Si necesita datos en su dispositivo mientras viaja, tome precauciones para proteger sus datos. Los individuos pueden hacer lo mismo. En primer lugar, el almacenamiento de datos en la nube implica sus propios riesgos. Por ejemplo, agentes fronterizos y otros funcionarios gubernamentales pueden tratar de buscar en sus datos de nube sin su conocimiento al tratar directamente con el proveedor de servicios.
Dependiendo de sus factores de riesgo, las consecuencias de negarse pueden ser significativas. Si los agentes incautan su dispositivo y lo someten a un examen forense, 8 pueden recuperar cantidades significativas de datos procedentes de un borrado incompleto. Sin embargo, los agentes fronterizos pueden encontrarlo sospechoso si se dan cuenta de que ha eliminado algunos o todos sus datos antes de cruzar la frontera. Debe tener en cuenta que el examen forense normalmente puede recuperar las fotos eliminadas, a menos que el soporte de almacenamiento se haya limpiado con seguridad.
Las copias de seguridad evitan que sus datos se pierdan si su dispositivo es incautado, robado o roto, riesgos que aumentan significativamente durante los viajes internacionales. El cifrado impide que otros usuarios accedan a sus datos en determinados escenarios. Los viajeros siempre deben tener copias de seguridad de sus datos. Puede realizar copias de seguridad de un equipo en un disco duro externo, o en otros medios como DVD-R o en un servidor de archivos casero o de oficina.
Un acercamiento es una frase hecha de varias palabras seleccionadas aleatoriamente por una computadora o echando los dados. Le recomendamos apagar todos sus dispositivos antes de llegar a un punto de control fronterizo. Si usted toma este enfoque, tiene algunas opciones. Mentir a los agentes fronterizos puede ser un delito grave, y los agentes pueden tener un concepto muy vago de lo que constituye una mentira.
Sin embargo, los agentes pueden escalar el encuentro si se niega. Si usted es un visitante extranjero, los agentes pueden negarle la entrada. Sin embargo, algunos viajeros pueden querer evitar cualquier riesgo de escalada, si pueden. Tercero, no mientas a un agente fronterizo. Esto incluye cumplir con las demandas para abrir su equipaje o entregar sus dispositivos digitales. Del mismo modo, el viajero puede objetar que los dispositivos pertenecen a su empleador, y que el agente debe hablar con los abogados de su empleador si quieren buscar los dispositivos.
Pero lleva riesgos. Es posible que desee presentar una queja con, o buscar ayuda del gobierno. In this section we address the legal framework that allows, and limits, border searches and seizures. The law in this area is evolving and adapting, imperfectly, to technological changes, creating uncertainty for travelers and government agents alike.
EFF is fighting in the courts and in legislatures to resolve that uncertainty and ensure that travelers can count on strong protections for their digital rights at the border. As a general principle, government agents at the U. Most of the time, border agents exercise these powers on travelers arriving in the United States, but they sometimes apply them to travelers leaving the United States as well. However, the U.
The powers of border agents are tempered by our Fourth Amendment right to digital privacy, our First Amendment rights to speak and associate privately and to gather the news, our Fifth Amendment right to freedom from self-incrimination, and our Fourteenth Amendment right to freedom from discrimination.
The Fourth Amendment to the U. Constitution is the primary protector of individual privacy against government intrusion. The Court presumes that warrantless and suspicionless border searches are critical to:. Cotterman , the U. One year later, however, in Riley v.
California , the Supreme Court held that the police had to obtain a probable cause warrant to search the cell phone of an individual under arrest. In short, the police invoked an exception to the Fourth Amendment similar to the border search exception. No appellate court has yet applied the Riley decision in the border context, but the Supreme Court itself has recognized that the search-incident-to-arrest exception invoked by the government in Riley is similar to the border search exception.
