The digital revolution has intensified and multiplied our exposure to new screens, such as computer monitors, mobile phones, GPS devices, video games consoles, augmented reality, necessarily involving us in new experiences of mobility, tactility, interactivity, connectivity and immersion. This panel aims to explore how the Italian arts have creatively responded to the concept and materiality of screens in various forms of intermediality across cinema, video art, video installations, theatre, architecture and urban spaces across the decades. Our papers will concentrate on three periods: ss, s and the New Millennium.
Screens and theatricality in Italian art, c. This talk will consider this historical proliferation through the lens of art, by looking at various manifestations of — and takes on — the screen in Italian art of the period, focusing on the vetrini of Bruno Munari ss , the schermi and projections of Fabio Mauri ss , and the Environmental Screen of Marinella Pirelli Revisiting, among others, Michael Frieds well-known notion of theatricality or theatre , and Stanley Cavells conception of the screen as a barrier , I will consider how a significant number of artists in these decades sought to engage both cinema and theatre, and to challenge the barrier of the screen.
The engagement of the screen in the works of Munari, Mauri and Pirelli, where screens envelop ordinary objects, or become props or even stages for the viewer, are exemplary of such attempt to articulate cinema theatrically, so to speak, as an intermedial force which may undo, or at least re-draw, the boundaries of art and its disciplines. Her research explores the interrelations between art and cinema, film and photography, live and recorded media, with a focus on post practices. Emanuela Patti Royal Holloway, University of London, UK Beyond computer screens: projecting digital moving images in public spaces In this paper, I will explore creative practices which experimented with the projection of computer-generated images beyond their original setting, namely the computer monitor.
I will particularly emphasise and compare the purpose and reception of these practices in the period ss and today, as well as the role they have had in our perception of space. Her research interests range across a variety of areas, including modern and contemporary Italian culture, digital screen cultures, intermediality.
Ha pubblicato il libro L'apocalisse postmoderna tra letteratura e cinema Le Lettere, , curato il volume Imaginary Films in Literature Rodopi, assieme a S. Ercolino, M. Fusillo e L. Ha pubblicato articoli e saggi su cinema e letteratura, sul digital storytelling e i nuovi media. Collabora con diversi FilmFest e WebFest. Di prossima uscita il volume co-curato con Silvia Antosa, Sex t ualities.
Morfologie del corpo tra visioni e narrazioni Mimesis, Chair: Colleen M. In Italy the series is available on TimVision and, similarly to the American context, followed by large audience. Francesca is currently working a new edited collection on women and food in Italian literature, cinema and other forms of visual arts. Sordi, Comedy Italian Style Springer, Such perceptions of aging may result from the generally limited presence of senesce onscreen.
A monograph-length study on the topic of senescence in Italian cinema has yet to be carried out. Scholarship is limited in scope and follows a decidedly gendered division.
Working towards the closure of this lacuna, this paper proposes five avenues for future research on aging in Italian film studies: 1. The synecdocal relation of the national Italian body and onscreen representations of death and decline in old age; 2. Sexuality in the silver years; 4. Tradition, transition, and generational conflict; and 5. More meaningful images of old age. Lisa works primarily on contemporary Italian cinema and culture, and is particularly interested in the topics of migration, aging, and masculinity.
Her refereed journal articles interrogate the fluid sexual and racial identities of migrant protagonists onscreen. Along with preparing a monograph for publication, tentatively titled Screening Sterile Masculinity: On Male Migrants, Italian Men, and the Future of Italy , she is working on a project that investigates representations of aging in Italian cinema.
Critics praise his work for its subtle intertextual ramifications, its original editing, its combination of a distant, burlesque and intimistic tone Curnier At first sight, Tableau avec chutes mainly portrays different sites and types of footage related to immigration showing how migrants can reconnect to their roots. Her main area of research is Italian border literature.
Her most recent research interests focus on trauma literature, cultural memory and Jewish-Italian literature Liana Millu, Giuliana Tedeschi, Luciana Nissim, Aldo Zargani and on the new Italian documentary of the Italian diaspora. Rivista europea di studi italiani. From the late s to the early s, the contribution of Italian filmmakers to the development of South American cinema was monumental. Three countries that specifically benefited from the contribution of Italian filmmakers were Brazil, Argentina, and Colombia. Moreover, little is known about the contribution of Italian artists to Colombia's silent cinema in which Italian filmmakers have had the biggest involvement.
The objective of this presentation is to enrich Italy's filmography by introducing all the Italians artists known to date who significantly influenced the foundation of Colombia's national cinema. Currently, Camilo is conducting research on Colombian silent cinema for his Ph.
Nati sotto la Luna [Pierluigi Panza] on rapyzure.tk Nati sotto la luna ( Narratori italiani) (Italian Edition) and millions of other books are available for Amazon. Nati sotto la Luna by Pierluigi Panza, , available at Book Depository Narratori italiani; Publication City/Country Milano, Italy; Language Italian.
Ancora oggi, l'attenzione su questa presunta dicotomia rimane non priva di discussioni. We intend migration primarily as the movement of people across national borders, as it is represented in film and media, but also the movement of performers, directors, and scripts across different movie industries. Moreover, the maternal bodies represented on the screen interacted with off-screen images of the divas circulating on the magazines of the time, often represented within domestic and family environments, which contribute to define the social meaning of the stars as "mediated texts" and to narrate specific iconographies of the maternal.
