Dear Atul, I want to share questions in my Speaking yesterday. Part 1: questions about your work, is your. Part 1 1 was about my home town and things that are interesting in it. And if a nation can be considered a huge community or not. Further, part 3 became more like a debate rather than conversation. I am concerned that this might lower my band score. Is it too bad?? My examiner was foreigner, she is about Basic Questions- 1. What is your name? How can I call you during the interview?
Are you Student or worker? What is you qualification? Which type of neighbors live near your home? In which type of neighbors you like? When you knew about them? Do your neighbors help you and others? Are you like to surf on internet? Do you like shopping? What do think the shopping on internet is beneficial or not? Do you like shopping on internet? What are the benefits of internet shopping? In which type of people do not like the internet shopping? Which you like the most on internet shopping? Do you know globaAtulation? In which type of clothes are liked by the older people and youngsters?
Do you think the clothes show the personality of person? How globaAtulation impacts the industriaAtulation of your country? What do you think about politeness and expression? Are the people of your country polite? How they treat with old people and children? Basic Ques. Hi, GT, 3rd June Dubai Listening- 1 discussion between a girl, enquiring for used car, and agency 2 Travel plan to an island 3 2 stude. Write a letter to your friend offering him your furniture 1.
What furniture you want to give him 2. Why they will like it 3. Write a letter to your friend and tell him about 1. Your stay 2. Your training and college 3. Is renting house has more advantages or disadvantages than buying a house? Speaking- Part-1 1. Where do you stay? Is your city is interesting? Do you like to go back to your city again in future? Do you prefer to have one best friend or many friends? Part-2 Explain a situation when you have waited too long for something. Explain about- 1. Situation 2. When and Where 3. What did you do after this? Part-3 1. Are people like to wait nowadays?
What is your opinion about having patience? Is it good or bad? Are children are good in waiting than older people? Others think that car drivers should pay the cost for it. Discuss both view and give your opinion. I always recommend this website to my friends who are still working on their preparation. Thanks, Atul! Academic, 3 June British Council, Indonesia Writing Task 1: A line graph shows the percentage of female members of parliaments in 5. Nash — June 5, — Ielts General test Date Place uae Speaking Describe your hometown Is it a interesting place to live Do you have any plan to settle down there in the future Questions about watches and robot Speaking part 2 New shop opened in your town What shop it is?
Why this shop is successful? Speaking part 3 Questions about advertisement Advantages and disadvantages of consumerism Writing task 1 You see an equipment when you went to attend a meeting in another company. Decribe that equipment Why do you think i would be useful for your work. Task 2 Some people think that the purpose of erning money is to enjoy present life others think that money should be saved for future. Ielts General test Date Place uae Speaking Describe your hometown Is it a interesting place to live Do you have any plan to sett. Mohamed Salama — June 5, — Took the exam 3 june general training in egypt Speaking Task1, do you remember you dreams.
Do you know their meaning Do you want to study this field Task2 Cue card describe a cafe you enjoyed Task3 Questions about parties and freinds Writing Task1 Letter to ask about an equipment you saw at a business meeting to buy one for your vompany Task2 People who save money vs who spend it now Reading Part3 The revolution if the calculator Listenning Was miserable as i cant remember it Sorry i wrote what i remember — IELTS Exam — egypt — Mohamed Salama — June 5, Took the exam 3 june general training in egypt Speaking Task1, do you remember you dreams.
Do you know their meaning Do you want to. Explain what it is B. Why it is suitable for your friend C. How he should collect it. Part 2 — Celebrating some specials days like National days, festivals involve lot of expenses from govt. Do you think instead of spending on such events the money can be used for other useful purposes. Speaking: Part 1 What is your full name — Do you work or study — Have you bought any product by looking at advertisement — Do you think internet ads are good — What do you think about Billboard advertisements Part 2: Talk about someone who helped you in work or in school.
How is he special How has he influenced you Are you in touch with him Part What do think about working in team. Is it advantage or disadvantage? So its important for all to go through it. Thanks Atul for the site and your inputs.. Good luck to all who are giving the exams.. Some people say that government spends too much on this something like that and that they should use this money on other necessary items. Do you like it?
Friends: — Should you have one best friend or several friends? Write a letter to your friend offering him your furniture. However, other believe that its better to follow own self discuss both these views and give your own opinion. Below are my test contents, hope they can help other candidates do a good job in their test.
Listen: 1. Customer order A form should be filled with personal information, the reference number, items plates, pump,baseball set,, ,address, charge 2. Stanly fitness centre Former address, membership, and map of the fitness centre 3. Discussion about a essay and presentation of nurse training history 4. Improvement for airport How to make passenger relax, flight information, the material, etc Reading: 1. Camping site 2. Paid leave 3. Working regulations 4.
An Egyptian archeologist The reading part is easy. I finished in 40 mins. Writing: Task 1: You are going to go back to your home country, and there are some furnitures you want give to your friend. Task 2: Public celebrations such as national day, festivals are popular in many countries. But some people think government should spend money on more useful things. Speaking 1. Talk about home country,mirror, robot, 2. Cue card: An import event in history, when and where it happened, who attended, where did you hear it from 3.
Talk about important people in history, museum, the advantage and disadvantage in learn history Thankfully, I prepared all the topics before. I hope I will get a good score this time. Thank you again, Atul. Below are my test contents, hope they ca. Speaking: Do you live in a apartment or house?
Do you like your apartment? What do you buy in future? Apartment or a house? Do you like fruits? What kind of fruits you like? Do you think its healthy to eat fruits? How do you celebrate your birthday now? How were the birthdays celebrated when you were a child? DO you think birthdays are important In your country, which the most celebrated birthday? Part 2 Which sport do you like? When did you first watch this sport? Whom do you watch this sport with? How do you enjoying watching this sport? Part 3 What are the other sports you follow? What are the other sports people follow in your country?
Do you prefer watching sport at home or outside? How is the environment like when you watch the sport outside? How did the commercials impact the professional sports? Are some players paid too high? Do you support large payments to some players? Do you like your apartme. Do you want to live in the future there? What is the importance of your home? Do you remember your dreams? Do you know the meaning of your dreams? Do you have one close friend or many friends? How much time do you spend with your friends? Part 2: Speech you heard recently? Part 3: 1. Do you often listen to the talks?
Who gives talks? Do you think it is easy to give talks in schools? Do you think children listen carefully? How visual aids helps to understand talks? Why do people get nervous when they give speech? Writing task 1: The given two bar charts shows school aged boys and girls and higher education students males and females from four different places percentages in year.
Compare and write it in your own words. Writing task 2: Some people thinks that criminal activities can be reduced by implementing long prison sentences. However, others think that it can be reduced effectively by alternative ways. Discuss both sides and give your opinion. What is the importanc. Why that measure was introduced? Speaking 1 Hometown Watch Schools 2 Describe a book u want to read again what about, where u know about it, why u want to read again 3 What literature do children read in Russia?
What can gives us a classical literature? Is it impornat to read children stories in a bad-time? Antonio — June 3, — Hi Atul. Only these types of questions. Reading 1: psychology in children. Writing Map : task 1 Task 2: some nations have introduced a law to limit the hours that employer ask employ to work. Why this law is introduced? Is it a positive or negative development?
