contaminated soils in Madrid Spain. Soil contamination can come from diffuse sources air deposition, agriculture, etc. According to data from the EU, in Spain , and particularly for the Autonomous Community of Madrid , it can be considered that heavy metals, toxic organic compounds including Non Aqueous Phases Liquids, NAPLs and combinations of both are the main problem of point sources of soil contamination in our community.
These aspects involve advanced technologies hydrogeology, geophysics, geochemistry, Actually two cases concerning hydrocarbon spills, as representative examples of soil local contamination in Madrid area, are being studied. The first is being remediated and we are monitoring this process to evaluate its effectiveness. In the second location we are defining the extent of contamination in soil and aquifer to define the most effective remediation technique.
Defining products for a new health technology assessment agency in Madrid , Spain : a survey of decision makers. The aim of this study was to explore the needs and requirements of decision makers in our regional healthcare system for health technology assessment HTA products to support portfolio development planning for a new HTA agency in Madrid , Spain.
A Delphi study was conducted during Questionnaires were developed based on a review of products and services offered by other agency members of the International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment, and included preference and prioritization questions to evaluate twenty-two different products and services. The initial Delphi panel involved eighty-seven experts from twenty-one public hospitals, eleven primary healthcare centers, six private hospitals, and eight departments of the Regional Ministry of Health of the Community of Madrid.
The global participation rate was Ten of the twenty-two possible products were rated of high interest by more than 80 percent of respondents. Important differences in preferences and priorities were detected across different settings. Public hospitals and primary healthcare centers shared a more "micro" perspective, preferring classic technology-centered HTA products, whereas private hospitals and Ministry representatives demanded more "macro" products and services such as organizational model and information system assessments. The high participation rate supports the representativeness of the results for our regional context.
The strategic development of an HTA portfolio based on decision makers' needs and requirements as identified in this type of exercise should help achieve a better impact on policy development and decision making. Full Text Available This study reveals the work developed by the nurses of the Hospital general of Madrid Spain in the treatment of the plague, and the training they received for their welfare tasks in the 17th century. Since the end of the 16th century, nurses knew and implemented a set of techniques and medicines to alleviate the terrible disease of the plague and, despite the scarce knowledge about the disease existing at the time, they sought to prevent the contagion with hygienic and dietary measures, and physical isolation.
This study shows through which actions and in which conditions nurses worked to deal with such a terrible disease. All this helps to get a full knowledge of the development of the work done by nurses in the last five centuries and, therefore, to determine the evolution and shaping of the nursing profession in our country.
The Fifth International Symposium on Stem Cell Therapy and Applied Cardiovascular Biotechnology was held on April 24thth, , at the Auditorium of the High Council of Scientific Research of Spain CSIC in Madrid , as a continuation of a series of yearly meetings, organized in an attempt to encourage translational research in this field and facilitate a positive interaction among experts from several countries, along with industry representatives and journalists.
In addition, members of the Task Force of the European Society concerning the clinical investigation of the use of autologous adult stem cells for repair of the heart gathered and discussed an update of the previous consensus, still pending of publication. In this article, we summarize some of the main topics of discussion, the state-of-the-art and latest advances in this field, and new challenges brought up for the near future.
Consumption trends for specific drugs used to treat dementia in the region of Madrid Spain from to Analysing drug consumption in large population groups lets us observe consumption trends and compare them between different settings. Descriptive study of cholinesterase inhibitors N06DA and memantine N06DX01 dispensed in Madrid between and and covered by the Spain 's national health system. Consumption was calculated by analysing changes in DDD defined daily doses to find total and yearly increases.
The cost was estimated based on DDD price. Between and , consumption of drugs used to treat dementia increased sixfold. During this period, cholinesterase inhibitors accounted for The estimated cost rose by a by a factor of 5. In , 2. Consumption increased in age cohorts up to 86 to 90 5. Consumption of cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine gradually increased, but consumption in did not reach levels equivalent to dementia prevalence figures.
Pharmaceutical expenditure restraint measures may temporarily slow the cost increase temporarily but if the same trend of consumption persists, costs will rise. Genotype distribution of human papillomavirus HPV in histological sections of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cervical carcinoma in Madrid , Spain. Human Papillomavirus HPV genotype distribution and co-infection occurrence was studied in cervical specimens from the city of Madrid Spain , as a contribution to the knowledge of Human Papillomavirus genotype distribution and prevalence of carcinogenic HPV types in cervical lesions in Spain.
