Then Humberto Costa submitted his in another situation, and his bill was discretely approved in the Education Commission. However, as Humberto Costa was not reelected as a Lower-house representative, what happened? His bill was filed. When a representative does not come back for another term and one of their projects is not approved in more than one commission, for example, in order to go further, their project is filed. A lot of bills is approved in every legislature.
Then I personally called Humberto Costa and told him that Ben-Hur was arriving, and I asked him what he thought about us defiling that bill, because that was our intention. He said: "I think that is great! So, we defiled the bill Alberti; Pereira, b , p. As stated by Edson Cardoso in the excerpt above, the issue of teaching African History and African-Brazilian culture was always important for the black movement in the struggle against racism and Eurocentrism in Brazil, especially in Brazil's republican period.
This struggle has not been easy, and it still requires many political efforts, now in the sense of actually implementing the current legislation, the LDB that was changed by Law no. Therefore, based on examples such as these, we may state that, in the political and social struggle, the process through which Law no. This process is similar to the struggles that led to the abolition of slavery in Brazil in , whose leaders were black women and men, as well as the remaining abolitionists. It is not possible to see the abolition as a mere act of altruism from the Brazilian state which was represented in the figure of Princess Isabel What seems specific of the Portuguese situation is the fact that the explanations for the supposed lack of racism are based on a colonial historic process that, in itself, is the process of choice for a racialized and racist formation Almeida, , p.
In Portugal, Gilberto Freyre's ideas on lusotropicalism came to be accepted in the s among political and academic elites, in the context following the independence declarations of the late s, the revolts and uprisings in what then were the African colonies, and the pressure from the United Nations on granting independences to the colonies Castelo, ; Almeida, Freyre's thesis on a multi-continental and multi-racial Portugal, adapted to the political context at the time 23 , allowed to sustain Portuguese people's ability to establish friendly relationships with the peoples in the tropics, the meeting and mixing of cultures, and the lack of racism, which were notions based on a narrative of Portuguese colonialism as somehow benevolent.
The idea of a Portuguese exceptionality was not new. Immediately after the April revolution, Portugal witnessed a process for politically reforming the educational system, which sought, among other things, to deal with nationalism and Eurocentrism viewed, however, as a European ethnocentrism , which had characterized teaching during the Estado Novo period. In this context of concern with the excess centralization in Europe, African history arose as an optional education module, even though this measure was short-lived in curricula.
At this point, an approach based on Marxism-Leninism predominated Torgal, , and even though it promoted a more comprehensive understanding of power issues - and, namely, how violence permeated the colonial relationship - it marginalized a further reflection on race, with consequences to the production and dissemination of knowledge. The Discoveries led the Western European civilization to establish contacts with inferior, equal, or, in certain aspects, superior civilizations. In the first case, we have civilizations from black Africa, and, in the second, the Eastern civilizations of the Far East.
The retreat of African civilizations: the first contacts were made with the civilizations of Mali Empire and Gao Empire, with strong Muslim influences and whose famous trade center was the Timbuktu market. Then came the contact with the tribal civilizations of the inner and tropical African kingdoms, whose organization was generally based on feudalism Reis, , p. In the late s, after the revolutionary period of PREC and at a time characterized by a certain conservative retraction and accusations of anti-nationalism to those who challenged it, Portugal shifted its attention to Europe, aiming to be integrated to what was then the European Economic Community EEC - effective in -, which resulted in the change of the political values to be conveyed by schools.
Regarding history teaching, the territories and processes considered were restricted to the 3rd Cycle of K Education 7th, 8th, and 9th grades in Portugal, 12 to year old students. In the legal document of that operated this change it can be read: "The time restrictions also forced us to abandon a wide study of the History of Humankind. Thus, we chose to highlight the historic-geographical complex centered around Europe, where we are inserted and where the dominant steps of the historic process took place" Portugal, Being systematically legitimated through arguments regarding the necessary selectivity of contents and questions of relevance, the defense of a national identity was readjusted to the context in which Portugal got closer to Europe - no longer proudly alone 25 , but proudly together.
Europe then arose not only as a geopolitically privileged space, but rather and above all as a producer of history Trouillot, - which would legitimize its political, scientific, and pedagogical centrality and relevance:. We have long been aware that there is no such thing as world history. The whole history, especially taught history, is ethnocentric or, at least, ethnocentered - to say the same in a less shocking way.
