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Find a copy in the library Finding libraries that hold this item Reviews Editorial reviews. Publisher Synopsis Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul offers intriguing insights into Pauls philosophical and theological world-view. User-contributed reviews Add a review and share your thoughts with other readers. Be the first. Add a review and share your thoughts with other readers. Similar Items Related Subjects: 10 Biblical cosmology. Paulus -- Apostel -- Heiliger Geist. Paulus -- Apostel -- Kosmologie. Paulus Apostel. Linked Data More info about Linked Data.
Because there is one bread, we who are many are one body, for we all partake of the one bread. Alsosee below for a discussion concerning intercourse as potentially linking participants "in Christ. According toPaul, this is the objective of the representatives of the movement elsewhere cf. Galatians 2. Assigned at birth membership is default for this society :Notes: It is possible that Paul believes that children born to those sharing in Christ's "pneuma"also share in that fellowship. He describes those "united" in intercourse as sharing "one body"and sharing pneuma 1 Cor One may be safe in assuming that Paul considers a child bornto at least one person "in Christ" as sharing in that same "body.
This is arguably supported by his objectionto men engaging in intercourse with prostitutes, lest they inadvertently join them "in Christ"through the activity 1 Corinthians , below ; however, in this passage it seems he isprimarily concerned with the sexual act itself. It is important to note that, on the whole, Pauldiscourages procreation. In 1 Cor , he is explicit about his disdain for intercourse,deeming it a passion to be avoided given its associative risks for immorality.
He suggests that,if one is unable to control this particular passion, that the act be confined to marriage. But now I am writing to you not to associate with anyonewho bears the name of a brother or sister who is sexually immoral or greedy, or is an idolater,reviler, drunkard, or robber.
And God raised the Lord and will also raise us by his power. Or do you notknow that your body is a temple of the holy pneuma within you, which you have from God,and that you are not your own? For you were bought with a price; therefore glorify God in yourbody. Should Itherefore take the members of Christ and make them members of a prostitute? Do younot know that whoever is united to a prostitute becomes one body with her?
NB: Paul islikely reflecting on Genesis in some measure with this discussion: "Therefore a man leaveshis father and his mother and clings to his wife, and they become one flesh. Field doesn't know—Walsh, Database of Religious History, Page 4 of 51Assigned by personal choice:Notes: It is unclear whether those under the relative authority of a male head of household paterfamilias would have had the liberty to reject membership "in Christ" e.
Paulnotes that there are marriages in which one member is "in Christ" and the other is not 1 Cor and he discourages divorce; however, he also implies that marriage alone might besufficient to link the non-participating partner into membership that is, not by personalchoice. The same may also be true for sexual partners 1 Corinthians Field doesn't know—Assigned by class:Notes: Paul appear to be targeting those who are able to sponsor his travel and expenses heads of households ; however, class is not a deterrent to membership.
Romans No—Assigned at a specific age:Notes: Paul is not explicit on this point. Field doesn't know—Assigned by gender:Notes: There are several woman named in Paul's letters who appear to have leadership roles e. There is no longer Judean or Greek, there is no longer slave or free, there is no longermale and female; for all of you are one in Christ Jesus.
The husband should give his wife her conjugal rights, and likewise the wifeto her husband. For the wife does not have authority over her own body, but the husbanddoes; likewise the husband does not have authority over his own body, but the wife does. Donot deprive one another except perhaps by agreement for a set time, to devote yourselves toprayer, and then come together again, so that Satan may not tempt you because of your lackof self-control. This may be situational e. Scholars also debate whether these passages are laterinterpolations designed to reinscribe traditional gender roles associated with theinstitutionalization of the orthodox church.
Any man who prays or prophesies with something on hishead disgraces his head, but any woman who prays or prophesies with her head unveileddisgraces her head — it is one and the same thing as having her head shaved. For if a womanwill not veil herself, then she should cut off her hair; but if it is disgraceful for a woman to haveher hair cut off or to be shaved, she should wear a veil.
For a man ought not have his headveiled, since he is the image and reflection of God; but woman is the reflection of man. One of the primary objectives of Paul's letters is to communicate the guidelines forcontinued membership and good standing within his particular interpretation of the Christmovement. It seems reasonable to conclude that this activity did not remain static outside of Paul'spurview with the reputed groups to whom he is writing. Whether we'd call this activity organized andsystematic "proselytizing" is a matter of debate. Per my other answers in this entry, the level ofcohesion implied by a term like "proselytize" may not be applicable in this specific instance.
That said, ifwe consider "proselytizing" simply informing others of the Christ movement and inviting participation,then it seems reasonable to assume this was taking place. It is unclearwhether we would say these individuals are also "proselytizing. Greet also the church in their house. Greet mybeloved Epaenetus, who was the first convert in Asia for Christ. Greet Mary, who has worked very hardman was not made from woman, but woman from man. Neither was man created for thesake of woman, but woman for the sake of man.