HPV 18 was only detected in 5. Co-infections were found in As our study shows the current tetravalent vaccine could be effective in our geographical area for preventing all the invasive cervical carcinomas. In addition, upon the estimates of the important presence of other HR-HPV types — such as 31, 58, 33 and 52 — in different preneoplasic lesions the effectiveness of HPV vaccination in our geographical area, and others with similar genotype distribution, should be limited. Hepatitis B virus infection and vaccine-induced immunity in Madrid Spain. To estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B virus HBV infection and vaccine-induced immunity in the region of Madrid , and to analyze their evolution over time.
An observational, analytical, cross-sectional study was carried out in the population aged years between and This was the last of four seroprevalence surveys in the region of Madrid. The prevalence of HBV infection and vaccine-induced immunity was estimated using multivariate logistic models and were compared with the prevalences in the , and surveys.
In the population aged years, the prevalence of HBV infection was The prevalence of vaccine-induced immunity in the population aged years was Compared with previous surveys, there was a decrease in the prevalence of HBV infection. Based on the prevalence of chronic infection Madrid is a region with low HBV endemicity. Preventive strategies against HBV should especially target the immigrant population.
Published by Elsevier Espana. Enhancement of archaeological heritage. Heritage conservation has a great impact on the economy of a country. The enhancement of archaeological sites is an investment that promotes tourism and culture. The interdisciplinary knowledge of heritage should be the basis of its management.
Preventive actions, non-destructive analytical techniques and monitoring for the conservation of these assets should be promoted. This monument is approximately 70 metres high and metres wide. It was listed as a cultural and monumental heritage site by the regional government of Madrid in The gypsum escarpment housing the dwellings forms part of a lower Miocene unit Madrid Basin.
Debris cones with a mixture of debris from the lower, medium and upper units are found at the bottom of the rockwall. The vulnerability of this monument to atmospheric agents has been studied using "in situ" monitoring techniques of humidity, temperature and rate of rockfalls. Drones have been used for aerial photography in the highest areas of the escarpment and have provided an information network of fractures likely to cause rockfall.
To determine the response of these accelerated ageing processes, density, micro-roughness, ultrasound velocities Vp and Vs , air permeability and microscopy measurements were made before, during and after ageing tests. Geomorphological studies, rates of decay, material characteristics and durability tests indicate that the decay is controlled by the mineralogy, clay content and porosity of the gypsum rock, as well as microclimate, temperature changes and rock fractures. Rockfalls are particularly relevant in the.
The different alternatives are presented and the general outline of the solution chosen, as well as a comprehensive list of the materials used. Monitoring of children with acute gastroenteritis in Madrid , Spain , during rotavirus genotype distribution after the vaccines introduction. A structured surveillance study was conducted on children with diarrhea who were hospitalized in Madrid Spain during , in order to describe temporal, geographic, and age-related trends in rotavirus RV strains after the introduction of the RV vaccines in our country.
A total of children were enrolled, with RV being detected in Coinfections were detected mainly with rotavirus, astrovirus and norovirus. The most prevalent rotavirus G type was G1 The G12 genotype appeared for the first time in in Spain , and it has increased to 5.
Some uncommon P genotypes, such as P and P, both with a low percentage, were found. The samples with G1 G2, G9 and G12 genotypes appeared in all ages, but were significantly higher in children under 2 years old. A long-term structured surveillance is required in the Spanish post vaccine era, in order to determine the prevalence and variability of RV genotypes. This will especially be needed to distinguish between changes occurring as a result of natural fluctuation in genotype or those changes that could be mediated by population immunity to the vaccines.
In addition, it will be necessary to study the impact of the current vaccines on the circulating rotavirus strains and on the overall reduction in the prevalence of rotavirus disease among children in Spain. To establish the degree of knowledge and adherence to the Spanish National Health System recommendations on nutrition in schools in the Autonomous Community of Madrid.
Cross-sectional study of a random sample of secondary schools from Madrid , during school year. Information on the characteristics of the schools and the knowledge of the recommendations was collected by internet and telephone interviews, as well as a copy of the school menu. The average number of rations per week offered for each food item and the percentage of schools within the recommended range were calculated. The overall adherence was obtained as the mean of food items within the range.