Drawing upon the interdisciplinary theoretical basis of stardom studies and gender studies, this paper seeks to historicize specific discourses on female divismo and transnational motherhood in postwar Italian and Hollywood cinema. She has written widely on film genres and gender representation is postwar Italian cinema and is the author of Ercole, il divo AIEP, She was also co-editor of Italian Motherhood on Screen Palgrave, with Giovanna Faleschini-Lerner and is currently working on motherhood and media representantions. I argue that these encounters not only illustrate the role played by Italian cinema within current migration discourses in Italy and Europe, but also help us reflect on the posts Southern Italian folk music and dance revival as a promoter of social change through grassroots and locally-engaged efforts.
Indeed, the current Southern Italian folk music and dance revival has encouraged a re-thinking of Southern Italian identity from a postcolonial perspective and as part of a larger, Mediterranean identity. Originally from Benin, Ibi had started recording her life in Italy through photography and videography, which allowed her to share her experience of displacement with her children and her mother in Africa, where--as an undocumented immigrant--she could not hope to return without risking permanent deportation. Photography was also her business--she worked as a wedding and event photographer and videographer within the African communities of Castel Volturno, as well as for the Cultural Center where the Movement for Migrants and Refugees of Caserta met.
When she died in , Segre decided to tell her story through her images, thus producing the first film almost entirely based on visual self-narration by a migrant woman. This paper analyzes both the film techniques and strategies that Segre adopts to integrate archival materials, photos, and other footage and create an innovative and original filmic narration that moves away from more traditional realist—and often objectifying—narratives of female migration.
She is currently at work on a book-length project on the Italian cinema of migration. Access to the Internet and social media has been a necessary condition for this growth. What has that role been? The topic is controversial: should the media give a platform to the ultra-right and, if so, how?
Or should they ignore it, thus taking the chance of reinforcing the accusation of being elitist and aloof? My research addresses this on-going debate by presenting a comparative and historical analysis of media coverage in the United Kingdom and Italy. It implements quantitative measurements of content analysis as well as qualitative methodologies for in-depth investigation.
In she won a prestigious Marie S. Curie Experienced Fellowship to study ultra-right media and communication at the University of Loughborough, with a Secondment at the Scuola Normale Superiore of Florence. Her publications have appeared on numerous international peer-reviewed journals such as The International Journal of Communication , The Journal of Language and Politics , Discourse and Communication , Television and New Media , among others.
This presentation will discuss the role of digital technologies in promoting and marketing the Made in Italy as well as in contrasting the widespread phenomenon of counterfeiting of Italian food known as Italian sounding, which refers to the marketing of food and beverages produced worldwide and labeled with Italian names and misleading words and images. Patrizia La Trecchia received her Ph. Her research includes film, media, globalization, migration, citizenship, the Italian South, digital food culture, ecocinema, sustainable food movement, food security, and food waste.
She is a TED speaker on food waste. Although metoo was born in the United States, women in different places were met with different socio-political responses. Her decision to leave added another layer to the public debate, bringing in the question of migration. Recent allegations of Argento sexually abusing a younger actor further complicate things. Beginning with Argento and moving to a broader socio-cultural analysis, this paper will look at how the metoo conversation has been deployed in the Italian context, and the uneasy way feminist and nationalist discourses overlap.
Her research and publications focus on questions of gender, race, migration, textuality and social activism. She is a co-founder of the Asterisk taskforce for inclusive pedagogy, and a translator of fiction and journalism; recent pieces include works by Italian authors Dacia Maraini and Laila Wadia, as well as English-language articles about gender and politics in the United States.
She is currently translating a text on digital technology and gender, and co-editing a volume on queer Italian media. Risale a questo periodo la fondazione di Camera Woman con altre compagne. Inoltre, con la Kitchenfilm ho aperto dal il filone della distribuzione, ennesima sfida al mercato agonizzante con piccoli gioielli pluripremiati. Allieva di Vattimo e Rondolino, ha approcciato il tema del cinema sperimentale antenato del docu-fiction attraverso le analisi di Bachtin e Genette. This quality, already pronounced in Corpo celeste , grows exponentially in Le Meraviglie and particularly in Lazzaro felice , where the border between social drama and magical realism becomes blurred, turning the films young protagonists into messianic, redemptive figures, thereby making them symbols of moral resistance.
Her research focuses on the relationship between religion and film, Italian cinema, American cinema, films reception and practices of censorship. Since , she has been acting as peer reviewer for the Journal of Religion and Film and Westminster Papers in Communication and Culture. She has collaborated with the British Film Institute and the Barbican introducing screenings of the work of Italian directors.
It seems too convenient. My dialectic is no more ternary but binary. There are only irreconcilable positions. There can be no existence without contradiction, no action without dialectical conflict. There is no synthesis, no self-consciousness, no moving beyond the dialectical opposition because the position is irreconcilable.
His work centers on the relationship between avant garde film and video and mass culture. Davi Pessoa C. Autore di Terza sponda: testimonio, traduzione , Dante: poeta di tutta la vita Attualmente sta traducendo il Petrolio , di Pasolini. Maturati entro una stessa cornice teorica, i due interventi si divaricano nel prediligere rispettivamente gli scenari del tragico e quelli del comico. Her research interests include modern and postmodern Italian literature, critical and theoretical intersections between literature and cinema, and cinematic screenplays as a literary genre.