In both the Cotterman and Riley cases, courts stressed the significant privacy interests in all the data modern digital devices contain—call logs, emails, text messages, voicemails, browsing history, calendar entries, contact lists, shopping lists, personal notes, photos and videos, geolocation logs, and other personal files. Both courts also raised special concerns about the government accessing cloud content via digital devices. The Ninth Circuit in Cotterman stated:. Therefore, to the extent that border searches of digital devices access cloud data, the privacy interests are even more significant.
Given these interests, the border search exception should not apply. Border agents may establish permanent checkpoints on roads that are miles away from the international border, where agents may stop motorists for brief questioning, even in the absence of any individualized suspicion. When border agents scrutinize the massive volume of sensitive information in our digital devices, they infringe on our First Amendment rights in at least four distinct ways.
First, border searches of digital devices may intrude on the First Amendment right to speak anonymously. This includes the right to use a pseudonymous social media handle. Second, border searches of digital devices may disclose private membership in expressive associations, like being part of a political group or social club. The First Amendment protects the right to join together with other people to advance a shared message. Third, border searches of digital devices may reveal the private decisions that travelers make to acquire expressive materials, such as books and movies.
The First Amendment protects the right to receive information, 44 and to do so without telling the government what we are reading and watching. Fourth, border searches of digital devices may disclose confidential journalistic sources and work product. This burdens the First Amendment right to freedom of the press, specifically the ability to maintain the integrity and independence of the newsgathering process. To protect these First Amendment interests, border agents should be required to get a warrant supported by probable cause before searching digital devices.
Indeed, when police officers demand records from booksellers, for example, about the purchases of individual customers, courts have held that an ordinary probable cause warrant is not enough. Instead, the First Amendment requires police to additionally show a compelling need, the exhaustion of less restrictive investigative methods, and a substantial nexus between the information sought and the investigation. The reason for this protection is simple: government snooping will chill and deter First Amendment activity.
Rather than risk border agent examination, many people will refrain from anonymous speech, from private membership in political groups, or from downloading certain reading material. This is especially true for people who belong to unpopular groups, who espouse unpopular opinions, or who read unpopular books. Likewise, confidential sources who provide invaluable information to the public about government or corporate malfeasance may refrain from whistleblowing if they fear journalists cannot protect their identities during border crossings.
Unfortunately some courts have rejected First Amendment challenges to border searches of digital devices. Only a judge, and not a border agent, can decide whether the Fifth Amendment protects this information. Second, when the data on a device is encrypted, the process of decryption is also testimonial, because it comprises the translation of otherwise unintelligible evidence into a form that investigators can understand.
However, many courts have instead adopted a lesser, but still strong, test. Sadly, other courts have adopted a weak test, under which the government need only show that the suspect knows the password. Properly construed, the Fifth Amendment should offer the same protections when people use fingerprints or other biometrics to secure their devices. Unfortunately, some courts though not all have held that fingerprints, unlike passwords, are not part of the contents of our minds, and thus fall outside Fifth Amendment protection.
Thus, fingerprints are less secure—both legally and technically—than passwords. You should consider using a password and not a fingerprint to lock or encrypt your digital devices. Border agents may not decide whether to search or seize a traveler's digital devices, based on the traveler's religion, ethnicity, or similar characteristics. The Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment prohibits the government from discriminating on the basis of factors such as race, religion, national origin, gender, and sexual orientation. The constitutional protections described above can be waived.
For example, the Fourth Amendment allows law enforcement officials to search people or their property if those people voluntarily consent to the search. However, courts may rule otherwise. It is possible that if you unlock your device, and agents then search your device, a court will rule that you consented to the search. It will depend upon the totality of the unique circumstances surrounding your particular border crossing.
EFF believes the U. However, U. Foreign visitors have the fewest rights. For example, if a border agent refuses to allow them to enter the country, some may have no constitutional right to procedural due process notice and a hearing to challenge the exclusion. Lawful permanent residents LPRs or green card holders enjoy more constitutional protection. For example, if LPRs are denied re-entry, they may have a constitutional right to procedural due process under the Fifth Amendment, depending on such factors as the duration of their trip.