The supply of rice, pasta, fish, eggs, salad and fruit was lower than recommended, whereas for meat, accompaniment and other desserts was higher. The mean of overall adherence was 6. The degree of adherence to the recommendations was variable, being advised to increase the supply of cereals, eggs, fish, salad and fruit. Programs for dissemination and implementation of the recommendations, leaded by trained professionals, are required to improve the nutritional value of school menu. Oyarzun, R. Meca 1, Almaden Spain ; Pizarro, J.
Geochemical fingerprints and controls in the sediments of an urban river: River Manzanares, Madrid Spain. The geochemical fingerprint of sediment retrieved from the banks of the River Manzanares as it passes through the City of Madrid is presented here. A total of 18 bank-sediment cores were collected along the course of the river, down to its confluence with the Jarama river, to the south-east of Madrid. X-ray diffraction was additionally employed to determine the mineralogical composition of the samples. Uni- and multivariate analyses of the chemical data reveal the influence of Madrid on the geochemistry of Manzanares' sediments, clearly manifested by a marked increase in the concentration of typically 'urban' elements Ag, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn, downstream of the intersection of the river with the city's perimeter.
The highest concentrations of these elements appear to be associated with illegal or accidental dumping of waste materials, and with the uncontrolled incorporation of untreated urban runoff to the river. The natural matrix of the sediment is characterised by fairly constant concentrations of Ce, La and Y, whereas changes in the lithology intersected by the river cause corresponding variations in Ca-Mg and Al-Na contents.
In the final stretch of the river, the presence of carbonate materials seems to exert a strong geochemical control on the amount of Zn and, to a lesser extent, Cu immobilised in the sediments. This fact suggests that a variable but significant. Phleboviruses detection in Phlebotomus perniciosus from a human leishmaniasis focus in South-West Madrid region, Spain. Phlebotomus-borne PhB- viruses are distributed in large areas of the Old World and are widespread throughout the Mediterranean basin, where recent investigations have indicated that virus diversity is higher than initially suspected.
Some of these viruses are causes of meningitis, encephalitis and febrile illnesses. In order to monitor the viral presence and the infection rate of PhB-viruses in a recently identified and well characterized human zoonotic leishmaniasis focus in southwestern Madrid , Spain , a sand fly collection was carried out. Sand fly insects were collected in four stations using CDC light traps during summer seasons. Screening for Phlebovirus presence both via isolation on Vero cells and via polymerase chain reaction PCR , using degenerated primers targeting a portion of the L segment, was performed.
The serological identity and phylogenetic relationships on the three genomic segments of the viral isolates were carried out. Six viral isolates belonging to different serological complexes of the genus Phlebovirus were obtained from fifty pools on a total of P. Phylogenetic analysis and serological assays allowed the identification of two isolates of Toscana virus TOSV B genotype, three isolates strongly related to Italian Arbia virus ARBV , and one isolate of a novel putative Phlebovirus related to the recently characterized Arrabida virus in South Portugal, tentatively named Arrabida-like virus.
Positive male sand fly pools suggested that transovarial or venereal transmission could occur under natural conditions. Our findings highlighted the presence of different Phlebovirus species in the South-West area of the Madrid Autonomous Community where an outbreak of cutaneous and visceral human leishmaniasis has been recently described.
Environmental aspects. The collection houses a total of type specimens representing 24 taxa belonging to 6 families and 12 genera. There are 22 taxa represented by primary types 19 holotypes, 2 neotypes and 1lectotype and at least one paratype, and only two taxa are exclusively represented by one secondary type paratype. The collection is specially rich in Spanish endemisms. Special attention is deserved by the type series of many subspecies of Podarcis lilfordi described by A.
Salvador and V. Lightning-caused fires in Central Spain. Lightning-caused fire occurrence has been modelled for two different Spanish regions, Madrid andAragon, based on meteorological, terrain, and vegetation variables. The model was built on two very contrasting regions, one presenting low number of lightning-caused fires whereas the other presented Validation was assessed through the Receiver Operator Characteristic, showing a good agreement between the modelled probabilities and the reported lightning-caused fires, with an Area Under the Curve around Short term effect of air pollution, noise and heat waves on preterm births in Madrid Spain.