Her publications include I romanzi in vetrina dal barbiere. She became a maternal figure and his artistic muse. With her constantly at his side, I argue, Federico could continue to dream and pursue figuratively and literally the erotic femme fatales.
This appears clearly both in films where he directs her La strada , Le notti di Cabiria , Giulietta degli spriti and Ginger and Fred , as well as in those without her. He started writing down and illustrating his dreams after the encounter with Jungian psychoanalyst Ernst Berhnard.
She was Chair of the French and Italian Department from to She has just completed a book entitled Portrait of the Artist and His Mother. She received several university fellowships, two National Endowment for the Humanities fellowships, and three teaching awards. Contrarily, a popular Indian road melodrama Marutitha Hinglaj, resignifies the moral narrative in La Strada , pitting an eccentric individual against hegemonic faith. Her interests lie in the fields of cinema, gender, and Postcolonial Studies.
Based on research funded by the Fulbright Foundation, she is currently working on two books: a monograph on women authors in the film industries of Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh, and a co-edited scholarly volume on cross-border cinemas in South Asia. Her articles have appeared in such journals as Screen and Diacritics , and other scholarly venues. Besides paying attention to the evolution of her acting style, he argued that the comparison between Masina and Charlot was facile.
Scripted by Fellini, directed by Eduardo De Filippo, scored by Nino Rota and set in Rome, this film was highly praised by Bazin right before he died of leukemia. Starring Alberto Sordi and Paul Douglas Fleischer, Fortunella stands out as a treasure trove of insights about the role of women in society and the importance of imagination in the history of Italian cinema. The purpose of my paper is to do justice to this little-known and valuable film in historiographical and aesthetic terms. Si occupa di critica cinematografica e letteraria e ha curato programmi radiofonici e televisivi.
Flavia Brizio-Skov is Professor of Italian at the University of Tennessee where she teaches modern literature and cinema. She has written numerous articles that appeared in Italian, American, French, Spanish and Portuguese journals. She has published the book La scrittura e la memoria: Lalla Romano Selene Edizioni, , the critical monograph Antonio Tabucchi: navigazioni in un universo narrativ Pellegrini Editore, , and has edited a collection of articles entitled Reconstructing Societies in the Aftermath of War: Memory, Identity, and Reconciliation Bordighera Press, This is a series written by Pif, directed by Luca Ribuoli, produced and broadcast by RAI and based on the homonym film, also directed by Pif.
The series is set mainly in Palermo, and various cultural heritage sites are shown, as well as typical cuisine products or popular suburban boroughs as Mondello. Some episodes are also set in various locations of the province as Partinico, Isola delle Femmine, and Ficuzza. In what way does this TV series alter and change the discourse on the representation of crime in the Italian context?
Her research interests are popular culture and crime fiction. She is the co-editor with Marco Paoli of a special issue dedicated to the Italian film noir that will be published with Studies in European Cinema in Yet while recent scholarship has seized upon the cultural implications of this phenomenon, the extent to which costuming is integral to these series has yet to be explored.
Secondly, I look at how costuming is integrated into a larger aesthetic framework, including set design and soundtrack, to become a visual metaphor for organized crime and its relationship to contemporary Italian society. In the film, Thierno is a young tailor who decides to leave his native country and move to Rome to pursue his dream of becoming a fashion designer. The film offers several reflections on questions that concern integration and assimilation, while addressing a multifaceted discourse on identity through fashion.
Garments become a narrative tool and a performative ethical act. Colors, shapes, and patterns acquire a specific meaning and purpose and, by creating a connection between the fabrics that the people in the African village dye, manufacture, and wear with the hardships the protagonist has to face in his daily life, the director discloses the constant negotiations between the two cultures. She earned a Ph. With this panel we explore the methodological challenges in the study of such performances, considering in particular the ways in which associated discourses of risk and responsibility are mediated by the industry and the press, and how these might be inflected differently by questions of gender, class, regional and ethnic identity.
In the films she examines, including Cloro Sanfelice, , Bellas mariposas Mereu, , Indivisibili De Angelis, , the girl becomes the affective conductor for the human relationship with capital, a liquid, deeply uncertain one. She puts this idea in dialogue with work by Eva Hayward on the ideologies of aquarium display, showing how these underwater portrayals of girlhood inflect performance in contemporary Italian cinema.
She has written widely on gender representation in postwar Italian cinema, and has recently published Italys Other Women: Gender and prostitution in postwar Italian cinema, Peter Lang, In particular, her presentation engages with the difficult negotiations and performances of feminine adolescence Driscoll as these performances relate to the productions desire for a representation of an authentic experience of youth.
Both films protagonists have been compared to Enzo Staiola in Ladri di biciclette De Sica, , the iconic face of neorealism. Seeing the child as heir to neorealism and a notional witness to the ongoing migration crisis in Southern Italy is one way of reading these films. However, looking more closely at the figure of the child as non-professional actor, and the mechanics of performance, can open the broader ideological function of the Italian child in these narratives.
The chair and panelists of this session here included will present from the upcoming volume, Screening Sicily , edited by Giovanna Summerfield and published to offset the near-absence of scholarship that focuses on the relationship between the Mediterranean gem and cinema. Elgin K. She holds a Ph.