Speaking Part 1 Name, work or studying, watch, magazine, television Part 2 A popular place where people go for swimming Where, why, how it looks like, who goes there Part 3 Sports facilities in your area Who should teach children swimming What the government can do to ensure adequate availablity of sports facilities She asked only few questions, so tensed. Thank you for your support. Meant something like this. Forgot the exact words Discuss both views and give your opinion. Speaking: Part-1 General introduction as is the normal practice Part Politeness: 1- From whom you have learnt politeness when you were a child?
Further questions related to the news were 1- People tend not to share good news with other people. Writing Part 2- Some people believe earning is for spending and few others believe that earning is to secure future- Discuss both views and give your opinion. Include examples from own experience. I have one query about a TFNG Question in Reading: Para: Children between 5 to 15 will be getting discounted fared while travelling in bus Quest: Children from age 5 will get reduced fares for their travel in bus.
Awaiting your reply. Roshan — June 3, — Date:3 June Locatin:Pune,India Type:General Training Writing task one:You recently had a business trip and you liked some equipment there which you would like to introduce in your workplace -describe that equipment -how will it be of use to you at your workplace -write some questions to be asked to him Task 2:Some people feel that money should be spent on enjoyment while some feel that it should be saved for the future.
Rahul Devalla — June 3, — Hello there! My speaking test was conducted a couple of days before the LRW test. Robotics — Robots as car drivers , would you like to have one to help you? Part 2 — favorite book that you read. Reading habits , books , books vs films , literature , how literature study can help one in his future, how can one decide what he wants to study. There was a lot of focus on literature. My LRW test was today 3rd june Listening: was quite easy i can say. Reading: To be honest, i was really worried about the reading section as i was finding the matching headings really tough.
Question was stating that a local council proposed few changes to the civic centre and we had to report the same. It was fairly easy as there were less changes to already existing things and more additions to talk about. Task 2: Related to work life. Q: Few countries have introduced a new law to restrict the number of hours an employer can ask his employee to work.
Why do you think this decision has been taken? It was quite easy as well. Because we can speak a lot on restricting the number of working hours. Considering these 2 , i wrote in favor of the decision made and conveyed strongly that it is for a positive and better future. Good day! Hello there! Delhi, India. Writung Task 1. You were on a business trip to some other company and you came across an equipment that you found useful for you. Write a letter to that person telling him about the equipment. How the equipment can be useful for you. Ask something about the equipment.
Start the letter with Dear ……. Some people think that earning money is important to enjoy life now. Some think that earning money is important for bright future. Discuss both and tell about your opinion. I have a doubt about listening test. It is about list selection. Do we need to give the answer in correct order as the conversation or it can be in any order?
You were on a business trip to some other company and you came across an e. Sam — June 3, — 03 June general in Cairo Writing section Write an email to a someone you saw last week in a meeting in their company talking about a piece of equipment they had. Describe the equipment State why you find it usefull to your work Ask a couple of questions about it Start with Dear…..
Discuss bothe sides and state your POV. This was roughly the writting test. Writing task 2: in some countries has been introduced law limited hrs work employer ask for employee Why do u think is measure introduced??
My speaking exam yesterday Intro: about television,robert,place Cue card: interesting apartment Discussion: diff traditional nd modern bu. So I avoided those mistakes thanks to you! One from how it was before and one of a proposal of how it was going to be updated. Then we has to explain the diagrams and organize the information we saw. Task 2: Some countries have introduced a new law deciding how many hours employers can ask their employees to work.
Why do you think they implemented this law? And do you think it is a positive or negative decision? Do you live in a house or apartment? Do you like where you live? What type of home would you ideally want to live in? Do you like sunshine? Would you like to live in a place with more sunshine? Do you like fruit and what types or fruit do you like? Have you tried cooking with fruit? Did you enjoy fruit when you were little?
Then the task on the paper I was asked to speak for minutes about an English lecture that I thought was especially inspiring, why it was inspiring to me, how the lecture was and what the teacher did. After I spoke about that then the follow up questions were: 1. What qualities does an English teacher need to have?
What languages does kids learn in school? What is an important part of learning foreign languages? Will languages like Chinese be a bigger part of education in the future and why? Would you like to be a language teacher? And then it was done. Writing and speaking was more stressful and in my opinion are the two most important parts to prepare for.
Thanks for your great website, Atul! I saw that a lot of people struggl. Darsh — June 3, — Ielts GT 3 june Writing task 1 On a business trip last week to another company, you saw a piece of equipment that is useful to your work Describe the equipment Why it is useful Ask few questions about the equipment Writing task 2 Some people earn money and spend it to enjoy life, others save money for future, discuss both points and give your opinion — IELTS Exam — Mumbai — Darsh — June 3, Ielts GT 3 june Writing task 1 On a business trip last week to another company, you saw a piece of equipment that is useful to your work.
Swapu — June 3, — I appeared in Speaking test on 2nd June In which type of house do u live? Which type of house do u prefer why? Will you prefer to live in the same type of house in future? Tell me something about politeness? What is politeness..? Why should be people be polite? How do people be polite? Who teaches people to be polite? Did you ate fruits in childhood?
Isit important to eat fruits? Cue card : talk about a lesson u were taught. Who taught it? Where and when? Did you enjoyed it? Followup questions : did other children enjoyed that lesson too? What important qualities should teacher possess? Is cramming important in studying why?
How can computer can replace teachers? What does computers doesnot have but teachers have? What are the roles of emotions in learning? Write a letter to a person who was using an unknown equipment during your visit to his company.. Describe an equipment 2. Write him How it can be useful to you. Ask some qestions related to that equipment Essay : Some believe that we should use money for mainly enjoying life.. I appeared in Speaking test on 2nd June Task 1 You saw an equipment on a recent business trip with someone that you think is useful for your work; Describe the equipment Why would it be useful Ask a few questions Atul , if your tone is right would you make this an informal letter?
TASK 2 Some people think that the main reason for earning money is to enjoy life now while others think that earning money is to provide for the future. Discuss both views and give your opinion. Do you live in a flat or apartment? Do you like where you stay? What kind of house do you want to own in the future?
Have you ever bought something because of an advert you saw? Part 3 1. Did you tell anyone about the gift for free? Should the government give some services for free to its citizens? Should public transport be free in your country? Do people in your country use email? Do you prefer to call or email someone? What do you think about the fact that the best things in life are for free? Should we teach children to save money and buy what they want as opposed to buying for them everything?
Just finished my test. Task 1 You saw an equipment on a recent business trip with someone that you think is useful for your work; Descri. What is your work? How does your work affect you? What do you do during your leisure time? Some thinks the government should pay for it. However, others think the drivers should pay for the costs in the road. Writing task 1: you moved to another country to attend short training course at college and you think the course is useful to your Friend. Renting accommodations has more advantages then disadvantages of having own homes?
Writing task 1: you moved to another country to attend short training cou. Part 3: About marriages What ceremonies we have during marriage. The examiner was very polite n friendly so felt alot more comfortable. I have my LRW tomorrow.. Crash — June 2, — Speaking Date 2 June part 1: about my job, why and are you planning to stay in it? Speaking Date 2 June part 1: about my job, why and are you planning to stay in it? LRW tomorrow. Do u know anybody from history who inspired you?
Have you learnt history from films? Have u visited any historical places recently? Are u interested in learning history? Do u like sunshine?
Which climate u prefer, more sunny or less sunny why? Part 2: Describe something which you always wanted to do? Part 3: Goals of young people 1. Does goals changes as the people age? Who should play a role in designing goals? Does parents have any say in the goals? Goals of a country? Can the goal be universal for all the countries? What about the use of solar energy? Is it cost-effective? Does the energy produced is always in conflict with the environment?