At the time, there were 14 printers and 4 lithographic establishments in Recife. The Political Construction of Brazil. In , Brito entered the field of lithography; one of his magazines, "A Marmota na Corte The Marmots in the Court ," included a costume. During these two years, they must not exceed 90 consecutive days spent abroad. Some examples in this sense are emblematic. Each guest was presented with an autographed copy of the 2nd edition of Don Casmurro, by Machado de Assis. Neoliberalism , David Harvey , and Neoliberalismo.
Anywhere in the world, history curricula need to select their contents, in order to avoid being diluted in a sterile, fully unmanageable encyclopedism. Besides this, each society produces a hierarchy of the knowledge it considers the most useful to convey, on behalf of their identity strategies. Thus, educational realism let us call it this and the social requirements from each period condition a naturally uneven division of knowledge. It is not shocking that compulsory schooling privileges the reality students are inserted in, which is, above anything else, the reality of the national group [ European history - which is largely centered around the Portuguese case, as we will see below - in fact ended up constituting the core of the curriculum for the 3rd Cycle Caldeira, , p.
These guidelines were followed by several political initiatives, namely the Education Act of Lei de Bases do Sistema Educativo and the History teaching reform of The Education Act of was a core educational reform, and it was implemented immediately after the formal entry of Portugal into the European Economic Community.
The Act established the following as the first organizing principle of the Portuguese educational system: "To contribute to the defense of national identity and to reinforce allegiance to Portugal's historical matrix, by raising awareness to the cultural heritage of the Portuguese people, in the framework of the universalistic European tradition and the rising interdependence and required solidarity among all peoples of the world" Portugal, , Art.
History as a school discipline would play a crucial role in fulfilling this goal We highlight the curricular guidelines for the 3rd Cycle of K Education Portugal; ME, , approved in and still in force, which reinforced an approach to history based on diachrony and universality Caldeira, , p. Once again, the emphasis on Portuguese and European history was justified by their closeness to the reality that was experienced by the students Portugal; ME, , p.
This signals the change taking place, from the revolutionary ideals "[ At that time, a certain emphasis on a methodological nationalist approach to imperialism and colonialism starts to become clear, which dissociates violence from the Portuguese colonial project but not from the Spanish project, its competitor.
This is an example from a textbook:. At least in economic terms, the contacts established by the Western people in Asia, America, and Africa, through violent the case of Spain in the Americas or pacific colonization the case of Portugal in Africa, in the East, and in Brazil , always resulted in benefits to Europe Reis, , p. From the s onwards, no significant changes were recorded in regards to public policy on history teaching.
At this same time, the "values of cultural coexistence and tolerance" were prominent Portugal, , particularly in education.
Specially after Portugal joined what we know today as the European Union, the idea of interculturality came to be integrated in the political agenda, albeit always ambiguously. Although one of the guiding principles of the Education Act was to "recognize and value different cultures" Portugal, , Art. In a significant way, the need for substantial changes in regards to the teaching of history was put aside from the debate; on the contrary, ever since the Interculture Secretariat was created an approach that confirms the legitimacy of a certain version of the Portuguese history has been reaffirmed:.
The Europe of the future will more authentically be a pluricultural Europe, of mobility, skills, and education for all. A Europe that is open to the world in new forms of solidarity and participation. Thus, overcoming the challenge that is put forth in the education field is to seek answers for the fundamental educational needs through a renewed commitment to giving everybody access to a basic education that promotes the human condition, multiplies the opportunities for personal and social accomplishments, increases educational success, broadens the fields of initial and in-service education, mobilizes the civil society to a civic and democratic education, and opens up new paths for cooperation and reinforcement of the international society.
The Education Act, establishing the right of all Portuguese citizens to education and culture, determines, as an education principle, the openness to the values of cultural coexistence and tolerance, and the construction of full-fledged citizens who are able to act constructively in the society they are inserted in. Education should, therefore, play a role in individual behavior and contribute decisively to the comprehensive edification of human beings, enabling them to experience freedom and autonomy, qualifying them to the full dimension of solidarity and respect for other people's dignity, and making them aware of the value of their Language, National History, and dominant traces of the national identity Portugal, This defense of the language, national history, and dominant traces of the national identity took place simultaneously to the implementation of initiatives that aimed to socially and educationally integrate ethnic groups sic Portugal; Scoprem, , p.
This project - which was framed as responding to "difficulties of intercultural coexistence" Valentim, , p. An external evaluation of the project from the Ministry of Education itself recognized the need for an intervention at curricular level integration of contents, changes in the curricular structure, new teaching methodologies and a participatory approach capable of dealing with "deep-seated representations and traditional practices" Portugal; Scoprem, , p.