Constitutional protections do apply if the U. Foreign citizens should consult with a lawyer before they travel if they have questions about their legal rights at the U. Also, to make it easier to communicate with a lawyer during a potential border detention, foreign citizens should complete a Form G before they travel. The U.
Department of Homeland Security DHS is responsible for securing the nation from threats, including border security. CBP manages and controls the U. On a typical day, it screens nearly one million visitors at the U. ICE investigates and enforces federal laws governing border control, customs, trade, and immigration. However, when CBP officers seize an electronic device at the border, they sometimes turn it over to ICE for further investigation.
The CBP policy empowers border agents to search devices, and authorized third parties to assist them, citing 19 U. Most importantly, a statute cannot strip travelers of their constitutional liberties. In , ICE issued a similar policy. In December , the federal government took a big step in this direction. The VWP enables citizens of dozens of participating countries to visit the U. EFF and many other digital liberty organizations objected to this new policy. We also warned that this new policy is a major step towards mandatory disclosure not just voluntary of all private and public social media content not just public from all travelers not just foreign citizens from VWP countries.
Our fears came true faster than we expected. This primer on digital security technology provides a deeper dive into encryption and passwords, secure deletion, and cloud storage. Please note that while we discuss some specific services here, EFF does not endorse any particular technology or vendor. Encryption technologies can make stored information unintelligible to anyone who does not know the password. Encryption is especially valuable for portable devices because it reduces the chances of someone else getting access to your data without your knowledge if your device is seized, lost, or stolen.
Having to enter a password to use your device is not necessarily the same as having encryption. Many devices offer screen locks, for example, but nothing more. If you have a screen lock without encryption, an expert can bypass it in various ways and get access to your information without knowing the password. We encourage you to ensure that your screen lock is set to the most protective setting available on each device.
For example, protective options on phones, laptops, or tablets might include: locking automatically after a period of inactivity, locking the screen at start-up or requiring you to log in, always requiring a password to unlock, not allowing unlock with a fingerprint, and limiting the rate or number of attempted password guesses. Having a screen-lock or user account password is a security benefit, and is much better than nothing if your device absolutely does not support encryption.
But without encryption, experts will ultimately be able to bypass the password without your help. The encryption technologies that are available to you will depend on your device and operating system. If it is available, the safest and easiest way to encrypt is to use built-in full-disk full-device encryption, as opposed to encrypting individual files or virtual folders on a device. If that is true for your devices, you may still want to upgrade the strength of your password to maximize the security benefits.
Android : some devices since Android 4. If you do not want Microsoft to be able to decrypt your Windows device, you can opt out of this feature. Linux : a built-in disk encryption system, called dm-crypt, has been in most distributions since the mids. Activating encryption for the first time on your device can take a considerable amount of time because all of your data must be rewritten in encrypted form. It may take over an hour on some devices, so you may want to just let the process run overnight, with the device plugged in to AC power. On most systems, if encryption is not already enabled, you can do it yourself.
You will be prompted to provide an encryption password. It may be different from the password you ordinarily use to log in or unlock the screen, and is sometimes only required when you power on the device. These details vary significantly from device to device. On some devices, such as iOS devices, your encryption password is always the same as your regular unlock password, and it is used both to unlock the screen and to decrypt the storage media.
Strong passwords are critical for encryption. With some devices that do not use special hardware to limit password guesses, someone trying to crack your encryption can use a separate computer to try trillions of guesses very quickly. Such attacks can crack a word or phrase that appears in a dictionary, or that could be predicted by some kind of rule like changing certain letters into digits or punctuation marks , or any password shorter than about a dozen characters.
There are many ways to create long, unpredictable, yet memorable passwords. One approach is to choose a phrase made of several random words, which can be selected by a computer or by rolling dice. You may then be able to make up a mental story or mnemonic about these words to help you remember them. There are other methods of making long, memorable passphrases, often based on sentences that you make up and then modify in some way.