Part one : 1. Where are you from 2. Do you work or study forgot the rest.. Part two : something you plan to do , not work related. Cue card, what is that, why, and what need to be prepared Part three: 1. Have you talked about the plan with anyone? About education, when do ppl in my country know what they want to do? Is it better to know at a early stage or later of the life? How can governement help? Do parents have a strong influence over the choice of their kids? Hi Atul I just took my academic speaking test this morning in Muscat. Do yo. Part 1: full name, where I come from, do I work or study, where I work, what is the best about my job; do you like jewels, do you wear them; which kind of jewels you like; why people have jewels for years.
Part 3: do you have in Poland special any occasions when food is important; why it is important in families; do you think that it would be enjoyable to have family time in a hotel or such; and a question about healthy food: should high-sugar food be taxed. I got this impression that it is very formal. I naturally introduced myself first, but my examiner asked me to hold on and wait until she starts recording… Not a big deal but it takes longer to relax and behave naturally. Part 1: full name, where I come from, do I work or study, where I wor.
Do I like my House? What is my dream house? What you think of a sun? Is too much sun good? Do Pakistan use sun energy? Part 2: Describe a couple you know who is happily married; — Who they are? Does my other friends find them a happily married couple? Part 3: Questions were related to Part 2 like roles of husband and wife? Have their roles changed over time or not? I think I did well because every time the examiner had to interrupt me to ask the next question.
What is my dr. What kind of work do you do? What does you that involves? Neighbors or Neighbours: Do you know your neighbors well? Do you go out with your neighbors? Should you treat your neighbors in a good way? Transport: Do you like to use public buses? Which do you prefer using public buses or the under ground? What should governments do to improve public buses? Then, Did you share this news with your family and friends? Do you think that media should share good news or bad news to the public?
Any way, I think I did not do as good as last time. I admit that this time there were more questions in 17 minutes compared to the last speaking test. Is there any limits to numbers of questions in the speaking test? I will be having the rest of the exams tomorrow, so please wish me luck. Good luck to all. Thanks Atul. Simran — June 1, — Hello Atul, First of all,I would like to thank you for the great work you are doing. I practised from your your website as well as videos during my exam preparation. What is your Full Name? How May I call you? What does your job entails? How many friends do you have?
How are friends helpful. Would you like to expand your social circle in the future? Part 2: Long Turn cue card. Luckily,I got a question of my interest. Talk about a cafe you visited recently. II What type of drinks you ordered? III Why you went there? Would you like to organize a birthday party at home? Will you call friends to visit? Is it necessary to call relatives,Friends at parties? How do they make occassions special?
How much importance do friends hold in your life? But I replied!! Thank you a lot once again. Hello Atul, First of all,I would like to thank you for the great work you are doing. I practised from your your website as well as videos. Raj — June 1, — Dear Atul, thank you for fabulous website. General test at India. Date 01 Jun Speaking module Part one about self, work. Will you continue working? And why? Part two: about magazine and comics. Have you read comics during childhood.. Which kind of magazine you read? Some other question about patience.
Importance of patience. From whom you learn the patience? Part three: About situation you arrived early… When and where did you arrive early? Why did you arrive early? Benefits of arriving early.. Dear Atul, thank you for fabulous website. Will you c. Part 1: work or study? Tv program? Do you think your school is the best part for you? Part 2: cue card : describe decision made by others that you disagreed Part 3: questions based on decisions right or wrong decision from youngsters life.. Jolly — May 31, — Hello Atul, Greetings, below are the speaking test details.
LRW is on 3rd June. What should I call you? Do you Study or Work? What kind of work you do? Do you read Magazines? And one more related to same. Did you read magazines or comics in your childhood? Part-2 Describe a work of art that you really like. Different kind of arts? Young vs. Old views related to Art? Government role in Art? I observed that the examiner from IDP was in rush during the entire speaking test.
She kept on giving same expression throughout the test as if she was a robot. Maybe it was close to lunch time and she wants to finish as early as possible. Hello Atul, Greetings, below are the speaking test details. Moduve — May 31, — Hi Atul , I though I should share with you my exam questions because what you are posting here is really helpful. Really thanks a lot for all of you. Part2: Company in the place you live employing a lot of people — What is the company — How big — How people feel about it Note: not literally but same meaning. Hi Atul , I though I should share with you my exam questions because what you are posting here is really helpful.
Really thanks a lot for. Part 3: Followup questions that I dont remember much actually. But they were related to Part 2 like roles of husband and wife? Do you live in a house or flat? What would you like to change about your home? Then few questions about marriages in india and the money spent on the parties. Also suitable age to get married. Cue card about favorite couple who is happy married. And follow up questions about the same. Thanks Atul, for your helpful tips, i was really comfortable with the speaking exam this time and also enjoyed it too. What would. What is special about your hometown?
I enjoyed writing but now i was too worried what will be my score. More power! Its exceptional. Academic module, Pakistan. Speaking Part 1. Full name Do you live in a house or an apartment Do u like it? Do you want to live there in future? Did you eat fruits when you were young? Do u think it is healthy to eat fruits? Do you like any personality from past? Have you been to a historical place? Do you like movies made on historic events? Do you want to know more about past i said no i dont think i wana know about history :D Part 2 Describe a person you have worked or studied with who is very helpful.
Part 3 Is it more beneficial to work as a team? What are its disadvantages? Do you think there is just one disadvantage? Do you think children should be taught about team work before they hit college? Do you think employees should get more benefits? Do you think women help women more or men help men more? Why is that? Writing task 1: two pie charts about students aged from 18 to 25 above choosing to study in Derriford University. Writing Task 2: in some socities, ot is becoming more common for fathers to stay at home and look after their children while mothers go to work.
Is this a pos or neg development? Atul, i followed a 4 paragraph pattern. In intro i gave my opinion like this: in my opinion i believe that both parents should contribute equally. Is it fine? In body para 1 i wrote that the main reason for this is juvenile delinquency. I wrote that father has strict nature thats why societies want father to stay at home In body Para 2: i started it like this: however, i believe that….
Mothers are devoted so fathers cant fulfill this responsibility alone. Both should work yo give better opportunities, both should divide time at home to look after tgeir children In conclusion, i again stated the same thing. I want to know were my ideas relevant? Hello Atul First I want to thank you for your correction service. Academic module, Pak. Main points: How this affects you, your suggestions to the manager, what would you do if nothing changes Writing task 2: Leaders now are younger than the past.
R — May 27, — Hi Atul thanks a million for your valuable website. My exam was on 25th of May Test Center:Irsafam. Iran test module :academic speaking questions: 1. Do you live in house or flat? What kind of house do you want to have in future? What kind of jewllery do you have? Have you ever bought jewllery for some one? Part2: What was the most important invention? Part3: How often do you send email? Do you think robots will teach instead of teachers in future? When do human beings try to invent new things? Reading: It was about a mysterious lake , grapefruits and bitterness and laughing.
Writing was pie charts about differant age groups of student who had different reasons for choosing Derriford University. And task 2 writing: it is becoming comman that fathers take care of children at home and mothers earn money. What are the negative or positive effects? Iran — E. R — May 27, Hi Atul thanks a million for your valuable website. Iran test module :academic speak. Write a letter to your friend to apologize that its not possible and tell her why and also suggest other accommodation for her son.