Preterm birth PTB refers to delivery before 37 weeks of gestation and represents the leading cause of early-life mortality and morbidity in developed countries. PTB can lead to serious infant health outcomes. The etiology of PTB remains uncertain, but epidemiologic studies have consistently shown elevated risks with different environmental variables as traffic-related air pollution TRAP. The aim of the study was to evaluate with time series methodology the short-term effect of air pollutants, noise levels and ambient temperature on the number of births and preterm births occurred in Madrid City during the period.
Measurements of Acoustic Pollution in dB A analyzed were: Leqd, equivalent diurnal noise level and Leqn, equivalent nocturnal noise level. Linear trends, seasonality, as well as the autoregressive nature of the series itself were controlled. We added as covariate the day of the week too. Autoregressive over-dispersed Poisson regression models were performed and the environmental variables were included with short-term lags from 0 to 7 days in reference to the date of birth.
Firstly, simple models for the total number of births and preterm births were done separately. In a second stage, a model for total births adjusted for preterm births was performed. A total of , births were analyzed. The results of the final models were expressed in relative risks RRs for interquartile increase. We observed evidence of a short term effect at Lag 0, for the following environmental variables analyzed, PM2.
Influence of turbidity and clouds on satellite total ozone data over Madrid Spain. Camacho, J. Remote Sensing Technology Inst. IMF ; Hernandez, E. Complutense Spain. Fisica de la Tierra II. A cluster classification based on solar radiation global, direct and diffuse , cloudiness and aerosol index allow selecting hazy, cloudy, very cloudy and clear days. Thus, the differences between Brewer and satellite total ozone data for each cluster have been analyzed. Finally, the total ozone observations obtained with the GOME instrument show a very smooth dependence with respect to clouds and turbidity, showing a robust retrieval algorithm over these conditions.
Group violence among Latin American immigrant youth has led to ongoing debates in political, legal, and media circles, yet none of those many perspectives has arrived at a solid, empirically supported definition for the phenomenon. This study aims to explore the relationship between the immigrant experience and violent group behavior in youths from Latin America serving prison sentences in Justice Enforcement Centers in the Community of Madrid.
Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 juveniles, and content analysis was applied to the resulting transcripts, employing Grounded Theory to create an axial codification of intra- and inter-categorical contents, and Delphi panels for quality control. The research team delved into 62 topics, addressing participants' perceptions of the immigrant experience and its effects on five socialization settings neighborhood, school, family, peer group, and significant other , and each one's relationship to violent behavior.
The results led us to believe the young people's immigration experiences had been systematically examined. Their personal and social development was influenced by negative socioeconomic conditions, ineffective parental supervision, maladjustment and conflict at school, and experiences of marginalization and xenophobia. All those conditions favored affiliation with violent groups that provided them instrumental economic and material , expressive, or affective support.
Factors associated with cell phone use in adolescents in the community of Madrid Spain. The purpose of this research is to measure cell phone use among high school adolescents and the factors associated with intensive cell phone use depressive symptoms, social isolation, drug and alcohol use, school failure, and cell phone dependence. We conducted a cross-sectional survey study of 1, adolescents aged 13 to 20 years in nine secondary schools of the Community of Madrid between January to April The mean age of sample participants was Almost all Some Intensive cell phone use was associated with female sex, rural school location, good family economy, smoking tobacco, excessive alcohol consumption, depression, cell phone dependence, and school failure.
More health education is needed to promote correct and effective cell phone use among adolescents. Factors associated with intensive use and dependence should be considered for possible intervention activities. Application of a pedestrian portal monitor at Madrid International Airport in Spain. Pujol, Ll. Three pedestrian portal monitor systems, designed to detect illicit trafficking or inadvertent movement of radioactive materials carried by passengers at airports, have been evaluated.
The systems were supplied by three manufacturers: Bicron, Exploranium and Thermo-Eberline. In an initial evaluation, conducted at the Laboratory of Nuclear Engineering of the School of Civil Engineering, it was observed that the FHT system manufactured by Thermo-Eberline gave a more sensitive response and allowed the measurement of total photon dose rate and artificial photon dose rate. Therefore, this system was installed at Barajas International Airport in Madrid in for a period of days in order to select an appropriate investigation level defined as the radiation level that is selected as the trigger for further investigation.