The death of culture lies in self-centredness, self-sufficiency and isolation. The songs, all from Lorenzo Tucci will have a new flavor; lively and modern. Stagnazione d'Italia. A concert that reveals the magic and astonishing rhythm of the music. Del Fabbro Elena Italy
More recently, her research has geared toward narrative and technical aspects in Italian film and television series. Her research interests are in contemporary Italian literature and cinema, gender studies, motherhood studies, and Sicilian culture. Her publications focus primarily on gender and representations of the mafia in contemporary Italian cinema.
She is the author of Donne, mafia e cinema: una prospettiva interdisciplinare Longo Editore, It examines films and television series branding artists directors, actors, writers to gain international scope, while storytelling national political crisis, scandals, and intrigues. Assessing media products from a variety of approaches, including discourse and reception analyses, panelists investigate the relationship between masculinity and politics in Italian media at a crucial juncture in both national and global histories.
Her research interests focus on Italian cinema, including documentary, film theory and history, gender studies, and feminist and postfeminist theories. Young Salvo, on the other hand, arrives at a finer appreciation of the force of law a ritroso. Publications include essays on serial television in Italy and North America. Her publications include articles on film and theater in the years of lead s , coming-of-age film, and auteur cinema, and two pedagogical volumes.
With Ellen Nerenberg, she is co-author of the collaborative project entitled Winx Nation: educare la futura consumista. Accusations of style over substance persist, although arguably, in Sorrentino, they are two sides of the same coin. On the other hand, Sorrentino seems to be invested in his own brand of political impegno for a postmodern, post-millennial era see Antonello and Mussgnug, , complicating any easy interpretation of his often parodic portrayal of political conflicts, gender issues and masculine identity crises.
As allegorical tales, Sorrentinos films are the depiction of the moral degradation of a society physically and mentally consumed by the pursuit for power. My paper examines how male and female characters in Loro 1 and Loro 2 become obsessed with reaching the personification of their ultimate ideal, Berlusconi as archetype of gold and power. I also argue that obsession with power takes possession of the characters body and mind, turning it into a real mental disorder. The characters seem willing to do anything to reach their ultimate idol and get to power, even if involves using others, selling ones body and soul, becoming corrupted, traitors and felons.
That is to say, the category of the human is unstable. So my final insight is that the computer, more or less, works like a mirror that reflects any idea of a human that we show it. We show it Emily Dickinson, it gives Emily Dickinson back to us. We show it William Blake, that's what it reflects back to us. We show it Gertrude Stein, what we get back is Gertrude Stein.
More than any other bit of technology, the computer is a mirror that reflects any idea of the human we teach it. So I'm sure a lot of you have been hearing a lot about artificial intelligence recently. And much of the conversation is kind of, Can we build it? Can we build an intelligent computer? Can we build a creative computer? What we seem to be asking over and over is can we build a human-like computer?
But what we've seen just now is that the human is not a scientific fact, that it's an ever-shifting, concatenating idea and one that changes over time. So that when we begin to grapple with the ideas of artificial intelligence in the future, we shouldn't only be asking ourselves, "Can we build it? Ma queste sono domande alle quali le persone dedicano tutta la loro vita per rispondere, non un singolo TED Talk. Quindi dobbiamo provare in un altro modo. Qui sopra abbiamo due poesie. Dovrete dirmi quale appartiene all'uno e all'altro. Alzate le mani se pensate che la poesia 1 sia stata scritta da un essere umano.
Ok, la maggior parte di voi. Alzate le mani se pensate che la poesia 2 sia stata scritta da un umano. La maggior parte di voi ha indovinato, forse era troppo facile. Proviamo con un altro test. Poesia 2: Oh! Siete veramente belli! Se pensate che la prima poesia sia stata scritta da un essere umano, alzate la mano. Ok Se pensate che la seconda poesia sia stata scritta da un essere umano, alzate la mano. Nel io e il mio amico Benjamin Laird abbiamo creato un Turing test on line per la poesia. Si chiama "bot o no", lo puoi vedere e fare per conto tuo. Ti viene mostrata una poesia, tu non sai se sia stata scritta da un essere umano o un computer e devi indovinare.
Centinaia e centinaia di persone hanno fatto questo test on line, di cui abbiamo i risultati. Quali sono i risultati? Quindi abbiamo una risposta alla nostra domanda. Facciamo il terzo e ultimo test. Di nuovo, dovrete leggere e dirmi quale ritenete essere umano. Poesia 1: Bandiere rosse la ragione di belle bandiere. Alzi la mano chi pensa che la poesia 1 sia stata scritta da un essere umano. Alzi la mano chi pensa che la poesia 2 sia stata scritta da un essere umano. Prima che vada avanti, lasciate che vi descriva brevemente come funziona RKCP.
Quindi, si sottopone a RKCP un testo, questo lo analizza per capire come viene usato il linguaggio, e poi ricrea un linguaggio che copia il precedente. La poesia che abbiamo visto prima, la poesia 2, che tutti pensavate fosse umana, ha preso un gruppo di poesie della poetessa Emily Dickinson, ha osservato il modo in cui ha usato il linguaggio, ha imparato il modello, e poi ha ricreato un modello secondo la stessa struttura. E' solo materiale grezzo. Risate Siete confusi? Mi sembra giusto. Quindi cosa deduciamo da tutto questo? Risate Queste sono domande che mi sono fatto per quasi due anni ormai, e non ho ancora la risposta.
