To assess the face validity with the participants, three questions, each one measuring one of the three dimensions of stigma, asked for the scale to be rated from 0 to In order to evaluate the internal validity, we tested the original CAMI four-factor model 13 , which included an Authoritarianism factor items 1—7 , a Benevolence factor items 8—14 , a Social restrictiveness factor items 15—21 , and a Community mental health ideology factor items 22— This was compared to a single-factor model which corresponded to the CAMI total score.
Internal validity for the proposed one-factor model of RIBS was estimated using only items 5—8, because items 1—4 are used to assess prevalence and do not contribute to the total score Internal validity for MAKS tested the original two-factor solution 10 , including a Mental health knowledge factor items 1—6 and a Mental-illness condition knowledge factor items 7— This was compared with a simpler one-factor alternative.
To estimate convergent validity, several indicators were used to study the relationship between the scores. We also asked the participants to answer three questions, each one measuring one of the three dimensions of knowledge, attitudes, and behavior, on a scale control scale rated from 0 to We hypothesized that each scale would be positively related with the control scale.
A test—retest approach, with a 3-month interval between the assessments, was used to estimate the long-term reliability of the test scores. As the sample consisted of a non-clinical population, this study required no ethical approvals, in accordance with national and institutional guidelines. The request for consent to participate was made in the communication which comprehensively explained the nature and purpose of the study. Participation was anonymized and each participant was attributed a code. All the reverse-scored items were re-coded prior to data analysis.
For CFA, item data were treated as categorical ordinals and the models were evaluated using a robust weighted least squares mean- and variance-adjusted estimation.
For CAMI, the original four-factor model was estimated first. This model was compared to a more parsimonious model including one-factor. The one-factor model was estimated for RIBS. For the MAKS, the original two-factor solution was compared to the single-factor alternative. The RMSEA has been found to falsely reject properly specified models with a small number of degrees of freedom Furthermore, the interpretation of overall fit indexes in models with ordered categorical indicators is not as well established as it is with continuous indicators Although simulation studies suggest that these cut-off values work reasonably well with categorical outcomes 20 , the exact cut-off scores may not apply perfectly in the context of the present study.
Convergent validity was assessed using Pearson correlation coefficients. The relative test—retest reliability was estimated using both the Pearson and intra-class correlation coefficients, using a two-way random-effects model and the absolute agreement definition ICC 2,1. Sixty-one participants answered to a second test—retest assessment. The face validity of the CAMI was rated at an average of The median estimate was Interestingly, the loading between item 6 and the Authoritarianism factor was not significant. Factor correlations were very high overall, suggesting that all items could potentially be explained by one dimension.
Model fit seemed slightly less adequate than the four-factor solution. Because these models were statistically nested, they could be compared using a robust chi-square difference test. Four items were problematic: the factor loadings of items 1 and 6 were not statistically significant, and the factor loadings of items 8 and 12 were negative. In summary, all the correlations that we expected to observe occurred in the direction hypothesized and were statistically significant.
ICC 2,1 , intra-class correlation coefficient using a 2-way random-effects model and the absolute agreement definition. Face validity estimates indicated that participants scored all three scales in the upper-middle range. This could suggest that most participants considered the scales to be adequate and that they measure what they are supposed to measure, i.
The expected structure was also replicated in the French version of RIBS, which was the same as the original created by S.
Evans-Lacko et al. Indeed, we had hypothesized that they would be less well understood by a portion of the participants. Therefore, an adapted version of the MAKS scale, without the reverse-coded items, might be a more successful proposition for use in future studies in French speaking regions. Furthermore, convergent validity estimates confirmed the relevance of all three French versions of the scales.
The new government will have to take into account this message and the UN will be there to support these efforts. View on springerlink. Open in a separate window. This is an incredible opportunity for you to attend a European congress of primary importance in chemistry and to develop your own network. Et puis des valeurs nouvelles ont fait leur appari-.
Given the adequate internal and convergent validities found, this pattern of results suggests that the construct targeted by these three scales are adequately measured but do not represent stable and enduring traits. As found in previous studies 9 — 11 , the three dimensions of stigma are probably subject to change over a relatively short time frame and should, thus, be assessed regularly. This is an important point since very stable traits e. In our opinion, however, there are no theoretical reasons to expect a significant bias in our results because all the analyses were based on covariances and not on average levels.
The range reduction in the observed scores may have underestimated correlations which might have been higher in a less homogeneous sample. Nevertheless, nurse students may be more motivated to answer than general population; this could represent a moderate bias in the feasibility and acceptability of the scales. With the French validation of the Attitudes to Mental Illness questionnaire, we created a French scale that measures public stigma in a three dimension approach.