Writing part 2: Some people think new building designs should include private out door space. Do you prefer big apartments or peaceful individual home and why Does the apartments with large number of people affecting people personal life and some more questions on cost of living and living in cities to living in suburbs etc My tips : Listening.
Notice your English while you talk and think the examiner as a known person and discuss in general Reading : I am not sure about the tips , But practice reading too to catch the speed and time. Time is very important factor in reading as you get lengthy passage. General Training. Vadodara, Gujarat, India. Listening: 1 Fill in blanks. It was a telephonic conversation about getting library services. One speaker was giving information on university courses and terms. Same speaker was introducing various staff members.
I completely missed one question here, had to guess the answer at last. One lady was conveying information about one global corporate company. Reading: 1 Membership advertisement of one sports club. T,F,NG 2 Information on phone banking. Fill in blanks 3 Membership advertisement of one language club.
Fill in blanks 4 Information on manufacturing team strategies Fill in blanks 5 History of bicycles. I believe one has to read all the information properly to be sure about answers. Key words not helped. We offer exclusive couples-only accommodation and you are sure to leave us feeling pampered and relaxed. We offer the widest choice of destinations, accommodation and activities throughout the Alps.
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There is plenty to see and do and families are particularly well-catered for. Questions Look at the five holiday advertisements, A-E. For which holiday are the following statements true? Write the correct letter A-E next to questions B I wear an analogue watch. B I keep a diary. B I am often in a hurry. Then complete the sentences below using the correct phrase.
If we consider only the ancient stones themselves, the work spanned seventy generations - some 1 , years. However, the first construction at this site began in prehistoric times. True, these first artefacts were just wooden poles which have long gone, but these were raised by men in times so ancient that Britain was still recovering from the Ice Age.
The timeline below shows this history, with a frenzy of activity from just before BC through to 1 BC being responsible for most of what we now gaze upon in awe. Exact dates are not possible, since dates are inferred from minute changes in physical measurements, such as the radiocarbon dating method. Nevertheless, archaeologists have sketched out the following outline of events. First, the people of the Mesolithic period erected pine posts, known as the postholes, near Stonehenge. In the s a car park was built over these. During the next stage, Phase 1 c. This would have appeared brilliant white in the green of what had now become pastureland as the hunter-gatherers that erected the postholes gave way to farmers.
In Phase 2 of the construction c. These may have served as markers for astronomical measurements. We do not know if there are more of them as excavation did not cover a large area. This was followed by Phase 3 c. Stones began to arrive in this era and the circular shape and pattern of these enormous stones, which predate all other known structures, is still standing today. According to historians, there was no written mention of Stonehenge until AD.
BC is used in the Christian calendar to refer to the time before the birth of Jesus Christ. AD is used to refer to the time after Christ was born. Circo is used to mean about or approximately and is sometimes written simply c. You do not need to use all of the words. Use a dictionary and make a note of the different meanings in your notebook. Use a dictionary to help you. I think I am a very nostalgia person, so I often look backwards at my life and remember good times as well as bad. I definitely think about it more than the future.
I think teenagers are more interested in the modern time than in the past! We need to know about important history events because hopefully they can stop us from making the same mistakes in the future. I think it would be amazing to go back in times and watch how they lived and how they built the pyramids. Make sure you check your spelling at the end of the test. The text refers to the use of 5 and 6 to relieve toothache. Can you name: A five animals found in Africa? D five animals found in Australia?
B five different types of flower? E five different types of tree? F five types of vegetable? Put the words into the correct column. Which word can go in both columns? NOT We-must take care of the nature. Natural is the adjective form: It is a natural process. NOT ft - is a nature process. Which five words in the animal column are connected to their skin or covering? Agriculture 2. Circle the word which is different from the others and say why. Find words in the text which mean the same or the opposite of the words in bold.
Introduced species Since the birth of agriculture, farmers have tried to avoid using pesticides by employing various biological methods to control nature. The first method involved introducing a predator that would control pests by eating them. This was used successfully in to control the prickly pear population in Australia. The prickly pear had originally been used as a divider between paddocks. However, it eventually spread from a few farms to 4 million hectares of farming land, rendering them unusable.
The Cactoblastis moth larvae was introduced to help control the situation and within ten years, the prickly pear was virtually eradicated. Further attempts at biological control weren't so successful. When farmers tried to eliminate the cane beetle by introducing the South American cane toad, the results were catastrophic. The cane toad did not eat the cane beetle and the toad population spread rapidly leading to the decline of native species of mammals and reptiles. Other introduced species have proved similarly disastrous among native Australian animals.
Since the introduction of the cat, the fox and the rabbit from Europe, 19 species of native animals have become extinct and a further species are considered to be either endangered or vulnerable. The modern-day approach to the biological control of pests is through genetically modified crops.
It remains to be seen whether this controversial method will have any long-term repercussions , particularly in regards to the ecological balance of the environment where they are grown. Some fear that insects may become resistant to these new crops and therefore become even more difficult to control. Some farmers believe that growing 1 fruit and vegetables that have been 2 changed so that their genes are different is a good way to 3 totally stop pests and improve the quality of their produce.
However, this type of 4 farming has both advantages and disadvantages. One of the advantages is that farmers can grow plants that produce a poison that is harmful to 5 small animals like flies and caterpillars. This means that farmers will not have to use 6 chemicals to kill these animals and so this should be better for the surrounding environment and the 7 earth that plants grow in.
As a result, it could help to protect other 8 plants as well as the 9 living space of any animals in the area. On the other hand, farmers usually only spray their fields once or twice per year but these new plants would be toxic all year round. Furthermore, it is possible that over time the pests may 10 stop being killed by the toxins and so the problem would be worse than ever. The toxins may also be poisonous to other plants and animals and this would upset the 11 way plants and animals live and grow together and may lead to more animals becoming 12 at risk of extinction.
Underline the schwa in each word, then listen and check your answers. There may be more than one schwa in each word. Noun Adjective Adverb Verb agriculture agricultural ecology evolve extinct extinct nature genetic adapt agriculture catastrophe chemical climate disastrous endangered genetically human natural vulnerable 48 The natural world 9 Test practice Academic Reading Meet the hedgehog A In Norwich, England, the first housing development designed for both hedgehogs and people has been built.
All through the gardens and fences is a network of pathways and holes installed just for the ancient, spiny creatures. As for the developers, they have reason to think the animals will help make home sales fantastic, too. But part of the attraction is also rooted in science. Studies have helped make clear that hedgehogs are good for gardens, eating vast numbers of slugs and other pests as they forage in the vegetation at night.
B Recent scientific studies about hedgehogs have helped explain mysteries as varied as why hedgehogs apply saliva to their entire bodies, how they have survived on the planet for 30 million years, why they chew toxic toad skins and what secrets they may hold about evolution. As one of the most primitive mammals on the planet, the hedgehog has been helping geneticists understand evolutionary relationships among mammals and even uncover secrets of the human genome 1.
At Duke University, for example, scientists chose the hedgehog and 14 other species to study the lineages of mammals. They determined among other things that marsupials e. Such questions are not just academic. C Still, much about hedgehogs remains unknown. Some hibernate through cold winters in the north. Others tolerate desert heat near the equator. Some live in urban areas, adapting well to living in close proximity to humans. Others live in areas that rank among the most remote places on the planet. D Hedgehogs spend much of their time alone, but Reeve says it would be a mistake to think of them as solitary.