Quello che ho sono parecchie idee sulla nostra relazione con la tecnologia. Come facciamo a dire chi o cosa fa parte di questa categoria? Credo anche che Alan Turing lo abbia capito, e quando aveva ideato il suo test nel , stava lanciando una provocazione filosofica. Noi gli mostriamo Emily Dickinson, lui ci restituisce Emily Dickinson. Noi gli mostriamo William Blake, lui ce lo riflette.
Sono sicuro che molti di voi hanno sentito parlare molto di intelligenza artificiale recentemente. E la maggior parte della questione era, Possiamo costruirla? Possiamo costruire un computer intelligente? Possiamo costruire un computer creativo? My name is Maria Sundin, and I'm an astrophysicist. There are lots of connections between astrophysics and water, but today, I want to tell you about why the Earth has water at all, and that it's not so easy to find another planet if we should mess up this too badly.
So I will talk about water on other planets in our Solar System, and the search for planets around other stars. Are there other terrestrial worlds out there? Are there other worlds like our planet? Well, the history of water is It started with the Big Bang. Hydrogen has been around for a long time. Hydrogen is one of the components of water.
The other component is oxygen. We breathe oxygen, and I don't know if you've thought so much about where the oxygen comes from, but oxygen is created in the interior of stars. And when the stars explode, this oxygen is spread into the Universe. On this picture you see an exploding star. Several stars had to explode before our Sun was created.
When a star is created, like our Sun - this happened about five billion years ago - there's some extra debris gathering around the star that will form the planets.
Since a few stars had exploded, this debris around what was to become the Sun, had some oxygen in it, and lots of hydrogen, and these elements together are joined to form water. There's quite a lot of water in the Universe, mostly in the form of ice; liquid water is much more uncommon. In the early days of the Earth, the Earth was bombarded by comets. Comets are I believe I've heard that about ten times the amount of water in our oceans today was bombarded on the Earth very early in the history. We have some bigger planets in our Solar System - Jupiter, Saturn - they are protecting us for the moment from lots of impacts.
During the first half billion years of the Earth's existence, it was bombarded continuously with comets. So the water was brought to us by comets and by out-gassing of the material that the Earth was created from. So the water comes from space, and it has come from space in many ways, both in the material that the Earth was created from, but also, it was bombarded by comets. So we have a very nice planet with liquid water, and that is because it's at the right distance from the Sun, so it's warm enough, and we have an atmosphere, we have air that keeps a nice pressure on the planet, so that we can have big oceans.
That's not so easy to find. We also believe that the possibility of having life is very highly connected to having liquid water. We don't know how life started on the Earth, but we know very much that life is very old. As soon as the planet "calmed down", life started to exist here. I can't tell you if there's other life out in the Universe.
If I ever happen to tell anybody that I'm an astronomer, the first question I get is is there life out there? But what I hope we can do rather soon is to tell you something about are there other Earth-like planets out there, where the conditions are the same. Looking at our neighbor Mars, it is today a cold, dry, desert planet. It's smaller than the Earth. But during the time that life arose on Earth, originated here, Mars was very different.
It had a huge ocean on the northern hemisphere. It had an atmosphere. So conditions were rather similar on Mars and on the Earth. Perhaps life started on Mars as well. We don't know that as yet, but the conditions were very similar. If we talk about life in the Universe, people usually want the big spaceship landing right outside there, so we can, you know, try to communicate and stuff. But I would be almost just as intrigued if I'd found a dead bacteria or something very small life-like on Mars, because that could give us the key to the question of whether life originates if you have a place where the conditions are favorable.
The reason why Mars has changed too much is that it's smaller than the Earth. The lesser gravity means that Mars has been unable to keep its atmosphere. So, it's a very low pressure on the surface. If you were to pour out a glass of water on the surface of Mars, it would just evaporate instantly. But there has been lots of water there, and this picture shows an old river delta on Mars. So just imagine this neighbor planet - it has had oceans, it has had rivers; it's been a very different world. So worlds can change.
This means that Mars is not a very good candidate perhaps for life today, because there's no liquid water on the surface, and there's no protecting ozone layer there. Perhaps there could be some very simple life forms below the surface. We might find out, or perhaps they are not there. But there's one place in our Solar System where liquid water might exist that's not the Earth. It's this small moon. The moon is called Europa. It's one of Jupiter's moons. If you look at Europa, it looks like a big ice ball. Why would you have liquid water out in the outer regions of the Solar System?
Well, Jupiter has approximately 60 moons; we have one. If you combine the gravity working on Europa from the big Jupiter - Jupiter is so much bigger than the Earth - and the 60 other moons, you have different forces acting on Europa all the time, heating it. There's one moon that's even closer to Jupiter that's called Io. It has constant volcanoes because there's so many forces acting on it. Europa is a little bit further from Jupiter, and it looks like a big ice ball with cracks in it.
We have had a few probes out there, taking pictures of the surface of Europa. The people who are looking at the ice claim that the surface of Europa, it looks more like the Arctic than the Antarctic. The difference, of course, is that on the Arctic, at the North Pole, you have ice floating on water.
