Paul D. However, Cohen, by using the eleventh picture of the series for his album cover, suggests that he wants to go further. Hand in hand with this, Cohen portrays two angelic figures which are not going to undertake physical coniunctio because the Queen does not allow the King to lie between her legs. Although naked and lying on the top of one another, no penetration seems implied; rather, they seem primarily a reflection of one another. Eros in the picture is transmuted into another form of love, characterised by quenching bodily desires and nourishing the spiritual ones.
Both represent the harmonic relationship between the purified soul and its reborn body. With all of this in mind, the title and cover image of New Skin for the Old Ceremony become available for a variety of complementary meanings. In the next section we will see how Cohen acknowledges his own desire for the female body and what happens to love when he succumbs to it.
Love portrayed by Cohen has for the ultimate goal to reach Divine union. However, he does not attain this union only through the spiritual exercise, but also through the sexual act. However, the work of the singer has not been consistent with this theme, as the spiritual exercise and sex interchange one another in a regular, cyclical way. I studied religious values. The story goes that Jenifer Warnes was walking with Cohen one day around his neighbourhood and they were discussing the fact that people would not stop making love with one another.
Several weeks later he finished the lyrics and Warnes recorded the song for her album Famous Blue Raincoat in Nadel However, in this song a longing for physical [End Page 13] union and the longing for union with G-d do not exclude each other and, if our supposition about the rebirth of the soul is right, we see a circle of constant purification and rebirth of which the sexual act might indeed be the first step.
The song is explained in this way through two accompanying videos. It depicts, in a rather disconcerting manner, a woman who comes to the hospital to say the last goodbye to her male lover, played by Cohen himself. In the last part of the film, as Cohen sings, the woman disappears behind her shroud, as though breaking the bond of desire that held the singer to her, freeing him to move on to the next stage in his ascent. Inviting these two contrasting visual interpretations, the song itself can be seen as portraying both divine and physical love, as though there were no necessary contradiction between them.
On the other hand, Cohen has criticised unrestrained human love that does not lead to the purification of the soul and which is characterised by inordinate lust and satisfaction of the basest instincts. We do not know what happens later, whether the end will be revelatory or whether it will be a fall to an even profounder mire of bodily desires. Although he is better known as a songwriter, poet, and novelist, Cohen was also a visual artist.
These hearts stand as opposites to each other and are mutually dependent. One points to the Heavens while the other one points to the Earth. This motif first appeared on the cover of the collection of Psalms Book of Mercy. The front cover of the Book of Mercy Therefore, the whole image represents the profane and sacred form of love at once blessed by the priest and proving that Cohen saw their intersection as the place where the Divine is made manifest. More than twenty years later in , when being interviewed by Stina Lundberg Dabrowski, he commented on the full realisation of the human existence in love and the possibility that it reconciles the opposing forces of our selves and paves the way to the liberation of the soul:.
We have seen that Leonard Cohen portrays receiving of divine love through solitude and meditation and sexual intercourse. Love thus attained has the power to purify the soul and reunite it with its body in a greater spiritual existence. With the help of religious and mystical motifs, Cohen attributes sacred qualities to the Divine as well as Human love and, finally, consecrates it in his seal. Love portrayed in such a way has, of course, been the subject of many medieval mystical books and appeared even visually in alchemy.
Therefore, the male and female beings are the image of G-d because He is male and female at once. The Christian mystics refer to the same verse and some of them even go so far as to give preferences to the feminine atributes of G-d, such as Julian of Norwich in her book Revelations. Muslims do not assign a gender to Allah.
We should keep in mind that although the religious texts often address G-d with the use of masculine pronouns, verbs and nouns, G-d is regarded as gender and sexless. In Sufism they avoid using the grammatical gender by using the words Hu or Huwa to speak about the One. The death of Jesus brings fruit in the form of a new life multiplied by the number of grain on the ear: a metaphor for his followers. Leonard Cohen, Accessed 14 May HarperCollins, Burger, Jeff.
Chicago Review Press, Jeffay, Nathan. Julian of Norwich: Revelations, Motherhood of God. Edited by Frances Beer, D. Brewer, Khalil, Atif. Leonard Cohen. Lumsden, Suzanne. Accessed 1 July Matt, Daniel Chanan. Harper San Francisco, Meier, Allison. Accessed 19 April Nadel, Ira Bruce. University of Texas, Thomas Nelson, Accessed 12 April Wolfson, Eliot R. New Skin for the Old Ceremony. Leonard Cohen, John Lissauer, Dear Heather. Vinyl recording. The Future.