For this reason a woman ought to have asymbol of authority on her head, because of the angels. Nevertheless, in the Lord woman is notindependent of man or man independent of woman. For just as woman came from man, soman comes through woman; but all things come from God. Judge for yourselves: is it properfor a woman to pray to God with her head unveiled?
Does not nature itself teach you that if aman wears long hair, it is degrading to him, but if a woman has long hair, it is her glory? Forher hair is given to her for a covering. For they are not permitted to speak, but should be subordinate, as the law also says. If there is anything they desire to know, let them ask their husbands at home. For it isshameful for a woman to speak in church. Minneapolis, MN:Fortress Press, Assigned by participation in a particular ritual:Notes: Paul names baptism and eucharist meals as practices associated with sharing in Christ's"pneuma.
Yes—Assigned by some other factor:Yes [specify]: It is possible Paul possess a concept of what we might term predestination forthose who ultimately "participate in Christ. For those God foreknew he also predestined to be conformed to theimage of his Son, that he might be the firstborn among many brothers and sisters. And thosehe predestined, he also called; those he called, he also justified; those he justified, he alsoglorified. Greet Andronicus and Junia, my relatives who were in prison with me; they are prominentamong the apostles, and they were in Christ before I was. Greet Ampliatus, my beloved in the Lord.
Greet Urbanus, our co-worker in Christ, and my beloved Stachys.
Greet Apelles, who is approved inChrist. Greet those who belong to the family of Aristobulus. Greet my relative Herodion. Greet those inthe Lord who belong to the family of Narcissus. Greet those workers in the Lord, Tryphaena andTryphosa. Greet the beloved Persis, who has worked hard in the Lord. In 1 Corinthians, there is also adebate over whether there is a woman with her own group of Christ followers Chloe.
If this is the case,it again raises concerns about how to imagine group cohesion. There is not enoughevidence to confirm that those represented in his writings as other "religious professionals" e. Field doesn't know—Is proselytizing mandated for all adherents:Notes: It is not entirely clear what Paul means when he states that members "in Christ" are"work[ing] very hard among you" Romans Field doesn't know—Is missionary work mandated for religious professionals:Notes: Given the nature of our evidence, I can only speak to Paul's self-described activities as a"religious professional.
Yes—Is missionary work mandated for all adherents:Field doesn't know—Is proselytization coercive:Notes: If by "coercive" we mean forced, it is not clear whether heads of households could haveforced participation for household members like slaves. Otherwise, Paul's rhetoric is arguablycoercive insofar as he claims that those who do not participate will face mortal death. See,especially, Galatians 3, 5; Romans 5, 8.
Field doesn't know—Walsh, Database of Religious History, Page 7 of 51Notes: We do not know enough about the individuals addressed in Paul's letters. Paul indicates that hehas been arrested and beaten for his activities at times, suggesting the opposite cf. NB: Later evidence of Christ-followers e. Is there a conception of apostasy in the religious group:Notes: Paul does speak of "false apostles" 2 Corinthians and "false believers" Galatians Thatsaid, I dispute the notion that what is traditionally termed "Pauline Christianity" is cohesive enough atthis stage to label the activity of Paul's so-called opponents "apostasy.
One source that hypothesized thenumber of early Christians in the empire is: Hopkins, Keith. According to Hopkins, by 40CE there may havebeen a total of 1, people identifying as what we would call "Christian. However, given that this entry is about Paul asa religious specialist, these numbers stand as a reference only.
I do not associate them directly withPaul as Paul can not be held responsible for all Christ-followers despite the claims of tradition. It also depends on whether you reasonthat larger social structures, such as imperial cult, dictate adherence. In the future, this entry may wantto link to a general entry on Greco-Roman religion and first-century Judaism. Nature of religious group [please select one]:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 35 CE - 65 CEField doesn't know—Yes—Are apostates prosecuted or punished:Field doesn't know—Field doesn't know—Field doesn't know—Small religious group seen as being part of a related larger religious group —Walsh, Database of Religious History, Page 8 of 51Are there recognized leaders in the religious group:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 35 CE - 65 CEYes—Is there a hierarchy among these leaders:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 35 CE - 65 CEYes—A council or group of leaders for the religious group that oversees all otherleaders in the sample region:Notes: Paul speaks of himself as an authority, recognizes others like Peter and Jamesas authorities, and references leaders with official titles like "deacons.
Specific to this answer:Date Range: 35 CE - 65 CEField doesn't know—Are leaders believed to possess supernatural powers or qualities:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 35 CE - 65 CEYes—Powers are acquired by individual deeds carried out in past lives:Specific to this answer:Date Range: 35 CE - 65 CENo—Powers are acquired by individual deeds carried out in the current life:Notes: Paul speaks frequently about "pneumatic" powers which appear to include actssuch as speaking in tongues, divination, prophecy, and healing.