They may occasionally scrap over food items and rival males attracted to a female may also have aggressive interactions. F All hedgehogs also share the same defence mechanism: they retract their vulnerable parts - head, feet, belly - into a quill-covered ball, using special skin down their sides and over their heads and feet. Any perceived threat can make them roll up, including the approach of a biologist, so researchers have invented a new measurement for the animals: ball length.
Young hedgehogs have a few extra defence strategies. They make a little squeak while they do it.
In behaviour that may be unique for a vertebrate, they chew substances laden with toxins and then apply frothy saliva to their entire bodies. In one study, human volunteers pricked themselves with quills from hedgehogs that had coated themselves after chewing on venomous toad skins. The volunteers found those quills much more irritating and painful than clean ones. However, every year, many thousands of the animals die on roads in Europe and elsewhere as they go about their nightly business. Along with intensive farming and pesticides, road kill has taken its toll on hedgehog populations.
One study found the animal numbers had dropped by between 20 and 30 per cent in a single decade. To help combat the decline, the British have established special clinics for injured hedgehogs, urged that anyone making a bonfire check for the animals underneath first, and ensured that hedgehogs can cope with cattle grids.
H Ironically, for centuries the English considered these animals as vermin. Even 50 years ago gamekeepers were killing as many as 10, a year thinking they were no more than bird-egg-eating pests. In some places today, scientists are coming to the same conclusions all over again. In the s, hedgehogs were introduced to the Hebrides Islands off Scotland to help combat garden slugs.
With no natural enemies there, a few hedgehogs soon turned into thousands. Wildlife researchers have watched the hedgehogs reduce the numbers of rare ground- nesting wading birds by feasting on their eggs. Test Tip For questions that require you to locate information, you also need to understand the function of the information. For example, for question 1 you will need to find the part of the text which tells you why it is important to know how animal species are connected i.
Which sections contain the following information? Write the correct letter A-H next to questions below. B hedgehogs chew poisonous animal skins. C adult hedgehogs do not leap into the air. D young hedgehogs make a high-pitched noise. A The opening of hospitals just for hedgehogs. B Imposing fines for littering in areas where hedgehogs live. C The alteration of a container produced by a fast-food chain. D Alerting people to the potential dangers faced by hedgehogs. A Hedgehog numbers are declining.
B Hedgehogs pose a threat to other wildlife. C Hedgehogs can safely be introduced there. D Hedgehogs can be used effectively as a natural predator. A Introduce a native predator of hedgehogs. B Kill a small number of hedgehogs. C Remove ground-nesting birds. D Move the hedgehogs elsewhere. Of course, passengers will need to prepare for this experience. However, unlike the months of training that 2 undergo, our passengers will be ready for 3 within two days. To prepare for a truly out-of-this-world experience, passengers will spend two days in our special training facility.
There the passengers will be able to experience zero gravity in a special 4 ; this will allow the passengers to acclimatise. You will need to change the form of the words. Error warning! Earth is the name of our planet and has a capital letter, but the sun does not. We say the Earth but not our earth : The Earth moves around the sun. We must take care of our planet. NOT We must take care of our earth-.
Noun Adjective atmosphere cosmic galactic gravitational horizon lunar meteoric sun stellar terrestrial universe Vocabulary note The suffix -ic tells us that a word is an adjective. How many adjectives in 2. Other common examples are: economic , scenic, tragic.
Give a reason for each answer using one of the underlined words in the text. In May , the USA launched its first manned space station. The station, called Skylab, managed to carry three different crews of astronauts over a nine-month period, in spite of the fact that it lost a meteor shield on launch. In February , the final crew returned to Earth and, for the next five and a half years, the Skylab continued to orbit the Earth, unmanned and unused.
Its low orbit gradually pulled the tonne Skylab down towards the Earth making a crash landing inevitable and causing a great deal of concern around the world. On 11 July the Skylab eventually crashed into the southern ocean off Esperance, Australia. Fortunately the debris fell in mostly uninhabited areas and locals scrambled to collect a souvenir. It has never been paid. There are currently approximately 8, pieces of space junk floating above our heads thanks to the satellites, space shuttles and space stations out there. One example is a screwdriver lost during a space shuttle mission in which has never been recovered.
It was 2 The Skylab may have floated in space for ever. A crash was 3 Very few people lived in the area where it landed. The area was 4 Complete the text using suitable words from this unit. Most of 1 p Earth has already been mapped and explored, so it is not surprising that explorers should turn their attention to other parts of the 2 u The planets in our 3 s s have become the next frontier to be conquered. We all remember the so-called 4 s race of the s when the US and USSR were each determined to be the first to 5 1 on the moon.
However, I do not believe that planting a flag on the moon gives anyone the right to claim it as theirs. With the increasing use of 6 s to monitor activities here on Earth, as well as the very real prospect of space tourism, now is a good time to ask who owns or, more importantly, who governs the vast area of space above us?
In the relatively short time that man has been travelling in space we have already left sufficient 7 d behind to show that we are as careless in our space travels as on Earth. The broken shuttle parts have simply been left to 8 f. Clearly space belongs to all of us. Although there is an international 9 s s , this is currently only involved in research. I think we need to act quickly to establish a set of international laws that govern 10 o space. There may be more than one schwa in each word or phrase.
Ci7de or underline the most important words. Use the questions to help you follow the conversation. A To supply resources for use on Earth. B To find out more about the origins of our planet. C To establish a colony for humans if Earth becomes uninhabitable. A They cannot operate for long enough. B They are too expensive to build. C They are too reliant on humans. A It can be unreliable. B It is based on old technology. C It is becoming cheaper to produce. A the distance B the atmosphere C the extreme temperatures Questions Who expresses the following opinions? A see B differ C tell D distinguish 2 Our car broke down twice on the way to the wedding to say we arrived two hours late.
A in B for C to D of 4 Languages over time so dictionaries need to be regularly updated. A say B speak C talk D tell 7 These figures a peak in when over 2 million new machines were sold. A got B increased C rose D reached 8 Air is cheaper than other forms of long-distance transport in my country. A trip B journey C travel D travelling 9 A large number of houses were by the storm.
A affected B effected C influenced D involved 10 Many people believe that violent computer games can have a harmful on children. A affect B effect C damage D involvement 11 The price of fresh fruit and vegetables considerably throughout the whole year. A rises B peaks C fluctuates D decreases 12 The population of wild birds peaked approximately , before falling rapidly.
A at B for C in D of 13 My first job was to arrange the files into order from the oldest to the most recent. A alphabetical B chronological C numerical D historical 14 The train whistle warned us of its departure. A previous B imminent C subsequent D former Test Two Units 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 The majority of cave art was created in prehistoric A time B stage C era D times Computer viruses are a modern- problem. A age B era C years D century It can take time for people to get used to a new system.
A long B a long C so long D too long Many people are fascinated by the native of Australia, especially koalas and kangaroos. A fauna B flora C agriculture D vegetation The mother bird carries food back to the nest in its A feather B wing C beak D paw We must try to protect animals, otherwise when a species disappears the whole ecosystem is affected. A ecological B endangered C extinct D exotic I believe that farmers should be banned from using near waterways.