The Killers occupy a contentious place in contemporary music. Both their visual and musical styles underwent a notable transformation for their second album, striving to evoke a Springsteen-esque Americana. They have continued to dabble in various genres, notably arena rock in recent years, thus preventing their music from settling into a secure niche Plutzik, paras.
While Flowers himself appears to espouse this attitude in some public statements, in others he seems to apologize for work by the band that he finds subpar. They are, in short, a musical entity in a state of constant fluctuation, contradiction, and evolution. One such evolution comes in their treatment of love and romance. By the release of their fourth album, their subject matter had evolved to focus heavily on love, with a particularly notable concern for love in long-term relationships.
Yet with their fourth LP, Battle Born , The Killers focused conspicuously on romance, a turning point away from their previous work. The album explores romantic relationships with a maturity that is both unusual for often youth-centered rock and a departure from the images of the bewildered and rejected young boys on Hot Fuss.
Brightside character to move on from the woman he cannot have. Their fifth studio album Wonderful Wonderful focuses more personally on marital relationships, specifically that of Flowers and his wife Tana. More generally, the shift also participates in the critically well-established ability of rock music to explore and challenge masculinity via songs about love and desire. Much of the scholarship on this relationship concerns more popular, more aggressive, or conspicuously harder rock acts.
Male focalizers are also standard and can be reasonably assumed in many, if not most, songs performed by men in the rock and pop genres, further supporting a link from masculinity and maleness to such music. With regards to masculinity, personal focalizers are especially embedded within lyrical music, which implicitly creates the masculine figure through a gendered human voice. In her model, hegemonic masculinity is understood as a socially prescribed set of images and practices which men are expected to exhibit publicly.
This revised study rejected the former premise of an automatic subordination of women but maintained that gender hierarchies are still powerfully in place Musical masculinities have indeed evolved to include performances that defy traditional criticism or that fluidly fuse characteristics of traditional understandings of gendered expression. What can be found in their work, however, is a negotiation of these spheres of musical masculinity that alternately upholds and challenges rigid critical classifications, beginning at one extreme murder and ending at what here serves as its thematic opposite, husband-and-fatherhood.
The Murder Trilogy blends rock aggression with less masculine-coded emotional sensitivity to depict the most extreme reaction to rejection. The act of strangulation is particularly aggressive and dominating, requiring applied physical force over a prolonged period in order to ensure death. In both songs, it is only when the focalizer becomes angry or is threatened with the revelation of his crime that Flowers emotes. His desperate pleas for Jenny to reconsider before he murders her compromise the smug dominance that he otherwise displays. The song instead reveals the inner paranoia and envy of a male focalizer observing the woman he desires with another man.
Entre les bras des amants réunis (Poésie/Rafale) (French Edition) eBook: Claude Bolduc: rapyzure.tk: Kindle Store. Entre les Bras des Amants Reunis; Suivi de Contes de la Nuit Tomb (French). by Bolduc Claude (Author) Kindle Edition £ Read with Our Free App.
The self-identified Mr. The music video further establishes this removal, as Flowers appears as a nervous but smugly flamboyant dandy in contrast to the older, more emotionally collected Eric Roberts in their battle for the girl. Here we return to Mr. The paranoid boy of the first track has grown into the man who has granted himself the power to leave the scene of his rejection.
Accordingly, the frenetic, club-friendly dance-rock of its predecessor is replaced by a smoothly building rock ballad. Yet, in keeping with the masculine destructiveness of Hot Fuss , the song closes with doublespeak suggesting a bad and bitter end for one of the pair.
Brightside, now shifts to Mr. Brightside as a distinctly separate entity speaking to his younger self. As the song fades out, a final verse describes Mr. Brightside with images that imply assault:. While some subsequent songs have addressed failed relationships, none have ended in death or emotional raving. Ambiguity and ambivalence, however, persist, and the post- Hot Fuss era can be romantically characterized by focalizers at war with their own emotions.
These songs, as well as those referencing romantic relationships on Sawdust , withdraw from the violent passions of Hot Fuss but do not replace them with other forms of romantic or sexual desire. Indeed, some songs suggest a cynicism about love. The love-centric songs on the album do not repeat the motifs of spurned suitors or ambivalence; instead, many of them relate the perspectives of focalizers who navigate established and prolonged relationships. The couple soon wish to escape from their new roles.