An investigation level of approximately 1. Variables studied in the patients were: demographic data, medical history, symptoms, clinical course and diagnostic tests. For qualitative variables, frequencies and percentages were calculated. In water samples taken on risk devices, we studied chlorine concentration, pH, temperatura and presence of Legionella.
On the other hand, in biofilm samples obtained from the champagne bucket it was detected by PCR the presence of Legionella pneumophila whose gene sequencing was identical to that found in a respiratory sample of one patient. So, we could show the link between environmental risk factor and the disease. This link was also confirmed by genetic sequencing with PCR. Spread and partitioning of arsenic in soils from a mine waste site in Madrid province Spain.
The formation of scorodite is an important mechanism for the natural attenuation of arsenic in a wide range of environments. It is dumped on site by metallurgical industries to minimize arsenic release. However, the long-term stability of these deposits is unclear. Sequential As extractions and synchrotron-based X-ray absorption near-edge structure XANES spectroscopy were used to determine both As and Fe speciation in a small catchment area affected by a scorodite-rich waste pile at an abandoned smelting factory.
Our results indicate that this deposit behaves as an acute point source of As and metal pollution and confirms the strong association of As V with Fe III oxide phases, highlighting the important role of ferrihydrite as an As scavenger in natural systems. In this seasonally variable system, other trapping forms such as jarosite-like minerals also play a role in the attenuation of As.
Overall, our results demonstrate that scorodite should not be considered an environmental stable repository for As attenuation when dumped outside because natural rainfall and the resulting runoff drive As dispersion in the environment and indicate the need to monitor and reclamate As-rich mine deposits. Information search behaviour, understanding and use of nutrition labeling by residents of Madrid , Spain. To describe the information search behaviour, comprehension level, and use of nutritional labeling by consumers according to sociodemographic characteristics.
Cross-sectional study of consumers recruited in five stores of the main supermarket chains in Madrid : a random sample of consumers response rate: Interviewers collected information about the information search behaviour, comprehension, and use of nutritional labeling using a questionnaire designed for this purpose. Differences were tested using the Chi-square statistic. In this sample, Lack of time Over half Reported information search behaviour, comprehension, and use of nutritional labeling were relatively high among consumers of the study, and their main goal was picking healthier products.
However, not only are there still barriers to reading the information, but also the information most relevant to health is not always read or understood. Thus, interventions to increase nutritional labeling comprehension and use are required in order to facilitate the making of healthier choices by consumers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Most PHIV women have been exposed to a high number of antiretroviral regimens, and they may have difficulties to achieve viral suppression.
Psychosocial problems are not uncommon and could be an important barrier for treatment adherence. The effects of chronic HIV infection and long-term exposure to antiretroviral treatment of PHIV women cause concerns on the developing fetus. The aims of this study were to describe the prevention of mother-to-child transmission strategies in PHIV women and the infant outcomes in the Madrid Cohort of HIV-infected mother-infant pairs. All PHIV pregnant women registered in the Cohort that gave birth from to were included in the study. Twenty-eight pregnancies in twenty-two perinatally infected women were registered.
Most women were Caucasian and heavily treatment-experienced. Nine cases Maternal HIV-1 viral load was detectable close to delivery in four women The management of these cases was described, and the treatment strategies were discussed. None of the newborns acquired HIV infection.
Eight infants This study included a large series of pregnancies among PHIV women attended according to a youth-centered care model. The challenges in the management of this population by health-care providers were described. Specific strategies to minimize perinatal transmission risks should be addressed in future collaborative studies. It is a notifiable disease, re-emerging in Europe. In Spain , it first appeared in horses in the south Andalusia in , where outbreaks occur every year since.
Before that, evidence of West Nile virus WNV circulation in central Spain had been obtained only from wildlife, but never in horses. The purpose of this work was to perform a serosurvey to retrospectively detect West Nile virus infections in asymptomatic horses in central Spain from to , that is before the occurrence of the first outbreaks in the area. For that, serum samples from horses, collected between September and November in central Spain , were analysed by ELISA blocking and IgM and confirmed by virus neutralization, proving its specificity using parallel titration with another flavivirus Usutu virus.
As a result, 10 of horse serum samples analysed gave positive results by competitive ELISA, 5 of which were confirmed as positive to WNV by virus neutralization seropositivity rate: 1. Chronologically, the first positive samples, including the IgM-positive, corresponded to sera collected in in Madrid province. From these results, we concluded that WNV circulated in asymptomatic equine populations of central Spain at least since , before the first disease outbreak reported in this area.