You should not use a phrase that has been published anywhere, such as a sentence in a book or song lyric. Computers can easily guess such phrases. This could allow a shorter, simpler password to be secure in practice because an attacker can no longer try huge numbers of passwords quickly. However, we do not suggest relying on this because it can be hard to know what protections you get from the hardware and when. A risk of encrypting your device is that nobody including the device maker! This is worth repeating because it is a very significant risk: Forgetting your encryption password will permanently lock you out of the data on your device, and a technology specialist or manufacturer cannot bypass this.
This risk of losing access to your data makes it especially important to make regular backups. As we mentioned in Part 1 , you should turn off your device before arriving at the border or any other risky situation. For a laptop, that means shut down, not just suspend or hibernate by closing the lid! This protects against several sophisticated attacks that could potentially extract the secret key or bypass the screen lock on a powered-on device.
Many travelers may choose to delete things on their devices that they do not want others to see, or sensitive information that they know they will not need during their trips. This section discusses the possibility that data may not be permanently deleted, and some options for more thoroughly wiping devices. As noted in Part 1 , there is a difference between what a border agent can glean from a casual inspection of your device by tapping around or using the keyboard and mouse and what can be determined by some forms of forensic examination.
CBP and other law enforcement agencies have access to sophisticated forensic tools and experts. That means a forensic examination can, among other things, commonly recover deleted files and data and reconstruct information about how you have used your device in the past, even if that information is not apparent at all from a casual inspection. For example, forensic examinations routinely find deleted e-mails, files, and text messages, and also reveal the earlier presence and use of applications that have been uninstalled.
Many mobile devices also store information about how and when they were used. For example, mobile apps on a phone may have historic GPS information showing where you were at certain times in the past. A laptop or phone may have logs about when it was powered on, or the names of the wi-fi networks it has connected to.
Sometimes, some kinds of activity log information are hidden from the user by default but can still be extracted and analyzed by a forensic expert. There are tools that try to expunge information from storage media in ways that cannot be recovered by forensics.
Most devices do not come with these tools. Their effectiveness varies widely, and it will usually be clear to a forensic examiner that they were used. Factory resetting your device may sometimes also fall in this category if appropriate encryption was used. Note that border agents may notice, and regard as suspicious, a wipe or factory reset of your device, since most travelers do not routinely carry blank devices.
Crossing the border with a blank device can be especially risky for non-citizens. Note also that truly secure deletion is irreversible and may be technically challenging for some travelers. Consider carefully whether you are comfortable deleting the information on your device. If possible, make sure you have made a backup copy of any important data before deletion, and leave that copy in a secure location. Some secure deletion tools delete individual files, overwriting their contents so that they cannot be recovered.
There are several things that can go wrong here: the most important is that references to the deleted files and their names may still exist, and so may temporary copies that software previously made while working with the files. It is safer, if possible, to delete an entire storage medium, although this may make a device unusable. Secure deletion is easiest on laptops, and hardest on phones and tablets. It may be relatively achievable for digital cameras by taking out the memory card and wiping it in a laptop. When used on an encrypted device, they may succeed in removing substantially all of the information from the device, although border agents could regard this as suspicious.
If you want to know for sure what information a factory reset will remove, you should consult the device manufacturer. Many devices have a removable memory card, like an SD card, which is used to store photos and other information. Factory reset often does not erase the removable memory card, so you should remove and wipe it separately, or swap it out for a new, blank memory card. If your device offers an account-based cloud sync feature—such as iCloud—you may be able to sync your device before crossing the border, then factory reset it, then re-associate the device with your account and re-sync it after crossing the border.
Make sure that the sync includes all of the data that you care about so that you do not lose anything important. However, keep in mind that re-syncing the device may take a long time and require downloading a lot of data, and thus require a reliable broadband Internet connection. A laptop can wipe its own hard drive, or removable storage media like USB drives or SD cards, by overwriting their contents.
Formatting tools let you choose between a quick format and a secure overwriting format. You should already have built-in tools that can already perform a low-level format or wipe a hard drive, or you may download third-party tools to do this. You should refer to the instructions for your operating system for securely wiping the hard drive. After wiping a hard drive, you may need to reinstall the operating system before you can use the device again.
