Many of its members fled to the Swiss canton of Grigioni. Others continued to practise their faith secretly and largely independently within Italy until the end of the sixteenth century. Some exiles, those who maintained the rational spirit of the Renaissance, felt unable to submit to Protestant orthodoxy.
He would retain his interest in, and continue to publish on these themes throughout his life. He realised that this illusive figure was in fact Francesco Pucci. Both were published in the late s. Instead, he was concerned with reconstructing aspects of the biographies of individual Italian thinkers, tracing their intellectual development and contribution whilst in exile.
Baldini has noted, although Firpo produced studies of a number of historical fig- ures, including Pucci, Bruno and Machiavelli, most, if not all, of them originated from his interest in the Calabrian friar; see, Baldini A. In the first of a series of articles treating the ecclesiastical censorship of philosophy, pub- lished in the early s, he described the enervating effects of the Counter Reformation. From the mid-sixteenth century the Church, seeking to reassert its diminished authority, became increasingly intolerant. Using the Inquisition to pursue living, active heretics, and the Index of Forbidden Books to repress the circulation of ideas including those of the dead, the Church placed unprec- edented restrictions on liberty.
Under the pontificate of Pius V —72 , the severity of the repression increased markedly. During this period, it executed a number of leading Italian reformers, such as Pietro Carnesecchi. Since even Nicodemism was now untenable, the survivors were faced with a choice be- tween conformity or exile. Many, including historically significant figures such as Fausto Sozzini and Bruno, chose to leave. By this time, popular heresy in Italy has been supressed, the Turkish incursions of Christian territory halted, and the religious future of France secured by the conversion of Henri IV.
Following these successes, the Church became yet more intransigent, but not, Firpo maintained, as an instrument, but as a consequence of its success. It extended its surveillance into spheres of human activity that had previously been beyond its purview. Notably, it led to the suppression of a new style of Italian philoso- phy, born of the rejection of conventional Aristotelianism. It was brought to a violent conclusion by the execution of two recently returned exiles: Bruno and Pucci.
La concezione politica di Tommaso Campanella (Italian Edition) - Kindle edition by Giuseppe De Vita. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC. La concezione etico-pedagogica della politica in Tommaso Campanella. Analisi del pensiero Analisi del pensiero (Italian) Paperback – by Giuseppe.
He considered their executions significant because they marked a tragic end to the lives of two leading Italian intellectuals. By relating their stories, Firpo drew tacit comparisons between the histories of Northern Europe and Italy. Whilst one region enjoyed relative freedom, the other en- dured increasing levels of intolerance. Firpo did not argue that Northern Europe offered Bruno and Pucci, or indeed anyone else, complete freedom of expression.
I have published extensively in a total of 24 languages including translations. In the Communist Reds were victorious and formed the Soviet Union. Papers are accepted both in Italian and in English. These sources may include some of the assigned readings, but must also evidence original research. Through the presentations and ensuing discussion, the session will help to identify exemplary projects and practices that serve the best interests and needs of the community. Quaderni d'italianistica. Next to a peaceful village with colourful houses, I have placed photographs taken from a video which I made while interviewing some inhabitants of Tierra del Fuego.
He made clear that the communities in which Pucci lived never fully accepted him. He nevertheless also related several examples of limited forms of toleration afforded to Pucci. In exile both Pucci and Bruno had devel- oped ideas of universal importance, but upon their return to their homeland they were executed for having expressed them. This was a unique historical moment when levels of intolerance peaked, extinguishing free philo- sophical speculation and condemning the nation to decadence.
Their interpretations have been the point of departure for numerous stud- ies that have further enhanced our understanding of the religious history of sixteenth-century Italy and its continued influence. A clear narrative informed their work, however. This narrative also framed their accounts of the sixteenth-century Italian diaspora. Croce, Cantimori and Firpo only told the stories of those exiles who contributed to this great intellectual ferment, and so did not con- sider the contributions that Italians may have made to fields such as art, music, or engineering.
On the one hand, it has encouraged a tendency exclusive- ly to associate putatively modern values with the exile community. To take one example, Pucci continues to be presented as a proponent of religious toleration and, more broadly, a harbinger of moder- nity. As I have argued elsewhere, it is possible to characterise his ideas in this manner only if they, and the context in which they were produced, are mis- represented. By studying their writings anew we can appreciate the continued importance of their many lessons, whilst si- multaneously reconsidering the viability of their wider narrative.