Nonetheless, such changes have not taken place. Although schools have had, since the late s, increased freedom to adapt their curricula by considering the local community, under the flexible curriculum management principle Portugal, ; and, later, with the reorganization of mandatory schooling Portugal, , most teachers follow what is established in the official canon - due to different issues that relate to their educational background or to the way school knowledge is legitimated and evaluated Notwithstanding these issues, the intercultural dialogue has been adopted as an official strategy to "prevent segregationism, racism, xenophobia, and intolerance" Portugal; Scoprem, , p.
Throughout the s, interculturality was consolidated as a national domestic policy:. Portugal commits to maintain an external policy based on relationships of friendship and cooperation with all the other States. As a result from this principle, the successive governments of the Portuguese Republic have given priority to the dialogue with other peoples and cultures [ However, it is important to notice that intercultural dialogue is both an external and internal political objective, and in regards to the domestic policy, this dialogue is an important dimension of the policy focusing on the integration of immigrants in the national community.
In , for example, a program called "Education for All" was started, mainly in order to promote school success as a condition to achieve full-fledged citizenship, for children belonging to ethnic and linguistic minorities, but also in order to promote the values of tolerance, dialogue, and solidarity among different ethnic and cultural groups Council of Europe, , p. Raising awareness to the value of different cultures and the development of intercultural communication skills have been core goals in the work of the High Commission for Immigration and Intercultural Dialogue ACIDI - nowadays the High Commission for Migration - ACM , and these were materialized in awareness and education campaigns and initiatives.
However, in terms of the education system, this approach has led to mere additions to school syllabi and some cosmetic changes, in a compensatory and commemorative approach to difference, which is not capable of promoting a deep discussion on the need for transforming the official canons of knowledge. While education is an important space to analyze broader political and cultural struggles, it is necessary to emphasize that these struggles have never been about mere symbolic representation, but rather to the access to resources Wynter, ; Deloria, - the case of Brazil is paradigmatic.
In contexts such as the Portuguese, the official and academic narratives of colonialism and slavery illustrate how the marginality of African History and its teaching is not so much an unthought-of absence, but the result of a Eurocentric approach that makes it scientifically and politically irrelevant Trouillot, beyond the contact with Europeans and the benevolent Portuguese colonialism. Such approach arises based on an idea of colonialism as "[ In the first one of these publications, entitled Interculturality in the Portuguese Expansion: 15th to 18th century, it can be read:.
The Portuguese Expansion history teaches us that, even in what can be considered a cultural predominance system in this case, dominance of the European culture and the Portuguese traditions , the global coexistence, which was fostered by the decompartmentalization of the world, was made of reciprocal influences.
The Europeans left their marks in the world but, while interacting with the peoples overseas, also underwent significant cultural changes. Take, for example, slavery, which was the mother of many of the intercultural societies in the American continent Costa; Lacerda, , p. It should also be noticed that there has been a growing trend to the depoliticization of narratives.
This is very clear in the quotes from two versions of the same textbook that were published in the s, about the forced transportation of enslaved populations In the second version of this book, violence was erased:. The hegemony of these depoliticizing narratives has been challenged in Portugal by grassroots social movements, which have developed several activities in regards to education.
With the construction of what was called in Brazil the myth of racial . In the context after the end of the Estado Novo dictatorship () and mainly after one of the people responsible for the project in countryside São Paulo state - "[. . to the 3rd Cycle of K Education (7th, 8th, and 9th grades in Portugal, 12 to. tonio Menezes Vasconcellos de Drummond,3 member of the secret Club independence by Portugal ancd the end of the minority of Pedro II.: Edward . 9 The library has the second edition, Rio de Janeiro, , 2 vols. tenario da Intdependencia do, Brazil (Sao Paulo, , 5 large folio IntervenMao nos Estados (
With few financial resources, small collectives have promoted the dynamization of community libraries, debates with students and teachers in partnership with public schools, training and political awareness activities, among others. These initiatives make it clear how the anti-racist agenda has been marginalized by the Portuguese government, and its unavailability to rethink the canons of knowledge that keep guiding history and its teaching.
The critique to the very production of knowledge has been essential, and it brings the connection of the history of colonialism and slavery to institutional racism to the fore - a marginal approach in the Portuguese context where, as in other contexts, a presentist and depoliticizing approach predominates in regards to racism, understood as resulting from mutual prejudices and lack of understanding. This is clear in the excerpt from a manifesto released on May 1, , by the Plataforma Gueto Ghetto Platform collective movement:.