A strong point of the Attitudes to Mental Illness questionnaire, translated into French and tested in this study, is that its component scales can be used separately to measure one specific dimension of stigma, or together, to assess stigma in its three dimensions of knowledge, attitudes and behavior. This aspect would be of paramount importance in the evaluation of anti-stigma campaigns since it would allow the measurement scales to be adapted according to the campaign goals and the target population.
The original structure of the Community Attitudes toward the Mentally Ill scale, without item 6, should be proposed as the French version. Les personnes avec une maladie mentale sont beaucoup moins dangereuses que ne le suppose la plupart des gens. Finally, the changing scores of the three dimensions of knowledge, attitudes, and behavior, measured by these scales over time, give an optimistic outlook on the potential for positive changes resulting from campaigns aiming to reduce the stigmatization of mental health problems.
CG contributed to the acquisition of the data. PG and CG contributed to data analysis and interpretation of the data. CG and PG drafted the manuscript. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Front Psychiatry v. Front Psychiatry. Published online Dec Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
Specialty section: This article was submitted to Public Mental Health, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychiatry. Received Aug 2; Accepted Dec 4.
The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Abstract Objective The concept of stigma refers to problems of knowledge ignorance , attitudes prejudice , and behavior discrimination.
Conclusion Because of their good psychometric properties, these three scales can be used in French, either separately, to measure one specific dimension of stigma, or together, to assess stigma in its three dimensions. Keywords: stigma, mental illness, discrimination, validity, reliability, confirmatory factor analysis. Introduction Around the world, the stigma of mental illness is a very common problem, one which persists over time and has a significant impact on public health. Measures We adapted and validated French versions of the three scales contained in the Attitudes to Mental Illness questionnaire.
Internal Validity In order to evaluate the internal validity, we tested the original CAMI four-factor model 13 , which included an Authoritarianism factor items 1—7 , a Benevolence factor items 8—14 , a Social restrictiveness factor items 15—21 , and a Community mental health ideology factor items 22— Convergent Validity To estimate convergent validity, several indicators were used to study the relationship between the scores. Reliability A test—retest approach, with a 3-month interval between the assessments, was used to estimate the long-term reliability of the test scores.
Ethical Considerations As the sample consisted of a non-clinical population, this study required no ethical approvals, in accordance with national and institutional guidelines. Internal Validity All the reverse-scored items were re-coded prior to data analysis. Convergent Validity Convergent validity was assessed using Pearson correlation coefficients. Results Participants students fully answered the questionnaire. Open in a separate window.
Figure 1. Figure 2. Table 2 Convergent validity of the three stigma scales. CAMI Social restrictiveness 0. CAMI Overall score 0. Table 3 Long-term stability of the three stigma scales.
ICC 2,1 Community attitudes toward the mentally ill scale Authoritarianism 61 0. Discussion Face validity estimates indicated that participants scored all three scales in the upper-middle range. La maladie mentale est une maladie comme une autre. Ethics Statement As the sample consisted of a non-clinical population, this study required no ethical approvals, in accordance with national and institutional guidelines. Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
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Acknowledgments We wish to express our gratitude to all participants for taking part in this study. References 1. Stigma: ignorance, prejudice or discrimination? Br J Psychiatry —3. Association between public views of mental illness and self-stigma among individuals with mental illness in 14 European countries.
Psychol Med 42 8 The stigma of mental illness: concepts, forms, and consequences. Psychiatr Prax 32 5 — The homogeneity of the system warrants a comfortable switch between the different communication technics, both in terms of accessibility and messages style. PCA makes use of generic resources: a French lexicon of more than forms with intrinsic frequency of occurences and morphosyntactic informations and a pictograms basis of icons allowing an efficient basic communication. The PCA system is moreover evolutive. View on atala. Travaux interdisciplinaires sur la parole et le langage.
La Plateforme De Communication Alternative more. Wepresent in this paper an alternative communication system for handicapped persons.
Alternative communication primarily relies ona n alternative access to the computer and has to take into account the communication situation together Publisher: hal. Une plateforme pour l'acquisition, la maintenance et la validation de ressources lexicales more. Portes , and Philippe Blache. The paper presents a project aiming at collecting, annotating and exploiting a dialogue corpus from a multimodal perspective.
The goal of the project is the description of the different parameters involved in a natural interaction The goal of the project is the description of the different parameters involved in a natural interaction process. Describing such complex mechanism requires corpora annotated in different domains. This paper first presents the corpus and the scheme used in order to annotate the different domains that have to be taken into consideration, namely phonetics, morphology, syntax, prosody, discourse and gestures.
Several examples illustrating the interest of such a resource are then proposed. Publication Date: Multimodal Corpora. View on springerlink. Backchannels revisited from a multimodal perspective more. View on spitswww. Intensive gestures in French and their multimodal correlates more.