Again, this technique can be especially risky for non-citizens since it is highly unusual for travelers to carry blank devices with them.
For reasons noted above, trying to delete individual files, even using special secure deletion tools, may not produce the results you expect. Fragments of the files, or references to them, may still be present elsewhere on your system. Nonetheless, if you want to attempt this, we have described tools for this purpose in articles at:. References to those files may still exist elsewhere on your computer, and it will be clear to a forensic examiner that you chose to clear the free space.
Some kinds of storage media based on flash memory technology have special issues related to forensics and data recovery. If you are concerned about it, consider overwriting flash memory devices multiple times, not carrying them across the border, or consulting an expert on storage technology or computer forensics. Full-disk or full-device encryption can make secure deletion easier and more effective because wiping the only copy of the decryption keys should make the rest of the information on the device unreadable as a whole.
This appears to be part of the functionality of a factory reset on iOS devices or a power wash on Chromebooks, which in turn means these devices can more easily and effectively be purged of their contents than other devices. Whether or not a device has been wiped, full-device encryption can hinder or entirely prevent forensic analysis of its contents, if it is used correctly in accordance with other precautions, powering the device off, using a long and hard-to-guess passphrase, and not storing a copy of the passphrase somewhere where the examiner can later get a hold of it.
We are often reluctant to suggest storing data with online cloud services, because U. But in the border search context, the situation may be temporarily reversed: information that you have stored online may be more protected than information on a device you are carrying with you—because you are not carrying it across the border.
There are also many third-party options. Wikipedia offers comparisons of these services based on many factors:. Cloud storage is useful as a means to back up your data to prevent against data loss in case your device is seized, lost, or stolen. It can also be useful as part of a strategy for shifting data online so that it is not present on your computer while you are crossing the border.
It may also be feasible to store data online-only rather than keeping it on your computer at all. Since June , Breier has worked for the State Department as a member of policy planning staff covering the Western Hemisphere. According to Foreign Policy , Secretary of State Rex Tillerson was considering career diplomat William Brownfield to fill the assistant secretary of state for Western Hemisphere affairs post. But the rumor that he would be stepping down soon from his current post as Assistant Secretary of State for the Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, was true.
Foreign Service. In , he was appointed Assistant Secretary of State for the Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, a position that without a doubt increases his chances of filling the post, given his extensive experience in dealing with illicit drugs, organized crime, law enforcement and rule of law. Brownfield has also served as U. Southern Command.
Known for his humorous style and big personality what could be described as diplomacy by disarming goofiness , Brownfield is a seasoned diplomat and has served in some of the most difficult posts in the hemisphere and done so ably. Before being a senior advisor, she worked as a staff member for the Committee and Staff Director for the Western Hemisphere subcommittee.
He was a co-founder and director of the U. Despite having a long career as an advocate for stricter U. Before reaching the U. He has provided expert testimony before the U. As an attorney, he served with the U. He has been a foreign service officer since July according to LinkedIn. In February 17, Mr. Nevertheless, this is what we know about the dearly departed Dr. A professor, Dr. Deare was the Dean of Academic Affairs from to Deare served in the U. Army for 20 years, with a variety of assignments specializing in military intelligence and Latin America foreign area officer. He retired from the army as a Lieutenant Colonel and is an expert on Mexico.
Deare has published in a number of academic and policy focused journals. He also has a forthcoming book, due out in March , on U. Deare received his B. He is also a graduate of the U. On June 10, , Ken Cuccinelli began his duties as the new director of U.
The George Washington University. Abstract: The theme of Anarchism, particularly of Anarchist terrorism, has been very present in Spanish literature. The Batista's repression of revolutionaries had earned him widespread unpopularity, and by , his armies were in retreat. Castro retaliated strongly against such accusations, proclaiming that "revolutionary justice is not based on legal precepts, but on moral conviction". Oficinas gubernamentales que pueden ayudarle Es posible que desee presentar una queja con, o buscar ayuda del gobierno. The exiled Poles in Spain were grouped especially around Catholic parishes, sometimes with their own chaplains, and had the help of the Polish Red Cross and the Association of Aid to the Poles, both with a delegation in Spain.