A nature B native C natural D naturalist A plant is only as healthy as the it grows in. A habitat B water C soil D vegetation It must have been amazing to be the first astronauts space. A suspend B survive C supply D sustain I imagine astronauts spend a lot of time thinking about life Earth. However, more than four adjectives together can sound awkward. NOT An ugly, big, - old r rectongulor, brown, Italian, plastic bag.
Include the words from the recording that give you your answers. Speaker A 3 Are the bedrooms large or small? Speaker C 3 Is the house large or small? Speaker B l Is the computer system new or old?
Design and innovation 11 Error warning! Build up is not used to talk about construction. It refers to increasing or developing something: He went to the gym to build up his muscles. We are trying to build up a relationship with a company in Japan. Chances are it will be the Otis Elevator Company. It was Elisha Otis who invented the gadget that made the modern passenger lift possible. The concept of elevation was already well established. Louis XV of France disliked stairs so much that he was regularly hoisted skywards in a 'flying chair' by several strong men hauling on ropes.
In Otis's time, warehouses commonly used moving platforms to transport goods between floors. However, elevating anything further than one floor or weighing more than 70 kilograms would have been considered far too dangerous. Otis worked for a bed manufacturer who was keen to expand his business but needed to find a way to move his beds to an upper floor for storage.
The inventive Otis soon had a solution to the safety problem: a tough steel spring system that meshed with ratchets on either side of the lift shaft so that if the rope gave way the sudden loss of tension would trigger the device, stopping the lift from falling. At the World Trade fair in New York, Otis unveiled his invention and orders began to pour in, including one from the United States Assay Office which at that time was constructing one of the first buildings with an internal steel frame to support the exterior walls.
This was the same construction method that skyscrapers would use. Write the words you have underlined that helped you. The team used an 3 i approach to their bridge which was 4 b entirely out of timber. They used traditional 5 c methods to avoid using nails or screws. The students demonstrated a good knowledge of fundamental 6 e principles.
They 7 c a working model of the bridge, which 8 o an entire car park. This allowed them to test the bridge and ensure that the 9 s was sound. Listen and check your answers, then practise saying the words correctly. Choose the correct heading for each section from the list of headings below. Write the correct number, i-viii, next to questions Test Tip The headings in this type of question must represent the ideas expressed throughout each section, not just in one sentence. List of headings i Outdoor spaces in the house of tomorrow ii The house of the future helps with the battle of the sexes iii The compact home of tomorrow iv The multipurpose home of tomorrow v Housework declines in the house of the future vi Mixed success for visions of the future vii The future lies in the past viii A change of structure in the home of tomorrow 1 Section A 2 Section B 3 Section C 4 Section D 5 Section E The house of the future, then and now.
It quickly emerged as a cultural symbol for the American obsession with the single-family dwelling. In the s and s, advertisers and promoters picked up the concept, and a number of full-scale homes of tomorrow traveled through fairs and department stores. It was in this same era that American consumer culture was consolidated.
In the s, there were three competing conceptions of the home of the future. The first, indebted to modernist architecture, depicted the home of tomorrow as a futuristic architectural structure. The second conception was that of the mass-produced, prefabricated house, a dwelling potentially available to every North American. These first two failed to capture the imagination and the dollars of industrialists or of the public, but the third image of the home of the future did.
B In the s, the home of the future was represented in and by one room: the kitchen. Cheap plastic would melt in hot water. Furnishings, rugs, draperies and unscratchable floors would all be made of synthetic fabric or waterproof plastic. After the water had run down a drain in the middle of the floor later concealed by a rug of synthetic fibre you would turn on a blast of hot air and dry everything.
The overriding message of the s vision of the house of the future is that one can access the wonders of the future through the purchase of domestic technology today. C What is most striking in the s home of the future is the recognition and incorporation of social and political turmoil into the representation of domestic technology.
Technology moves out of the kitchen and spreads to the living room, bedroom and bathroom. While the home of the future was still a wonderland of gadgets, who was using the gadgets, why, and to what effect, was finally being opened up to possible alternatives. Readers learned of the crisis of masculinity that can take place if a man helps with the housework.
We learn that Barry is a great son, father and husband. However, at work the men that work for him used to laugh behind his back because his hands were rough and red. The Whirlpool two-speed dishwasher stopped all that. D The broader social context continued to be reflected in the s home of the future, but now the trend was to look backwards for the future, back to a proud pioneer heritage.
Over the s, North America experienced a certain erosion of trust in science and technology and there was less utopian speculation about the technologically produced future. The previous unproblematic link between technology, the future and progress was being questioned Corn, From the space-age metals of the s where every object had an electrical cord, we find a return to the traditional.
Ideal homes featured wood, inside and out, and an increased emphasis on windows. Domestic technologies were not featured as prominently, and the modernist or ultra-modernist designs of a few years earlier were all but gone. The use of wood, combined with the use of windows, worked to blur the line between outside and inside, bringing the outside into inner or domestic space. We also see the influence of the Green movement, such as in the deployment of technology for solar-heated homes.
The energy crisis was making itself felt, reflecting fears about a future not quite as rosy as that predicted by Popular Mechanics in Bathroom spas and gyms, computerized kitchens, wide screen entertainment, even home discotheques are all on the way. All these trends opened the door for a renewed love of technology. The line between work and leisure became blurred in the s. Forget about not being able to fit exercise into a hectic workday, in , you can work and work out simultaneously. The Walking Desk, a computer workstation for the office at home, has a treadmill, stationary bike and stair climber installed underneath.
On her most productive day, a worker should be able to walk four to five miles and burn as many as fifteen hundred calories while maintaining a normal workload. The desk will also come with a compact-disc player and color monitor for viewing nature scenes on a computer break. Thus, in addition to turning exercise into work, we see that nature is being brought into the home for breaks. One never has to leave the home, but the imperative is still clearly to be productive. Questions Look at the following list of statements questions Match each statement or prediction with the correct time period, A-E.
How long does it take you? A up-to-date B dated C state-of-the-art 5 How do you prefer to stay in touch with people? A by post B by email C by phone 1. Which phone 1 is small? Across 1 easy to use 3 open a computer file 6 move up or down on a screen 7 work a machine 9 the keys on a computer, typewriter or piano n an action or purpose something is designed for Down 2 show on a screen 4 have specific tools 5 save or keep safe 8 the part of a computer that stores information 10 information 64 Information technology 12 1.
Each one has forgotten the name for something. What is the word they need to use?
Buy The IELTS Pill: Take This Pill & Increase Your IELTS Score By 1 Band In 90 Days Guaranteed: Read Kindle Store Reviews - rapyzure.tk Use the Hints Section starting on page 11 to review with STEP 3 care any mistakes . Achieving a satisfactory Overall Band Score is IELTS test 1 should do as . 12 IELTS Test - Basic Hints INCREASE YOUR PERSONAL SPEED In the In fact, up to 90% of distractibility in A.D.D. sufferers can be removed by medication.
Speaker A: I use my every day. Computers and technology 2. Write Yes if the statement agrees with the opinions in the text and No if it contradicts them. Underline the part of the text that gave you your answer. Has the present lived up to the expectations of the past? Throughout the ages people have tried to predict what life in the twenty-first century would be like. Many science-fiction writers did manage to predict the influence the computer would have on our world. Some even imagined that it would take over our lives, develop a personality, and turn on its creators.