If you look at the Antarctic, you have ice lying on a continent. They say that Europa shows more features that look like ice floating on water. So perhaps, out on this small moon, could be a very… several kilometers thick crust of ice, but there may be a huge subsurface ocean there, and in that case, it's the only other place than the Earth in our Solar System where you have liquid water. The conditions are probably quite similar to the conditions very deep in our own oceans.
You have some heat from the interior of the moon. It's dark, of course, but you have liquid water, you have carbon, all the other elements that life is formed from here on the Earth, and you have energy. So, it's a very interesting place, and I hope that you will have the chance to learn more about it. Several expeditions to this moon are planned. The first thing is to try to find out is there an ocean there. And we'll see if somebody is swimming in it. If we are to leave our own Solar System - I hope we don't have to, actually - in about a billion years, the Sun is constantly increasing its luminosity, its output, its power, so actually, in about a billion years, the Earth will be too hot to have liquid water.
A billion years is a very long time. Human history is quite short, actually. Sometimes when you talk about astronomy, people think that, "Oh, we are so small and insignificant, just living on this very small planet, and having to repress things and not to think about it. But I believe we are quite remarkable. We have a very short history of science, of thinking like that, but we constantly keep asking ourselves those questions: where do we come from?
Why does everything look like it is and what can we do? What are those things shining up there? I don't say that we have all the answers as yet, but at least we know something about the And also, a little bit into the future. I hope that mankind's future will be very long; I sincerely hope so. So we have at least a billion years to solve our problems, but I think it's important to start today, but then we have to travel outwards, perhaps to Mars, perhaps to Europa.
But is there some place else to go to? In , we started to find the first planets around other stars. This is not a photo; this is a drawing by an artist. We can't take any pictures of these other planets as yet. So finding planets around other stars is a fairly new kind of science. About one year ago, we had discovered , which means that we can start to make some statistics. The fun thing is that we found so many planets that nobody has ever said that there was going to be out there, and the question was really could there be another Earth or is this the only one? There are so many really strange things out there: super Earths, hot Jupiters, ice giants.
We are trying to keep up with the nomenclature right now. With new telescopes, during , the number of discovered planets is now exceeding 2,, and we are finally getting some reports on perhaps Earth-sized planets at least. There actually seems to be quite a good chance of finding ocean planets or water worlds out there, that is planets that have no continents; just very, very deep oceans.
You have some variations of these. If you move them a little bit further from their star, you get big icy planets, ice giants. If you move them a little bit towards the stars, you get steam, some kind of sauna planets. I really want to impress upon you that Universe is always stranger than we can imagine, but it is a support of our thinking from a very long time: how common are we and our kind of planet? I mean, you are students, most of you; you can try to find out this, what's out there. Some of them might be Earth-like also. The problem is that they are very small compared to a star, so they are hard to find.
We have some different methods of trying to find them. So far, the Earth-like planets are very few, but I believe that in five years, we will know very much more about this. If we have to leave our home in a billion years, perhaps we will know where to go. Applause Translation - Italian Grazie. Mi chiamo Maria Sundin, e sono un'astrofisica. Ci sono altri mondi come il nostro pianeta? Bene, la storia dell'acqua risale a E' iniziata col Big Bang. E quando le stelle esplodono, questo ossigeno si sparge nell'Universo. Nella foto vedete una stella esplosa.
Parecchie stelle dovettero esplodere prima che fosse creato il nostro sole. Da quando un po' di stelle sono esplose, questi detriti intorno, che avrebbero formato il sole, avevano dell'ossigeno dentro, e molto idrogeno, e questi elementi insieme si sono uniti per formare l'acqua. Nei primi tempi della terra, essa era bombardata da comete. Le comete sono Durante il primo mezzo miliardo di anni dell'esistenza della terra, era bombardata continuamente dalle comete. Ma durante il periodo in cui la vita nasceva sulla terra, Marte era molto diverso. Aveva un oceano enorme nell'emisfero nordico.
Aveva un'atmosfera. Le condizioni su Marte erano simili a quelle sulla terra.
Noi non lo sappiamo ancora, ma le condizioni erano molto simili. Se parliamo di vita nell'universo, le persone vorrebbero una grande astronave che atterri qui fuori per poter, sapete, comunicare e via dicendo. Se dovessi versare un bicchiere d'acqua sulla superficie di Marte, questo evaporerebbe immediatamente. Quindi i pianeti possono cambiare. Forse potrebbero esserci alcune forme di vita sotto la superficie. E' questa piccola luna.
La luna si chiama Europa. E' una delle lune di Giove. Se osservi Europa, sembra una grande palla di ghiaccio. Bene, Giove ha circa 60 lune; noi ne abbiamo una. Abbiamo avuto delle prove di questo, con delle foto alla superficie di Europa. Se guardi l'Antartico, il ghiaccio si trova su un continente. Quindi forse, su questa piccola luna, potrebbe esserci Diverse spedizioni sono programmate verso questa luna. E vedremo se qualcuno ci sta nuotando dentro. Ma io credo che siamo davvero eccezionali. Abbiamo una storia molto breve di scienza, di pensieri come questo, ma ci facciamo continuamente queste domande: da dove veniamo?