Cuccinelli would replace L. Francis Cissna, head of United States Citizenship and Immigration Services, who has submitted to pressure to step down. In , Cuccinelli ran for Governor of Virginia as the Republican nominee, but lost As reported by the site Freedom Works , as Attorney General, Cuccinelli actively defended the Commonwealth against federal government overreach. Prior to his position as attorney general, in , Cuccinelli entered and won the special election to fill the Virginia State Senate seat in the 37th District.
Cuccinelli holds a B. Carlos E. Diaz-Rosillo has reportedly been a faculty member at Harvard f or over eight years. His research focuses on the American presidency and examines the different instruments of power that chief executives have at their disposal to affect policy. Diaz-Rosillo was also on the executive board of the University of St. Downie has over 35 years of experience leading military, civilian government and private sector organizations.
As Director SES-3 level , he led courses, seminars and conferences, as well as security dialogues and strategy workshops for ministries of defense and cabinet-level national leaders. He has held a wide variety of command and staff positions as an Infantryman and a Foreign Area Officer specializing in Latin America. Benning, Georgia. In the private sector, he has served as strategist and business developer for defense and security programs and is a frequent commentator and analyst on international affairs for both English and Spanish language media outlets.
Downie authored the book, Learning from Conflict: The U. He has a variety of U. Military Academy, West Point, and a M. A and Ph. Fitzpatrick as the United States Ambassador to Ecuador.
Fitzpatrick has served as a foreign service officer since He has previously served as the interim U. He holds a B. Fitzpatrick speaks French and Spanish fluently. Gellert is currently President of Gellert Global Group, a food-importing business. Gellert has deep financial ties with the Kushner family. Andrew Gellert has no diplomatic experience and speaks only basic Spanish. However, he has done business in Chile since at least , when his family purchased J.
He earned his B. Before establishing C. Glazer served his country as an officer in the U. Ambassador Glazer received a B. As reported by Global Americans, in late , Goldberg was named to head the U. Goldberg also served as the US ambassador to Bolivia for two years before its leftwing president, Evo Morales, accused him of fomenting dissent in and ordered him to leave the country.
If confirmed, Goldberg will likely back U.
Goldberg has served as Ambassador to Bolivia from to Embassy in Santiago, Chile from to Ambassador to El Salvador. Last Tuesday, the confirmation process resumed with a hearing at the U. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. In such hearing, Mr. Johnson spoke of the importance of working together with the newly elected government to fight the transnational crime affecting El Salvador.
Johnson also said that if he succeeds Amb. Ronald Johnson, has served the United States government for over three decades , first as an officer in the U. Army, and then as a member of the intelligence community. At present, Mr. Special Operations Command, in Tampa, Florida. Previously, he was Special Advisor to the U. He had substantive engagement on a wide range of regional issues including refugees, counter-narcotics, counter terrorism, human rights and tropical virus disease control.
He lived in Latin America for over five years and traveled extensively throughout the region. Johnson also held various other assignments, including as the Deputy Special Advisor to the Commander, U. Johnson served in the U. Army from to and retired as a Colonel. Prior to that, he had served in the Alabama Army National Guard, enlisting as a private in and reaching the rank of Captain before going on to active duty in the Army in Johnson earned his B. He is the recipient of numerous awards for his service, and is fluent in Spanish. Having earned a masters in National Security Studies from Georgetown, General Kelly has a long history of work in the region during his 30 plus year career in the U.
Marine Corps. On other issues, General Kelly has struck a more moderate tone. He often frames issues of drug flows over the Mexican border in terms of the impact on Central American societies. In mid-November , administration sources revealed to Global Americans that Christopher Landau would be the next U. Ambassador to Mexico, a post that has been empty since Obama appointee Roberta Jacobson left the role in May On March 18, , the White House announced that it would nominate several key administration posts.