We used to look at the stars and confess our dreams Hold each other til the morning light We used to laugh, now we only fight But baby, are you lonesome now? Yet it does participate within a critically undefined group of songs in which a romantically committed man rediscovers freedom not through leaving or murdering his partner but through roaming away from the family home. Here, the focalizer reminisces about the early days of a romance but finds the relationship has soured. The chorus subsequently questions whether or not the couple will be able to salvage their love.
The focalizer is almost painfully vulnerable in his nostalgic desire, with Flowers crying out the chorus and eventually vocalizing in falsetto. A final crash and a sustained chord on the synthesizer emphasize a sense of narrative finality. This song in particular, Flowers relates to NME , served as a bonding experience for him and his wife, as it brought him to a better understanding of her long-untreated condition Reilly para. The first is the musician himself: here, Brandon Flowers outside the public eye, the man, husband and father, composer, and primary lyricist for The Killers.
The second is the star: here, the Brandon Flowers who appears onstage and in paratextual materials. As a practicing Mormon who now abstains from alcohol and drugs, Flowers is an unlikely rock star. He has since committed himself to his wife and children and prioritized them over music; their inclusion as focalized subjects and performers on Wonderful Wonderful provides musical evidence of an increasing thematic prioritization. Although Springsteen has dealt with sexuality more frankly than Flowers, his focalized women whom are frequently named Mary are undoubtedly colored by Catholicism Moss Rolling river of truth, can you spare me a sip?
Yet The Desired Effect sees a brief return to early form. However, these songs are not permitted to carry the narrative theme of the album. As Flowers has admitted in multiple promotional interviews for the album, the focalized woman is literally his wife. Music critics still contextualize the band through their early interest in murder. As part of his stated commitment to his family and church, he appears to be extricating himself from his early image and thematic interests.
However, it is through their journey from murder to marriage that we may find a particular negotiation of the expectations of masculinity within rock — and where it intersects with themes that have been more artistically and critically neglected in the genre, such as marriage, fatherhood, and a more explicitly conservative spirituality. The song shares some similarities with the trilogy; like the fictional Jenny, Jodi was murdered by her boyfriend.
However, in response to public backlash, the band did not release any official recordings of the song. It cannot, therefore, be counted amongst their standard catalog or the Murder Trilogy. However, he currently lacks the wholesome family appeal and light pop of, for instance, the Osmonds. His continued adherence to Mormonism, which he has affirmed to Rolling Stone in September Greene paras. After coming out as gay in , Glenn has spoken openly of his ostracization from the church and a sense of separation from God. Astor, Pete, and Keith Negus.
Bal, Mieke. Narratologie: Essais sur la signification narrative dans quatre romans modernes. Klincksieck, Narratology: Introduction to the Theory of Narrative. University of Toronto Press, Beaumont, Marc. Accessed 15 Sept. Biddle, Ian. Bosman, Chris. Accessed 1 Aug. Connell, R. Stanford University Press, Crider, David. Edwards, Leigh H. Johnny Cash and the Paradox of American Identity. Indiana University Press, Flowers, Tana. The Mormon Women Project, 16 Jan. Frith, Simon.
Frith, Simon, and Angela McRobbie. Greene, Andy. Accessed 13 Sept. Griffiths, Dai. Moore, Cambridge University Press, , pp. Hawkins, Stan. Ashgate, Houston, Taylor Martin. Accessed 31 Aug. Leonard, Marion. Madanikia, Yasaman and Kim Bartholomew. Accessed 30 June McCarthy, Kate. McLean, Craig. Moore, Allan F. Moss, Pamela. Plutzik, Nate. Reilly, Nick. NME, 15 Sept. Reynolds, Simon and Joy Press. Harvard University Press, Rhodes, Carl. Stern, Marlow.
Sutton, Matthew. Accessed 12 June In this paper, I examine arranged marriage slash fiction — a sub-genre of fanfiction which focuses on same-gender relationships and is widely acknowledged within the online [End Page 1] fanfiction community to be a close cousin of, and share readership with, Regency-setting romance novels, particularly those featuring marriages of convenience.
Using theories of meaning creation in fanfiction to show the intertextual relationships between arranged marriage slash fiction and marriage of convenience romance novels, I explore differences and similarities between the two, with particular reference to sexual consent in the often unequal arranged relationships they portray.