Satellite information has contributed to improve our understanding of the spatial variability of hydro-climatic and ecological processes. Vegetation activity is tightly coupled with climate, hydro-ecological fluxes, and terrain dynamics in river basins at a wide range of space-time scales Scheuring and Riedi, Indices of vegetation activity are constructed using satellite information of reflectance of the relevant spectral bands which enhance the contribution of vegetation being Normalized Difference Vegetation Index NDVI widely used. How can we study such a complex system?
In this work, we have applied these techniques to study the spatial pattern through one year of NDVI maps. A rectangular area that includes the Community of Madrid and part of the surroundings, consisting of x pixels with a resolution of x m2 has been selected and monthly NDVI maps analyzed using the multifractal spectrum and the map of singularities Cheng and Agterberg, References Cheng, Q.
Multifractal modeling and spatial statistics. Vol 28, Heavy metals distribution in soils surrounding an abandoned mine in NW Madrid Spain and their transference to wild flora. The present work concerns the distribution and mobility of heavy metals Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Cd in the surrounding soils of a mine site and their transfer to wild flora. Thus, soils and plants were sampled from a mining valley in NW Madrid Spain , and total and extractable heavy metals were analysed.
Soils affected by mining activities presented total Cd, Cu and Zn concentrations above toxic thresholds. The percentage of extractable element was highest for Cd and lowest for Cu. A highly significant correlation was observed between the total and extractable concentrations of metals in soils, indicating that, among the factors studied, total metals concentration is the most relevant for heavy metals extractability in these soils. NH 4 2 SO 4 -extractable metal concentrations in soils are correlated better with metal concentrations in several plant species than total metals in soils, and thus can be used as a suitable and robust method for the estimation of the phytoavailable fraction present in soils.
The present paper is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of the metal accumulation ability of the two latter plant species. The phytoremediation ability of S. Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by the Leishmania parasite and transmitted by the Phlebotominae subfamily of sandflies, which infects humans and other mammals. Clinical manifestations of the disease include cutaneous leishmaniasis CL, mucocutaneous leishmaniasis MCL and visceral leishmaniasis VL with a majority more than three-quarters of worldwide cases being CL.
There are a number of risk factors for CL, such as the presence of multiple reservoirs, the movement of individuals, inequality, and social determinants of health. However, studies related to the role of these factors in the dynamics of CL have been limited. In this work, we i develop and analyze a vector-borne epidemic model to study the dynamics of CL in two ecologically distinct CL-affected regions— Madrid , Spain and Tolima, Colombia; ii derived three different methods for the estimation of model parameters by reducing the dimension of the systems; iii estimated reproduction numbers for the outbreak in Madrid and the outbreak in Tolima; and iv compared the transmission potential of the two economically-different regions and provided different epidemiological metrics that can be derived and used for evaluating an outbreak, once R0 is known and additional data are available.
On average, Spain has reported only a few hundred CL cases annually, but in the course of the outbreak during —, a much higher number of cases than expected were reported and that too in the single city of Madrid. Cases in humans were accompanied by sharp increase in infections among domestic dogs, the natural reservoir of CL. On the other hand, CL has reemerged in Colombia primarily during the last decade, because of the frequent movement of military personnel to domestic regions from forested areas, where they have increased exposure to vectors.
In , Tolima saw an unexpectedly high number of cases leading to two successive outbreaks. On comparing, we. Stone decay assessment of the Madrid 's Royal Palace Spain by means of ultrasound and magnetometric prospection. This stone shows such petrophysical properties that make it resistant to decay processes. Despite its high quality, the ashlars of the architrave have undergone fissuring processes resulting on fragments fall, some of them being blocks weighing more than Kg, with the consequent risk for visitors and passers-by.
Fissures were caused by the presence of metallic elements iron-based used to tie ashlars. This survey will allow defining the guidelines for a restoration intervention. Results from the magnetometry prospection made possible to locate metallic elements flat bars and cramps , and sometimes the flat bars overlapping. Such bars are usually located at cm deep from the surface, just below the freeze and in a case cut in the architrave limestone.