Non dico che abbiamo tutte le risposte finora, ma almeno sappiamo qualcosa sui E anche, un po' di futuro. Nel abbiamo iniziato a trovare i primi pianeti intorno ad altre stelle. Non possiamo ancora scattare foto di questi pianeti. Circa un anno fa ne abbiamo scoperti , che significa che possiamo iniziare a fare qualche statistica. Stiamo cercando di tenerci aggiornati con la terminologia ora. Con i nuovi telescopi, nel , il numero dei pianeti scoperti sta ora superando i , e stiamo finalmente avendo notizie sui pianeti della grandezza della terra.
Possono esserci alcune variazioni. Se li sposti verso le stelle, hai del vapore, delle specie di "sauna" pianeti. Alcuni di loro potrebbero anche essere come la terra. Abbiamo diversi metodi per scoprirli. Se dovessimo lasciare la terra tra un miliardo di anni, forse sapremo dove andare.
Applausi English to Italian: Why do we share? Source text - English Good evening everyone; thank you so much, I'm very excited to be here. Tonight I want to talk a little bit about some reflections that I've had in my three years at YouTube, about why people share online.
I want to start by showing you a short video clip of the type of video that I watch every single day. Crashing sounds We're all here in California; the Bay area to be specific. We all know, as much as we may try and deny it, the geographic reality that this particular place on the globe is prone to earthquakes. So, quick poll, quick poll; I want to know how many people think that their first instinct would be to whip out their video camera if there were an earthquake right now?
Laughter Knock on wood, that's not going to happen; OK, a couple. Well, in Japan, on March 11th, hundreds of people shot video footage just like that. At the moment of truth, as the floor was shaking beneath them, the books were falling off the shelves, and waters from the tsunamis were actually rising in their homes, and in their businesses, they thought to themselves, "Let me hit the record button; I want to document this thing that is happening, and share it with the world. Before anything else, these people thought, "I want to share this; I want other people to see what it is that we just went through.
And to really try and find those raw eye-witness videos that everyday citizens, just like you and me, decided to capture. They happened to be in the right place at the right time, when this thing happened. Or the wrong place, depending on how you look at it. But I have to be honest, and say that I don't think I'm one of those people; I don't think that I would put myself in danger, at that type of moment, to capture this experience.
So it makes my job a little bit strange, because my job relies on people doing things that I would never do. Like, for example, running into a burning building, with a helmet-cam strapped to my head. There's a lot of firemen on YouTube who do this; you would be amazed. Or putting myself into a war-zone, this video's from Libya, with a flip-cam, to document police brutality, and upload that to YouTube. Or, run across the street as bullets are flying, to film a young woman dying on the sidewalk. This is the iconic "Neda" video from Iran.
The question is, "Why do these people do this? I try to understand, "What are the motivations? What is the psychology of somebody who's willing to risk their life to share an experience like this? I always assumed this was a positive development for media; you have citizen reporters out there, covering events that maybe otherwise wouldn't be covered. But it wasn't until I had a personal experience of my own that I really started to wonder whether this behavior I was promoting was actually unveiling a sort-of darker side of humanity, potentially, rather than a brighter side.
I was walking home from work one day, and I saw a police car and police tape blocking off Valencia Street in the Mission, about half a block from where I live. Immediately, I have this sense of panic that there's something in my apartment building, or something. I asked somebody standing there, "What's going on? My eyes gazed up, along with the rest of the crowd, and I saw a young man, standing at the edge of a ledge of a four-story building about to jump.
Immediately, I felt sick to my stomach. And yet I was filled with this adrenaline. After a couple of seconds of processing what was going on, I thought to myself, "This is the moment; this is when these citizen reporters that I work with would capture this on film and share it! And then I uploaded it to Facebook. He was OK; he didn't jump. I went home, and I just felt really unsettled. I went on Facebook, and I started getting some comments on the wall post, and I took it down. It really made me think, "What is it about me, and this culture, and this culture in which I exist, that inspired me to take that," and put it up and share it?
And I'm going to be the center of their attention for the 30 seconds that they're focused on my post in their news-feed. Then they're going to move on to one of the hundreds of others that have come in in the last two minutes. I want to share a couple of quick stats to show you how ubiquitous this behavior really is.
Every single minute on YouTube, 35 hours worth of new content is uploaded to the site. In that same minute, years worth of YouTube videos are watched on Facebook. And in that same minute, more than tweets include a YouTube link. Now, in that minute on Facebook, you have almost 83, status updates posted. You have almost , photos. In a day, in , Foursquare had a million check-ins a day. And now, Twitter's latest numbers are million tweets per day. These numbers are astounding, right? I quickly want to walk through three different types of sharing, but I really want to focus on the last one.
The first one is the most obvious, right? This is personal sharing; this is the information you share with your family and friends. Oftentimes it's basic, it's facts about you; where you grew up, where you went to school, where you live, and where you work. This is sort of your stake in the ground. Then, I think, there's the more self-expressive. You know, "Here are the types of music that I like, movies that I enjoy, the shows that I watch every week. These are the types of posts that are sort of more subtle, they give people a sense of where I fit in to a social network.
It might be a cool restaurant that I "checked in" to, with a specific person that bumps me up in the social circle. The second type of sharing is really around content. This is interesting links, funny YouTube videos, amazing awe-inspiring photographs. This type of sharing, I think often is either about informing your friends and family of something you think they might find interesting or useful.