To some extent they were right, especially when it comes to children and cyber addiction. One constant prediction was that, thanks to computers and machines, the time devoted to labour would diminish. The author noted that time at work had been cut in half since the turn of the previous century and wrongly speculated that it would be cut in half again by However, our gadget-filled homes are a tribute to the various visions of the future: the microwave oven, internet fridges with ice-cube dispensers, freezers, video monitors, climate control, dishwashers, washing machines, personal computers, wireless connections and cupboards full of instant food.
These may no longer be considered cutting-edge but they have matched, if not surpassed, visions of how we would live. The domestic robot never quite happened, but if you can phone ahead to set the heating and use a remote control to operate the garage door, they may as well be redundant. The car, of course, has failed to live up to our expectations. It has been given turbo engines, DVD players and automatic windows, but its tyres stick stubbornly to the road.
Why doesn't it take off? The past promised us a flying car in various guises. In a prototype circled San Diego for more than an hour but later crashed in the desert. Some 30 patents for flying cars were registered in the US patent office last century but none of these ideas has been transformed into a commercially available vehicle. Even in the most remote areas people have access to some form of communication device.
A automatic cyber labour remote B chip connection control pilot silicon wireless saving space 1 I can access the Internet from anywhere in my house because my laptop has a 2 The invention of the made watching television an even more passive experience. The is used for most of the flight. Hyphenated words e. For example, nowadays we have many 2 small tools that can save time in the home and, if you have access 3 with a computer and a telephone 4 connect then you can work almost anywhere you choose.
However, there are some disadvantages to the 7 technology era. For example, people today want to have the very 8 last technology but, as new technology dates very quickly, an increasing amount of computer hardware is being dumped. This adds to our already serious pollution problems. Note the following spellings of the word program : computer program UK and US spelling , television programme UK spelling only.
Note the different forms of computer : computerise verb ; computerisation noun ; computerised adj : We use a computerised system. NOT a-eomputeri se- system. Automated can be used in a similar way, but includes machines as well as computers: Our processing system is fully automated. We talk about the computer era, the digital era or the technological era. NOT th e technology era. Ask a friend to help you practise. Stick to the time limit and record your interview. Give as much information as you can for each answer.
Part 2 minutes In this part of the test you are going to talk about a topic for about 2 minutes. Here is a card with some questions on it. You have about one minute to prepare and you can make notes if you wish. Describe something you have bought recently. Part 3 minutes 1 If you could buy any new gadget you wanted, what would you choose and why?
Who expresses the following opinions? Write A for Amy and B for Bill. The past 40 years have seen astounding developments: globalisation, the end of the Cold War, the Internet. The next 40 years may bring even more profound changes. In order to predict the future we must first examine the past. Historians see history as being driven by a combination of cumulative long-term trends and short to mid-term cycles, each of which contains the seeds of a subsequent but familiar situation. There have been many projections about the future which, with the benefit of hindsight, seem rather ridiculous.
Who can forget the predictions about the Y2K bug when commentators believed that societies would collapse and satellites would fall from the sky? Unfortunately, as a result, many people today are more sceptical about current predictions concerning global warming. These indicate that the population of the world will increase to about eight billion in and continue to rise to nine billion by , after which it will flatten out. Some societies have birth rates that are already locking their populations into absolute decline.
Not only will the populations of each of these societies dwindle, but an increasing proportion will be moving into old age, when they are less productive and use more health resources. However, the weakness of all such predictions is that humans meddle with their own history. Predictions about the future affect how humans act or plan today and ultimately how events unfold.
The challenge is to pick the trends that are likely to be prolonged, but to also factor in human influence. The first one has been done for you 2 in the future, - subsequent 2 3 Error warning! Percentage is the noun form: The percentage of women in Parliament increased in NOT - women Use the information in unit 23 to help you. The graph displays' the actual population of Australia in and the projected figures of The per cent of people aged is predicted to fall significantly during this period, while there will be an increase of the percentage of people aged In , just under 15 percentage of the population was aged between 15 and 24, while in this is predicted to drop in approximately 10 per cent.
The population of these countries will also age rapidly. What effect will this have on those countries? If current 1 continue, then in some countries the 2 is expected to dwindle within the next 50 years. This problem is 3 by the fact that not only is the number of inhabitants diminishing, but they are also growing older.
This 4 population will bring its own 5 At 6 there are sufficient younger people to earn money and pay taxes to support the 7 However, within 50 years this will not be die case. There are several possible 8 contributing to this problem. First, birth 9 in these countries are clearly falling. Second, there could be an increase in the number of people 10 away from these areas. The ageing and 1 1 population is expected to have important 12 for die labour force and the quality of everyday life.
For example, pattern A matches the word global because it has two syllables with a stress on the first syllable. Make sure that you describe the most important information and that your figures are accurate. Check your spelling when you have finished and make sure you have written at least words.
Study the information in unit 23 before you begin. You should spend about 20 minutes on this task. The graph below shows the average growth in domestic products in wealthy countries, countries that have adopted a global approach to business and countries that have not. Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information below. Write at least words. There may be more than one possible answer, so try to use a different verb for each sentence. Which two verbs can be used with the words problem and compromise?
A B a compromise an issue a situation a difficulty a solution a problem 1. Then complete the sentences. A double long short one B edged sighted sided term Vocabulary note We usually use a hyphen between two words if they are joined together to form an adjective: user-friendly. It promotes multiculturalism while it erodes the local culture. Big city life 2. More than one adjective may be possible.
Megacities The world's population is 1 , no more so than in its cities. Today, there are 21 megacities, each containing more than 10 million inhabitants, three-quarters of them in developing nations. By , there are expected to be at least 27 megacities. Such a 2 rate of urbanisation brings its own problems, especially in developing nations, where the majority of the megacities will be found. Employment and educational opportunities are the main attraction of urban centres.
But hopes for a better life are often dashed as overpopulation puts an 3 strain on the infrastructure of the cities and their ability to provide 4 necessities such as clean water and a place to live. Many rural migrants fail to find 5 work, and therefore cannot afford 6 housing. In some megacities up to 50 per cent of the residents live in slums. This problem is 7 , with the United Nations predicting that half the world's population will be living in cities by next year.
If the infrastructure within those cities does not grow at the same rate the result will be 8 adequate basic booming catastrophic decent enormous pressing staggering 73 14 Urbanisation 2. Noun Verb Adjective competition excluded include isolate poor responsibility responsibility tolerant 3. We should look after the elderly. The lack of jobs usually means that there is a lot of p in big cities. I think it helps if we try to create small communities within the bigger city so we should try to i people rather than e them. But the government is also r to a certain extent as well.
They need to make sure that the p are looked after and that they have access to the facilities they need. Look at the following words and write t or d depending on their sound. Now listen and check your answers, then practise saying the words. As concern mounts that the consumer society may be ecologically unsustainable, historians have begun to interest themselves in past efforts to achieve efficient use of scarce resources.
Far from being a recent innovation, recycling and reuse of household cast-offs have a long history. In early modern Britain, one of the most characteristic forms of recycling has been the trade in second-hand clothing, which has survived to the present day in the shape of the ubiquitous charity shop. The cost of buying new ensured that many among the lower orders of eighteenth-century English society relied on second- hand apparel. The rag fairs of the rapidly growing cities and a network of tradesmen and pawnbrokers supplied this trade.
Some historians have argued that the second-hand trade played an important role in the nascent development of mass consumerism and fashion; demand was so high that there was a ready market for stolen clothes. Recycling was not restricted to the clothing trade. A much wider culture of reuse existed. This included, for example, the recycling of building materials from demolished buildings, the repair or reuse of most metal goods, and the use of old rags in the paper industry.