Such bars were. A multi-methodological approach to study the temporal and spatial distribution of air quality related to road transport emissions in Madrid , Spain. The traffic-related atmospheric emissions, composition and transport of greenhouse gases GHGs and air toxic pollutants ATPs , are an important environmental problem that affect climate change and air pollution in Madrid , Spain.
Carbon dioxide CO2 affects the regional weather and particularly fine particle matter PM translocate to the people resulting in local health problems. As the main source of emissions comes from road transport, and subsequent combustion of fossil fuels, air quality deterioration may be elevated during weekdays and peak hours. We postulate that traffic-related air quality CO2, methane CH4, PM, volatile organic compounds VOCs, nitrogen oxides NOx and carbon monoxide CO contents impairs epidemiology in part via effects on health and disease development, likely increasing the external costs of transport in terms of climate change and air pollution.
First, the paper intends to estimate the local air quality related to the road transport emissions of weeks over a domain covering Madrid used as a case study. The local air quality model LAQM is based on gridded and shaped emission fields. The paper intends to obtain estimates of GHGs and ATPs concentrations commensurate with available ground measurements, hour average values, from the Municipality of Madrid.
The comparison between estimated concentrations and measurements must show small errors e. The paper's expected results must determine spatial and temporal patterns in Madrid. The estimates will be used to cross check the primary local. Progress in control of bovine tuberculosis bTB is often not uniform, usually due to the effect of one or more sometimes unknown epidemiological factors impairing the success of eradication programs.
Use of spatial analysis can help to identify clusters of persistence of disease, leading to the identification of these factors thus allowing the implementation of targeted control measures, and may provide some insights of disease transmission, particularly when combined with molecular typing techniques. Here, the spatial dynamics of bTB in a high prevalence region of Spain were assessed during a three year period — using data from the eradication campaigns to detect clusters of positive bTB herds and of those infected with certain Mycobacterium bovis strains characterized using spoligotyping and VNTR typing.
VNTR subtyping revealed the presence of few but highly prevalent strains within the high risk area, suggesting maintained transmission in the area. Full Text Available In Spain environmental surveillance has mainly relied on measures of selected pollutants in air, water, food and soil.
A study was conducted in Madrid to assess the feasibility of implementing a surveillance system of exposure among the general population to specific environmental pollutants, using bio-markers. The project was basically focused on the environment surrounding newborns. Hence, the study population was made up of triplets of pregnant women at around 8 months' gestation, their partners, and newborns from two areas, representing the two main types of urban environments in the region, i. Multiple biologic substrates were collected from each participant in order to assess the most suitable samples for an environmental surveillance system.
The selected contaminants represent the main agents to which a population like that of Madrid is exposed every day, including certain heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, as well as micronuclei in peripheral blood, a commonly used unspecific index of cytogenetic damage. In addition, passive air samplers were placed around subjects' place of residence. This paper reports in detail on the design and response rates, summarizes field work results, and discusses some lessons learned. The interglacial episodes of the Quaternary Period are currently the focus of a great deal of attention within the scientific community, primarily because they can help us to understand how the climate of the current interglacial may have evolved without human intervention and to assess the impact of these climate changes on ecological systems.
The Mediterranean climate is shown to have been warmer and wetter than today in central Spain during MIS 11, with the mean annual temperature 1. The monthly climatic reconstruction shows differences in the distribution of precipitation over the course of the year, with more abundant precipitation during the winter months, at the beginning of spring and at the end of fall from October to March and less precipitation than today during the summer months and at the end of spring from May to August , suggesting stronger rainfall seasonality between winter and summer than currently occurs.
Such climate reconstruction is consistent with other European MIS 11 paleoclimatic records. Evolution of the alteration process in time of granitic materials from Valdemorillo quarries used in built heritage, Madrid , Spain. Alteration of building materials used for heritage construction already starts in the quarries, where materials are subjected to both natural alteration and anthropic decay, this latter caused by the rock extracting, cutting and carving processes.
Once the materials are placed in the building, they are exposed to other agents that accelerate their decay, especially if they are exposed to aggressive environments. Materials petrophysical properties tend to vary according to the alteration degree they have experienced, the longer they have been exposed to decay agents, the greater the properties change. Surface hardness of granitic rocks tend to diminish when they deteriorate, increasing its porosity, which usually is reflected on a decrease of the ultrasound propagation velocity measurements. Ultrasound velocity and surface hardness were measured in monzogranite ashlars use to build the Assumption of Our Lady church Valdemorillo, Madrid , Spain.