Or, it's about starting a conversation around a topic that you really care about. But it's the third type of sharing that I think is most interesting; I think it's completely different, and something we don't talk about as much. This is, oftentimes, it will start with some type of personal experience. It might be a piece of content, so it's sort of a blend of the first two. But this type of sharing transcends the person that initiated it; it is about something much bigger.
Oftentimes, this type of sharing requires someone taking a risk, like the videos we saw at the beginning. People are putting themselves outside of their comfort zone, and documenting some experience that then will have a broader implication to the rest of the world. I think the key thing about this type of sharing is that it makes people realize that they're a part of something bigger than just themselves.
I'm not sure how many people have heard of the "It Gets Better Project"?
Applause Amazing, amazing stuff; if you haven't seen it, check it out. Last fall, after a string of nationally publicized suicides of gay teens, who'd been bullied and ridiculed by their peers, a man named Dan Savage and his partner, Terry, made a video, in which they told their story. They talked about what it was like to be gay, as a young person in high school. They talked about how horrible it was to have to deal with the people at their school who didn't like them. They talked about coming out, they talked about meeting each other, they talked about falling in love and starting a family, and the message underlying this entire video was: "As bad as it seems now, as dark as your life may feel, there is light at the end of the tunnel, and it does get better.
Before too long, other people started making their own videos, their own "It Gets Better" videos; talking about their experiences, and sharing their stories, many of which had never seen the light of day. People were telling their greatest fears and their most painful moments to complete strangers on the Internet. They were talking about what it was like to go to sleep at night and not want to wake up in the morning.
These are really powerful stories. And in isolation, none of these people probably would have shared these videos. But they knew that they were part of a movement, and they understood that their act of sharing this was an act of solidarity. I want to just play one video that's one of my favorites from the "It Gets Better Project". My name is JD and I've been a sworn law enforcement officer for the past 15 years. We are here to tell you it does get better.
When I was in high school and middle school, I was picked on continuously and constantly by cruel people. But in spite of that, I did persevere, and you will as well. We want to let you know that no matter what you think about yourself right now, and what other people might be thinking about you that might be negative; whether they said you're too feminine, whether they said that you're too masculine, you are perfect and wonderful, exactly as you are. We want to let you know that indeed. It does get better. Applause I love that video, and I really encourage you to look at the "It Gets Better" site; it's just incredibly inspiring.
Why'd these guys make this video, right? They knew that they were part of something bigger. People not only risk themselves emotionally, but they risk themselves physically. I think we've seen this in the last few months, during the Arab Spring. This video was actually from Iran, in , where we really started to see this movement grow.
These protesters understood that foreign media had been kicked out their country, there were no reporters to tell their stories, and that suddenly, the onus was on them, to document what was happening on the streets, and provide a visceral window into what was happening in Tehran, in Cairo, in Damascus.
These people understood that it was more important for them to capture video than it was to throw stones. The camera was their weapon, and information was the single most threatening thing to the dictatorship that they were trying to overthrow. People also understood that they needed help through social networks to get the word out. In Iran, we started seeing videos that were being uploaded with titles and descriptions that said things like, "We are the media, you are the media; please share this with as many people as you possibly can.
And they did; through Twitter and Facebook and YouTube, and other social platforms. The word was spread and mainstream media was covering the story through the eyes of these protesters. Obviously, the revolution in Iran hasn't come to fruition. But one of the most amazing things about what has happened is that the perception of a nation was entirely changed. I think before this, many Americans thought of Iran as the center of the "axis of evil". All of a sudden, it was a country filled with empathy-worthy individuals that weren't so different from you and me.
More recently in Egypt, these videos have shown a sense of solidarity. We heard anecdoteally that many people felt like they were really unhappy with the Mubarak government, but they didn't necessarily know all their neighbors felt the same way. When they started to see videos on YouTube of thousands of people gathering in Tahrir Square, and they started to see activity on Twitter, they realized that they could go out and join them, and they were not alone. My point is, it's not all about what you had for breakfast.
Although, that type of everyday sharing is still really important; it's a part of the human experience, and there's nothing wrong with that. I think that this type of transcendent sharing, where you are broadening your experience, and really making it universal to the rest of the world, is what is so exciting. The last anecdote I want to share really quickly is from Facebook. There was a woman in Alabama last week, which was the state that was hardest hit by the tornadoes that swept through the south-east. She woke up and found her lawn littered with photos and letters, that had been traveled through the wind, miles.
She collected all these photos, and she was so moved by these individual memories that were on her front door, that she felt like she needed to do something. So she scanned all of them, and made a Facebook page. She put them up on Facebook and said to herself, "If all I can do is return one photo, then I'm happy. And 36, photos have been uploaded. I took this screen shot a few days ago; I went to the page this morning, and every five minutes, there's a new photo that's being posted.
I think that it's stories like this, that really give me hope. As much as I may sometimes wonder about our motivations, you know, "Are we promoting ourselves? Are we being sensationalistic? I think that the world is ultimately becoming a more connected place, through the ability to share online. I think connected people are more empathetic people, and empathy is ultimately what allows us to make the foreign seem less foreign. Puoi migliorare questa voce aggiungendo citazioni da fonti attendibili secondo le linee guida sull'uso delle fonti. URL consultato il 27 maggio Altri progetti Wikimedia Commons.
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