The black men and women in this country have been experiencing a situation that is not very different from the time they were imposed to an indigenous code to which the current immigration and nationality law is somehow due. The cheap or almost-slave workforce situation is an inheritance and an extension of colonialism in and outside the metropolises, and it keeps forcing us to immigrate, strangling the countries of origin and concentrating them in neighborhoods that are similar to the ones of indigenous people in the Portuguese colonies in the last-century.
Workforce imports are constant in Portugal's history. Despite the critical initiatives and proposals that have been developed in several contexts, there is still a long way to go. The struggle for knowledge is, therefore, a political one. The specific period studied in this article expresses this same unbalance: in Brazil, evoking the racial issue most often entails outlining the historicity of the debates since the constitution of the Brazilian Republic in the late 19th century; in Portugal, the idea and implementation of the Republic in is generally absolved from any intentionality, contribution, or impact in the construction of a racial political project for the nation which is largely left aside in academic endeavors - while the Estado Novo arises as the racial period by excellence.
Lusotropicalism arises as one of the points of intersection between both contexts, even though in the two countries analyzed the ideas on the exceptionality of the Brazilian and Portuguese already permeated the debates on race, history, and national identity since the late 19th century, and have continued to be mobilized in the contemporary political debates.
What we attempted to emphasize was how, even though with different nuances in the emphasis given to the notions of miscegenation and hybridity in the construction of the idea of the nation and in its articulation with notions of Europeanness Hesse, , both contexts have avoided a comprehensive debate on race and power, especially in education. This is particularly relevant in order to rethink the modern school as an institution that perpetuates the maintenance of racial privilege. In this analysis, we highlighted how the debates were correlated with the possibility of discussing the myth of racial democracy, with the example of Project Unesco, from the s, which was organized according to the assumption that Brazil was a "laboratory of civilization" Ramos, , p.
Even with all the political and cultural initiatives that were adopted in Brazil, such as responses to the historical demands of the black movement, one has to notice, however, that the school as an institution producer of social and cultural homogeneities keeps being legitimated, and that measures to deal with institutionalized racism, such as affirmative action and quotas for black students, for example, which albeit being fully adopted and supported by Brazil's Supreme Court, have not managed to reach national-level political consensus.
The democratic period of the last four decades is generally seen as having eliminated the Eurocentric and racist excesses, and it was thus privileged in our analysis. And, even though the debate regarding Eurocentrism in the teaching of history was taken a little further in the mids, the proposals that were put forth by the intellectuals then - which were mirrored in textbooks - did not reflect on the role of race in the production of knowledge, thus informing the master narratives of history and continuing to ascribe black African peoples with a condition of civilization inferiority.
In turn, with Portugal's shift to Europe - at the end of that decade, a fact that was particularly expressive in legislative terms in the s, when Portugal officially joined the European Economic Community - the narrative of a European implicitly white Portugal was re-written in a more evident way. Initially, this led to the relinquishing of the debates from the previous decade related to education, curricula, and textbooks, that moved away from the political goals for the European nation, even though they emphasized the values of cultural coexistence, tolerance, and respect towards differences; at a later time, which began in the s and was particularly visible in the last decade, we observed a rising depoliticization of the debate on the celebration of difference and intercultural dialogue, paving the way to delegitimize the demands from the grassroots movements for a place in the production of the national history.
Thus, while the period after the revolution promised to bring a change in approach, racism and Eurocentrism kept being debated and theorized little, due to the heritage of certain ideas on race, identity, and European identity and belonging, which were largely consolidated with the success and legacy from lusotropicalism. The depoliticization of the discussions regarding the teaching of history and the evasion of an approach to race as a historically-configured relationship of power are common characteristics which can be observed nowadays, both in Portugal and in Brazil.
Similar challenges are therefore put forth in both contexts, namely to foster political debate, especially in regards to education, that critically engages with race and power, and, simultaneously to envisage and put in place education systems that are culturally enriching to all.
The exchange of experiences and the comparative analyses on the Brazilian and Portuguese contexts, both in regards to political struggles and specifically concerning education, are key to contribute to the advancement of the debates in both social realities. Lisboa: Cotovia, Oeiras: Celta, Challenging Narratives on Diversity and Immigration in Portugal: the de politicization of colonialism and racism. Migrant Marginality: a transnational perspective.
New York: Routledge, Estudos de Sociologia, Araraquara, v. Slavery and Racism as the 'Wrongs' of European History: reflections from a study on Portuguese textbooks. Slavery, Memory and Identity. Acesso em: 20 jul. Race, Ethnicity and Education, London, v. Ricardo Tozzi born August 18, is a Brazilian actor. Held biennially, it presents the very latest music, composers now making their mark internationally, and contemporary classics.
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