Acknowledgements I would like to thank the editors of the volume and the participants of the workshop Fruits of Migration: Heterodox Italian Migrants and Central European culture — for their helpful comments. I would also like to thank Dermot Fenlon and Antonio Clericuzio for reading and commenting on earlier versions of this essay. All remaining mistakes are my own. Baldini A. Bellamy R. Cantimori D. Prosperi Turin: and Croce B. Pensiero, poesia e letteratura, vita morale, 2nd ed. Bari: Firpo L. Firpo M. Garin E. Gli hegeliani di Napoli e la costruzione dello stato unitario Naples: Grilli M.
Pertici R. Prosperi A. Prosperi Turin: Sasso G. Spaventa B. Gentile Bari: Tarrant N. Tedeschi J. Turi G. Related Papers. By clemente ancona. In: Fruits of Migration. Lavenia, Leiden-Boston, Brill, , pp.
By Margherita Palumbo. English as Translator Moraes, Anselmo de Supplemento ao n. Chronicle of the Cid English as Author of introduction, etc. English as Contributor Morley, S. Ochoa, Enrique Azul I Italian as Author Il Nemico, vol. Charles , Pacheco, C. I Italian as Author Poesie inedite vol. I Italian as Author Memorie di Giuda, vol.
Pitollet, Camille, V. Joseph Vila See: Prichard, J. Quesada, Louise Charlotte Garstin, ? Italian as Author Raitio, K. Charles M. French as Author Les Idoles d'argile. French as Author Reyes, Arturo, La voz de la conseja, t. English as Contributor Amadis of Gaul, Vol. English as Contributor Rodriguez, Fr. Antero de Quental dirigiu ao sr.
Percy Bolingbroke See: St. French as Author La Daniella, Vol. Tobias , The Works of Voltaire, Vol. Antonio Augusto See: Passos, A.
Sommer, H. English as Translator Amadis of Gaul, Vol. The Miracle of the Great St. Stephen G. Elektitaj fabloj de J. Louis , Aventures extraordinaires d'un savant russe II. Les Flamandes. Erster Band. German as Author Der Findling. Zweiter Band. See: Argyropoulos, K. Spiritual and Demonic Magic from Ficino to Campanella.
Reprinted, with an introduction by Brian P. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. July 1, Retrieved July 01, from Encyclopedia. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia. In 2. After his early philosophical studies, based on Aristotle, Campanilla moved to the Dominican house at Cosenza in to study theology.
Telesii Rome, During this time he put forward his Telesian views more and more openly. Thus began a long series of imprisonments, trials, tortures, and other punishments that ended only with his release in His internment, in Naples - and in Rome — , was sometimes under the most brutal conditions, while at other times he was allowed a certain degree of freedom for writing, reading, having visitors, and teaching. During these years Campanella continued his studies as far as was possible, and a number of manuscripts were smuggled out of prison to be published in Germany.
They could not be issued in Italy, owing to the regulations imposed by the Inquisition. He fled Rome before he could be arrested, reaching Aix-en-Provence in November ; there he was enthusiastically received by Peiresc and Gassendi, who had known of him and his work for some years. A few months later Campanella arrived in Paris, There Cardinal Richelieu came to his aid and helped him in various ways for the rest of his life, and he was also received at the court of Louis XIII.
Finally accorded the honor he had been denied in Italy for so long, Campanella spent his last years writing and preparing for the press numerous works, which could be published in France with official approval. He died in the Dominican convent on Rue St. Although perhaps best known for work on political philosophy Civitas solis and metaphysics, he also wrote on most of the other branches of the comprehensive seventeenth-century philosophy cursus. Although trained as a Dominican, Campanella very early recognized the limitations of Aristotelian philosophy and science, and a strong anti-Aristotelian tendency can be seen throughout his works.
From it he derived a number of key principles, such as the reduction of active forces operating in the universe to those of heat and cold, and the conception of a void space in which natural events take place. Like Ficino and others before him, he viewed man as composed of the triad body- spiritus -soul.
This position gave him scope to place man in a macrocosm-microcosm framework in which the use of magic and astrology could play a central interpretive role. Like Ficino, but unlike Telesio, his world view allowed a key position to astrology and pseudoscience, as evidenced by works such as De sensu rerum et magia and Astrologi- corum libri VII In addition to his interests in the astrological side of stellar phenomena. Campanella was a sup-porter of the Copernican system as defended by Galileo. In several works, principally the Apologia pro Galilaeo , he sided with the embattled Florentine, not only in supporting the Copernican theory but also on broader issues, including those involving the competing claims of religion and science.