Ultrasound velocity was measured using the indirect transmission mode, with 54 kHz frequency transductors, and surface hardness by means of the Schmidt hammer rebound tester. This monument was erected in different building stages. The starting point was a Mozarab or Visigoth defensive tower 8th century. Templars readapt it to a castle-convent 12th and 14th centuries , the tower being converted into a higher bell-tower.
During the 14thth centuries the Cistercian Order made significant modifications of the complex, being the construction of the Chapter House one of the last enlargements during the 17th century. The quarries located in the surroundings of the monument were used for the first building stages. In the recent fronts of these quarries that have been used along the 20th century, ultrasound and hardness measurements were performed to obtain the values of these parameters in unaltered materials to compare them to those measured in ashlars from different constructive periods.
A total of 50 recent front. Hospitalizations for ambulatory care sensitive conditions and quality of primary care: their relation with socioeconomic and health care variables in the Madrid regional health service Spain. Hospitalizations for ambulatory care sensitive conditions ACSH have been proposed as an indirect indicator of the effectiveness and quality of care provided by primary health care. To investigate the association of ACSH rates with population socioeconomic factors and with characteristics of primary health care. Cross-sectional, ecologic study.
All 34 health districts in the Region of Madrid , Spain. Individuals aged 65 years or older residing in the region of Madrid between and , inclusive. Age- and gender-adjusted ACSH rates in each health district. The adjusted ACSH rate per population was In the Poisson regression analysis, an inverse relation was seen between ACSH rates and the socioeconomic variables.
Physician workload was the only health care variable with a statistically significant relation rate ratio of 1. These results were similar in the analyses disaggregated by gender. In the multivariate analyses that included health care variables, none of the health care variables were statistically significant.
ACSH may be more closely related with socioeconomic variables than with characteristics of primary care activity. Therefore, other factors outside the health system must be considered to improve health outcomes in the population. Full Text Available Objective: To compare the prevalence of chronic headache CH, chronic neck pain CNP and chronic low back pain CLBP in the autonomous region of Madrid by analyzing gender differences and to determine the factors associated with each pain location in women in This survey includes data from personal interviews conducted in a representative population residing in family dwellings in Madrid.
Sociodemographic features, self-perceived health status, lifestyle habits, psychological distress, drug consumption, use of healthcare services, the search for alternative solutions, and comorbid diseases were analyzed by using logistic regression models. In the bivariate analysis, the factors associated with pain in distinct body locations differed between men and women. Women have a higher overall prevalence of chronic pain than men.
Chronic pain was associated with a higher use of analgesics and healthcare services. Evaluation of compliance with the self-regulation agreement of the food and drink vending machine sector in primary schools in Madrid , Spain , in To evaluate compliance with the self-regulation agreement of the food and drink vending machine sector in primary schools in Madrid , Spain. Cross-sectional study of the prevalence of vending machines in primary schools in Using the directory of all registered primary schools in Madrid , we identified the presence of machines by telephone interviews and evaluated compliance with the agreement by visiting the schools and assessing accessibility, type of publicity, the products offered and knowledge of the agreement.
The prevalence of schools with vending machines was 5. None of the schools reported knowledge of the agreement or of its nutritional guidelines, and most machines were accessible to primary school pupils Compliance with the self-regulation agreement of the vending machines sector was low. Stricter regulation should receive priority in the battle against the obesity epidemic.
Actors, observers, and causal attributions of homelessness: Differences in attribution for the causes of homelessness among domiciled and homeless people in Madrid Spain. The domiciled service-users group and domiciled nonservice-users group were matched to the homeless group or sex, age, and nationality. The article also analyzes homeless people's causal attributions as regards their own situation.
The results show that compared with the domiciled nonservice-users group, a higher percentage of members of the homeless group and domiciled service-users group attributed homelessness to individualistic causes and they blamed homeless people for their situation to a greater extent.
The results also show that there was no "actor-observer bias" in causal attributions for homelessness in Madrid. Las noticias de Madrid News from Madrid. Highlights of the conference included reports on brain imaging, the discovery of mutations in the progranulin gene that cause frontotemporal dementia, the finding that neuregulin-1 is a substrate for BACE1 and new interest in the connection between Alzheimer's disease and metabolic syndromes.