Landau is a constitutional and appellate attorney who has briefed and argued appeals before the United States Supreme Court, Federal courts of appeals, and State appellate courts. In , the Chief Justice appointed Mr. Earlier in his career, Mr. If approved by the Senate, Landau would come to the critical diplomatic post with no prior experience in the foreign service, though his father, George Landau, served as U. Ambassador to Paraguay , Chile , and Venezuela , and he reportedly spent much of his childhood in the region.
Landau earned his A. He is fluent in Spanish.
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Career diplomat Joseph E. Macmanus has been nominated as Ambassador to Colombia. Macmanus has been serving as the Executive Secretary of the State department since , and prior to that was the U. Macmanus received a B. If confirmed by the Senate he will replace Ambassador Kevin Whitaker. Previously, Ms. During a year career in foreign and national security policy, she has worked on issues relating to governance, counter-narcotics, and counter-terrorism for the U. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, the U. Coast Guard, U. In the U. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, Ms.
Madison was a senior professional staff member from , after which she shortly served as senior advisor to former OAS Secretary General Cesar Gaviria in Madison holds a B. Kevin K. McAleenan has lengthy experience in U. On March 20, , he was sworn Commissioner of U. Customs and Border Protection. CBP is the largest law enforcement agency and the second-largest revenue collecting source in the federal government.
McAleenan has previously held several leadership positions at CBP and one of its legacy agencies, the U. Customs Service. He also received the Service to America Medal, Call to Service Award, in for spearheading efforts to develop and implement a comprehensive antiterrorism strategy in the border security context after September 11, McAleenan has been a member of the U. Prior to government service, Mr. McAleenan practiced law in California. Embassy in Caracas, Venezuela. Information Agency in McClenny has also been assigned to U.
He received a B. Morgan had been acting director of the U. In this capacity, Morgan pushed for nationwide deportation raids supported by President Trump. For weeks he had signaled a heightened focus on deporting families from the agency, telling reporters that agents would target more than 2, immigrant family members who already had deportation orders. Toward the end of the Obama administration, Morgan was head of U.
Border Patrol until President Trump forced him out in He stayed at the FBI for over two decades and in , while still at the FBI, joined Customs and Border Protection as the acting assistant commissioner for internal affairs. Pedrosa has also served as an attorney in the enforcement division of the Securities and Exchange Commission. Originally from Thomaston, Georgia, Jon B.
Perdue is a researcher and analyst on issues of international terrorism, human rights, strategic communication, and peripheral asymmetric warfare. Many of his allegations were never confirmed by independent sources. Perhaps more important, though, Pompeo counts with ample public-sector experience, and allegedly has more of a personal relationship with President Trump than his predecessor, Rex Tillerson.
Celina Realuyo is a professor of practice at the William J. After the September 11, attacks, she returned to government, where she managed a multimillion dollar foreign assistance program aimed at safeguarding financial systems against terrorist financing. Under her stewardship, the U. Prior to returning to Washington, Celina was a private banker in London with Goldman Sachs International providing strategic wealth advisory services to the most prominent families in Europe.
Previously, she had a distinguished career as a U. Prior to holding the mayorship, Regalado was City Commissioner from to Robinson was the former U. Ambassador to Guatemala. The decision comes at a critical time for U. For the last three years Robinson has served as the U.
Ambassador to Guatemala, where he earned a reputation for being tough on corruption. Robinson has been a vocal supporter of the UN backed International Commission against Impunity in Guatemala that has been an effective tool to fight corruption in the country. From to , he served as Deputy Chief of Mission at the U. Embassy in Guatemala. Embassy in Tirana, Albania. Robinson was a professional journalist before joining the foreign service. He graduated from the Georgetown University Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service in Originally from Miami, Florida, Dr.
For almost two decades she worked for the U. House of Representatives under different roles. During her time at the Foreign Affairs Committee, Mrs. Poblete worked on legislation to impose sanctions to Iran and Syria, halt U. She has written about U. She is a firm believer in the theory that terrorist groups are infiltrating Latin America to target the United States.