Specific to this answer:Date Range: 35 CE - 65 CEPowers are culturally transmitted from a supernatural being:Notes: I am not clear what "culturally transmitted" means in this context; however, Paulclaims that the risen Christ Jesus is responsible for much of his authority and hispneumatic powers. In 1 Cor 14, Paul addresses those seeking to obtain specialrecognition for their ability to speak in tongues. Notes: Paul makes reference to the Septuagint version of the Torah.
He also makes reference to a"gospel" good news ; however, what he means by this term is disputed. It is unlikely he is using theterm to designate written materials such as the later lives of Jesus now known as "gospels. See,for example, Romans " When he makes reference to"the law," he means to indicate the first five books of the Hebrew Bible.
This entrymay want to link to a future entry on oral Torah, should it exist.
For all answers below, assumeassociation with first-century CE Judaism and Jewish history. In the future, this entry shouldlink to an entry on this subject. Yes—Revealed by a high god:Notes: Yahweh reveals himself in multiple forms throughout the Hebrew Bible. Yes—Revealed by other supernatural being:Notes: The distinction between "revealed" and "inspired" in this section are not terriblyclear to me. By answering "yes" I am indicating an awareness of other supernaturalbeings e. Paul also acknowledges a variety ofsupernatural beings in his letters. See the primary sources listed below.
When you are assembled, and my spirit is present with thepower of our Lord Jesus, you are to hand this man over to Satan for the destruction ofthe flesh, so that his spirit may be saved in the day of the Lord. I speak as to sensible peoplejudge for yourselves what I say. The cup of blessing that we bless, is it not a sharing inthe blood of Christ?
Because there is one bread, we who are many are one body, for we all partake of theone bread. Consider the people of Israel are not those who eat the sacrifices partners inthe altar? What do I imply then? That food sacrificed to idols is anything, or that an idolis anything? No, I imply that what pagans sacrifice, they sacrifice to demons and not toGod. I do not want you to be partners with demons. You cannot drink the cup of theLord and the cup of demons. You cannot partake of the table of the Lord and the tableof demons. Or are we provoking the Lord to jealousy? Are we stronger than he?
What I have forgiven, if I have forgivenanything, has been for your sake in the presence of Christ. And we do this so that wemay not be outwitted by Satan for we are not ignorant of his designs. And no wonder! Even Satan disguises himself as an angel of light. Soit is not strange if his ministers also disguise themselves as ministers of righteousness. Their end will match their deeds. Galatians But even if we or an angel from heavenshould proclaim to you a gospel contrary to what we proclaimed to you, let that one beaccursed! Galatians Why then the law?
It was added because of transgressions,until the offspring would come to whom the promise had been made and it wasordained through angels by a mediator. For such boasters are false apostles, deceitfulworkers, disguising themselves as apostles of Christ. Even Satandisguises himself as an angel of light. So it is not strange if his ministers also disguisethemselves as ministers of righteousness.
Galatians So with us while we were minors, we were enslaved to the elemental spirits of theworld. But when the fullness of time had come, God sent his Son, born of a woman,Walsh, Database of Religious History, Page 12 of 51born under the law, in order to redeem those who were under the law, so that wemight receive adoption as children. Galatians Formerly, when you did not knowGod, you were enslaved to beings that by nature are not gods.
Now, however, that youhave come to know God, or rather to be known by God, how can you turn back againto the weak and beggarly elemental spirits? How can you want to be enslaved to themagain? You are observing special days, and months, and seasons, and years. Romans For I am convinced that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor rulers, nor things Romans The God of peace will shortly crush Satan under your feet. The grace ofour Lord Jesus Christ be with you. Inspired by high god:Notes: It is likely those composing these scriptures would attribute "inspiration" to theJudean god Yahweh.
Yes—Inspired by other supernatural being:Notes: I am answering "yes" here in reference to the other supernatural beingsacknowledged in the Hebrew Bible. Yes—Originated from divine or semi-divine human beings:Notes: See comment fields in the questions above concerning the Hebrew Bible. Paulcombines references to the Hebrew Bible and the "good news" of Christ Jesus in hisletters.
Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul challenges the traditional reading of Paul. Troels Engberg-Pedersen argues that the usual, mainly cognitive and. This book argues that the traditional, mainly cognitive and metaphorical ways of understanding central Pauline concepts, e.g. 'being in Christ', which have been.
Although this question calls for data on the specific category of scripture, I willinclude examples from the primary text Paul's letter for context. See Romans "Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, set apart for the good news ofGod, which he promised beforehand through his prophets in the holy scriptures, thegood news concerning his son, who was descended from David according to the fleshand was declared to the Son of God with power according to the pneuma of holinessby resurrection from the dead, Jesus Christ our Lord Am I not an apostle?