The paper industry was almost wholly reliant upon recycling for its raw materials. Recycling was thus an important component of the pre-industrial economy, enabling it to cope with shortages of raw materials and aiding the poor. Pre-industrial recycling was largely a response to chronically low levels of production. After , industrialisation, urbanisation and population growth would see the emergence of a new problem - waste - and give a new significance to recycling.
Of course, the generation of urban waste was not new in itself, but the scale of waste production after certainly was. The treatment and disposal of domestic waste became a problem of the first order. From the s the problem of human waste disposal was being addressed by the construction of sewerage systems; the domestic refuse problem, however, remained relatively neglected until 1 Up until most urban areas relied on private contractors for waste disposal, who operated only with the minimum of environmental regulation.
These yards sprang up either in or around many major cities in the nineteenth century, but were particularly characteristic of London. The dust-yards made their money by employing men, women and children to sift and sort through the filth in search of items of value, such as rags and metals. These were then sold to contract merchants. A large proportion of the material that remained after sorting was dust and cinders; where possible these were sold as a fertiliser or fuel source, but where no market existed they were dumped either on land or at sea.
The workers also received marginal reward for their efforts. As a result the dust-yards were increasingly controversial by the end of the nineteenth century. At the same time, the waste continued to grow. The Public Health Act had given local authorities a legal responsibility to remove and dispose of domestic waste. A means, in the eyes of experts, to achieve the perfect removal of waste without resort to either the dust-yard or the tip: the incinerator. For notes completion items, make sure that you stick to the word limit. Do not write extra unnecessary words. Check you have copied the words correctly from the text.
In the final paragraph, what are we told about waste disposal at the end of the nineteenth century? A It was a respected business. B The work was relatively well-paid. C Authorities decided to burn the waste. D Disposal of waste had not yet been regulated. Write the words you chose in the My Opinion column. Write them in the appropriate columns of the table. Put the adjectives into the correct column according to their meaning. The prefix de- often tells us that something is being removed: decaffeinated , deforestation. B Climate change and pollution 2. We are confronting 2 problems that are more taxing than ever before, some of them seemingly insoluble.
Pollution is an obvious example of this affecting our air, water and soil. The air is polluted by 3 produced by cars and industry. Through 4 rain and 5 gases these same 6 fumes can have a devastating impact on our climate. Climate change is arguably the greatest environmental challenge facing our planet with increased storms, floods, 7 and species losses predicted. This will inevitably have a negative impact on 8 and thus our ecosystem. The soil is 9 by factories and power stations which can leave heavy metals in the soil.
Other human activities such as the overdevelopment of land and the clearing of trees also take their toll on the quality of our soil; 10 has been shown to cause soil 11 Certain farming practices can also pollute the land though the use of chemical pesticides and 12 This contamination in turn affects our rivers and waterways and damages life there. The chemicals enter our food chain, moving from fish to mammals to us. Our crops are also grown on land that is far from pristine.
Affected species include the polar bear, so not even the Arctic is immune. Reducing 13 and clearing up pollution costs money. Yet it is our quest for wealth that generates so much of the refuse. There is an urgent need to find a way of life that is less damaging to the Earth. This is not easy, but it is vital, because pollution is pervasive and often life-threatening. Then complete the answers to the questions in 3 using the correct form of the word in brackets. You will need to add prepositions to the words that are underlined.
We have allowed too much 2 pollute to enter our ecosystem and we are 3 danger poisoning ourselves as a result. I think soil 4 erode and water 5 contaminate are two of the most urgent problems that we need to deal with. The government should educate people about these problems and encourage us to change our habits.
They need to show everyone that we are putting the very future of our planet 7 risk. We can also help protect our planet by not using phosphate-based detergents; this will help to keep 10 pollute out of our food chain. Some words beginning with r form their opposite with un realistic, unrealistic. Once they are lost our ecosystem will be changed. Circle the correct stress pattern for the words in italics in these sentences.
Listen to the recording to check your answers and then practise saying the sentences. You should follow a logical sequence and do not miss any stages out. Do not copy words directly from the question paper, instead try to change them. For example, you could use the verb collect instead of the noun collection. Write at least 1 50 words. The flowchart below shows the recycling process of aluminium cans.
A ornate B innovative C traditional D state-of-the-art 3 I wish someone would invent a for opening milk cartons - my family always makes a mess of it! A devise B device C trigger D pulley 4 Although it is an old house, it has been very well A maintained B condemned C occupied D demolished 5 The latest for consumers is a system that allows shoppers to check out their groceries for themselves without having to wait in long queues. A innovate B inventor C innovator D innovation 6 The developers a school on the new housing estate. A build B building C built D built up 7 This machine performs the same as a washing machine but on a much larger scale.
A function B frame C feature D form 8 The Internet allows us to enormous amounts of information without leaving the house. A access B accept C scroll D supply 9 My new fridge has a little screen on the outside that the internal and external temperature. A devises B designs C displays D discovers 10 The whole system has been so we can no longer ask anyone for help.
A by B in C for D on 12 Our new house was designed computer. A by B in C on D with 13 Many big cities today are with inhabitants from all over the world. A culture B cultural C multiculture D multicultural 14 International prices can also have an impact on the market. A domestic B global C urban D worldwide 82 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Test Three Units The graph shows the figures and A of B to C for D about The chart shows the of visitors and their country of origin. A age B ageing C elderly D old We really need to find a way to this issue.
A solve B overcome C prevent D resolve The bad weather and a lack of food simply our problems. A compounded B enhanced C salvaged D transformed Given the rapid growth of our population, there is a need to improve our infrastructure. A huge B catastrophic C pressing D booming If people were more of each other then there would be less fighting. A excluding B exclusive C tolerate D tolerant We all need to responsibility for improving our local community. A have B make C take D give After a few hours of discussion we finally reached a A compromise B promise C situation D solution Some scientists believe that we are in danger running out of oil within ten years.
A from B for C of D to Many jobs are at if the current financial climate continues. A danger B risk C dangerous D threat Cleaning detergent is a common household that can be found in our waterways. A pollution B pollutant C polluter D polluted It is difficult to quantify the that household waste has on the environment. A affect B effort C impact D implication Every household should be more careful in the way that they of waste. A dispose B disposal C eliminate D throw The government have to fine anyone who pollutes the river. A endangered B risked C prevented D threatened 83 1 16 i u he ener Natural resources, alternative fuels H Natural resources 1.
How many trees would you need to plant to offset or make up for the C0 2 emissions produced by the flight? A Hand-wash the clothes in hot water. B Take them to the dry cleaners. C Machine-wash the clothes in cold water. A Keep the lights on as you go from room to room until the job is done. B Turn the lights off every time you leave a room and then on again when you return. Which is the most energy-efficient way of cooking the potato? A Put it in an electric oven to cook slowly for an hour. B Quickly zap it in the microwave. Which of these would be of the most benefit over the course of a year?
A Taking the train instead of driving a car. B Hanging your washing out to dry rather than using the tumble dryer. C Working from home one day a week. Then look at the recording script at the back of the book to check your answers. If we want to 1 energy then we need to change the way we behave. We need to buy appliances that are more energy 2 and limit the amount of time we use them. To reduce the 3 the greenhouse gases have on our 4 we should plant more trees.
Trees can 5 carbon dioxide and so they help to 6 the fumes produced by our cars.