Like Galileo, Campanella held that natural truth was not revealed in Scripture, but in the physical world. Thus the study of natural phenomena was seen as an important step toward theological understanding. Science and theology were to be clearly distinguished, however; both led to an understanding of God, who had revealed Himself in two books codices , Nature and Scripture. While Galileo was essentially satisfied with an understanding of natural, physical reality, Campanella endeavored to go beyond this and to find the ultimate metaphysical truth of things.
Again like Galileo, Campanella stressed —unfortunately for him, counter to the dominant opinion of his fellow Italians—the necessity of a libertas philosophandi. He was perhaps the first to use this particular formulation, later popularized by Spinoza and others. Iconoclastic and antitraditional, he attempted to provide a new system of natural knowledge based on the empirical, Neoplatonic, and astrological traditions at his disposal.
While scientific knowledge played a more important role in his thought than most interpreters have admitted, it was basically subjugated to his very strong metaphysical and theological orientation, which aimed for ultimate causal explanations of physical phenomena. Owing to the circumstances of his life, many of his writings were destroyed; others were rewritten several times in various forms ; some were circulated or even published without his knowledge; and others remained hidden until recent times.
All of this makes for a very confusing state of affairs that is impossible to cover briefly yet in detail. For a thorough treatment see L.
Firpo, Bibliografia degli scritti di Tommaso Campanella Turin, , and his biographical article cited below. Bruers, ed. Bari, ; Apologia pro Galilaeo Frankfurt, , repr. Spampanato, ed. Bari, ; Mathematica, R. Amerio, ed. Ottaviano, ed. Rome, Secondary Literature The literature on Campanella is vast, and the reader is referred to the following bibliogarphies by L.
Still fundamental are L. Amabile, Fra Tommaso Campanella , la sua congiuria, isuoi processi e la sua pazzia, 3 vols. Naples, Also see L. Firpo, Ricerche campanelliane Florence, Of the vast interpretive literature, the more importance studies include the following, listed chronologically: L. Blanchet, Campanella m Paris, ; G. Corsano, Tommaso Campnella Bari, ; N. Badaloni, Tommaso Campanella Milan, ; and G.
Anumber of publication appeared in connection with the th anniversary of his birth, including Tommaso Campanella — Naples, The Italian philosopher, political theorist, and poet Tommaso Campanella was persecuted for his attempts to achieve utopian reforms. In Naples he made his first contact with the anti-Aristotelian doctrines of Bernardino Telesio. In , after his first ecclesiastical trial, he was sentenced to return to his province and to abandon his Telesian sympathies.
Campanella instead set out for the north, sojourning briefly in Rome, Florence, Bologna, and Padua.
Between and he suffered several minor trials and periods of imprisonment on a number of charges. After Campanella was released from prison in , he passed the next few years in apparent quiet in a small monastery at Stilo. But this was actually a period of febrile secret activity. Campanella became the head of a conspiracy to overthrow the despotic Spanish rule of impoverished southern Italy and replace it with a theocratic republic, with himself as supreme priest and king.
The plot was savagely repressed, and in he was sentenced to perpetual imprisonment. The subsequent 24 years of Campanella's life were spent in the bowels of various Neapolitan dungeons. Despite discomforts and privations, this was a period of incredible literary productivity for Campanella, and many of his major works the Metaphysica, the Monarchia Messiae, the Atheismus triumphatus, the Apologia pro Galileo, and others date from this period.
His best-known work, Civitas solis The City of the Sun , was completed in This utopian work was based on Plato's Republic, and it presented Campanella's principal political ideal— universal theocratic monarchy, with its supreme head either the pope or the Spanish king. Regardless of who the ruler might be, the underlying principle remained constant: peace and well-being were impossible without unity. In , by order of the Spanish viceroy, Campanella was released from prison.
When he reached Rome, he was imprisoned by the Pope but was soon freed. But the Curia's opposition to him because of his open defense of Galileo and his outspoken views, together with Spanish hostility, rendered his position in Rome precarious. Fearing further persecution, he fled from Rome in October and found refuge in France, where he was warmly welcomed in scholarly circles and at court.