Have I not seen Jesus our Lord? Are you not my work inthe Lord? If I am not an apostle to others, at least I am to you for you are the seal of myapostleship in the Lord. This is my defense to those who would examine me. Also, on apurely descriptive level, yes. In this respect, and as itconcerns the act of translation with Paul's use of the Septuagint, these scriptures are alterable.
One could argue that Paul's emphasis on the cross as a symbol is iconographic; however, there is nomaterial evidence to defend this position. The material body is weak physiologically and in terms of its moral psychologically, astate inherited from Adam. In the next age, they will have pneumatic bodiesresistant to disease, passions, etc. Some representative passages:Romans If the pneuma of him who raised Jesus from the dead dwells in you, he who raised Christfrom the dead will give life to your mortal bodies also through his pneuma that dwells in you.
Romans We know that the whole creation has been groaning in labor pains until now and not only thecreation, but we ourselves, who have the first fruits of the pneuma, groan inwardly while we wait foradoption, the redemption of our bodies. Romans I appeal to you therefore, brothers, by the merciesof God, to present your bodies as a living sacrifice, holy and acceptable to God, which is your pneumaticworship. Romans For as in one body we have many members, and not all the members havethe same function, so we, who are many, are one body in Christ, and individually we are members oneof another.
The body ismeant not for fornication but for the Lord, and the Lord for the body. Should I therefore take the members of Christ andmake them members of a prostitute? Do you not know that whoever is united to a prostitutebecomes one body with her? The bread that we break, is it not asharing in the body of Christ? Because there is one bread, we who are many are one body, for we allNo—No—Field doesn't know—Yes—Walsh, Database of Religious History, Page 15 of 51partake of the one bread. For in the one Spiritwe were all baptized into one body—Jews or Greeks, slaves or free—and we were all made to drink ofone pneuma.
Indeed, the body does not consist of one member but of many. But God has so arranged the body, giving the greater honor to the inferior member, that theremay be no dissension within the body, but the members may have the same care for one another So death is at work in us, but life in you. Yes, we do have confidence, and we would rather be away from the body and athome with the Lord. So whether we are at home or away, we make it our aim to please him. For all ofus must appear before the judgment seat of Christ, so that each may receive recompense for what hasbeen done in the body, whether good or evil.
Philippians It is my eager expectation and hope thatI will not be put to shame in any way, but that by my speaking with all boldness, Christ will be exaltednow as always in my body, whether by life or by death. Philippians He will transform the body ofour humiliation that it may be conformed to the body of his glory, by the power that also enables himto make all things subject to himself.
Belief in afterlife:Notes: Paul believes that in the afterlife, those who have participated "in Christ" will be grantedpneumatic bodies, free from mortal concerns, including pain and susceptibility to the passions. With what kind of body do theycome? What you sow does not come to life unless it dies. And as for what you sow, you do notsow the body that is to be, but a bare seed, perhaps of wheat or of some other grain.
But God gives it abody as he has chosen, and to each kind of seed its own body. Not all flesh is alike, but there is oneflesh for human beings, another for animals, another for birds, and another for fish. There are bothheavenly bodies and earthly bodies, but the glory of the heavenly is one thing, and that of the earthlyis another For more on this, see Stanley K.
Even Satandisguises himself as an angel of light. Yes—The supreme high god has another type of loyalty-connection to elites:Notes: Yahweh frequently enters into covenant agreements with selected elites andothers. Yes—Done only by high god:Yes—Done by many supernatural beings:Notes: The word "many" in this question asks me to extend the available evidence toofar. Field doesn't know—Is the reason for supernatural punishment known:Yes—Done to enforce religious ritual-devotional adherence:Notes: I am uncertain how to answer this. In this way Paul is shown to have spelled out philosophically his Jewish, 'apocalyptic' world view, which remains a central feature of his thought. The influences of the social surroundings within Greco-Roman world heavily influences his letters and provides modern scholarship with significant considerations within the structure we see within the Church today. Other letters, like those labeled "1 and 2Corinthians," demonstrate conflict and a lack of cohesion.
Each of these"divine" substances are considered more refined than material stuff like bodies. Tardieu Paris: Le Cerf, , Reincarnation in this world:Are there special treatments for adherents' corpses:Notes: Paul does speak of "baptism on behalf of the dead" 1 Corinthians It is not clear what thispractice entailed or whether it was something unique to this group. One would assume these members have hada formal burial. It is impossible to say whether these burials entailed any characteristics we wouldassociate with Paul's teachings.
As such, this question reveals one of the difficulties with assuming thatPaul's letters represent on-the-ground activities. This entry should later link to evidence for burialpractices in the particular regions to which Paul is writing.