I use the theoretical framework of emotion work Hochschild to understand the development of the relationship between the main characters in marriage of convenience romance novels and arranged marriage fanfiction stories. I argue that by focusing on relationships which involve disparities of social standing and often financial dependence of one partner on the other, arranged marriage fanfiction stories explore marriage as an institution which reproduces and amplifies inequalities. This exploration includes the legal and formal aspects of marriage, as well as the social and emotional ones.
As a result, they cast the practice of marriage consummation — and sex within marriage more generally — as an at least potentially coercive practice. Furthermore, while arranged marriage fanfiction stories retain some key elements of the romance genre, notably the Happily Ever After HEA ending and the sex scene often the marriage consummation scene which doubles as the emotional climax Roach, Happily Ever After , they also make key changes to how the relationship between the main characters develops, particularly how the emotion work necessary to make the relationship work is divided between the partners.
It is these changes which allow arranged marriage fanfiction stories to challenge dominant discourses of sexual consent within marriage and propose an alternative view of how consent within unequal relationships can be made meaningful. This practice within the fanfiction community indicates a dissatisfaction with elements of the marriage of convenience romance novel, particularly how issues of power inequalities in romantic relationships are handled. Fanfiction provides a space where this dissatisfaction can not only be explored but the perceived issues set to rights. Mainstream romance novels have historically focused on heterosexual relationships culminating in monogamous marriage, although dedicated queer presses have published lesbian and gay romance since the s, and more recently we have seen a proliferation of the LGBTQ romance sub-genre facilitated by digital technologies which enable low-cost electronic publishing and small print runs Barot.
Research on the romance genre often focuses on how it relates to — and enables its readers to relate to — patriarchy and gendered power structures in society. This argument is worth quoting at length:. The romance thematizes the activity of interpretation and reinterpretation for a very good reason, then. In suggesting that the cruelty and indifference that the hero exhibits towards the heroine in the early part of the novel are really of no consequence because they actually originated in love and affection, the romance effectively asserts that there are other signs for these two emotions than the traditional ones of physical caresses, oral professions of commitment, and thoughtful care.
As popular romance studies has evolved as a field, such accounts have increasingly been questioned and complicated through engagements with both romance novels themselves and their audiences. In A Natural History of the Romance Novel , Regis challenges pathologising approaches to romance reading, highlighting instead the complexity and variety of works that fall within the romance genre and establishing clear generic links between works commonly considered part of the literary canon and more contemporary mass-market romance novels.
This process takes a heroine who is already bound and frees her. Regis does concede that freedom for the heroine is provisional and constrained, unlike freedom for the hero, which is total and absolute More recent approaches have returned to centering audiences alongside texts. Roach, for instance, has examined both the genre and its readers in an auto ethnographic study Happily Ever After. She returns to the question of the relationship between romance and patriarchy, and picks up on the Beauty and the Beast themes of taming and healing present in many romance novels.
She argues that romance novels and the readerly and writerly communities around them provide — within the limits of the tropes and conventions of the genre — a safe space for imaginative play where predominantly women can think through the challenges posed by patriarchy Paranoid readings emphasise and expect negative affect, and seek to expose the underlying negative assumptions and effects of texts. By contrast, she proposes a reparative reading mode, where rather than expecting and seeking to expose negativity, a reader approaches a text with hope, open to surprise, regardless of whether that surprise may be positive or negative.
It is this hard work, which Roach identifies as such a central element to the romance narrative, that I want to investigate further in examining how fanfiction readers and writers approach the romance trope of arranged marriage or marriage of convenience. Emotion work was first proposed by Hochschild as the work involved in managing feelings to bring them in line with societal norms and expectations.
Hochschild identifies three techniques of emotion work: cognitive attempting to change ideas or images in order to change the feelings associated with them ; bodily attempting to change physical signs of emotion ; and expressive attempting to change expressive gestures, such as smiling or frowning, to change how one feels. Umberson et al. With regards to emotion work and sexuality, Umberson et al. Such expectations, often framed in the language of romance, facilitate certain courses of action and subject positions while making others unavailable. This further underscores the power of the romance discourse within and outside the romance novel to influence not only attitudes but actions.
It is in fact a combination of her womanly sensuality and mothering capacities that will magically remake a man incapable of expressing emotions or admitting dependence. Regis also acknowledges the taming or healing dynamic through not only emotion work but also domestic work. The arranged marriage trope in fanfiction parallels the marriage-of-convenience plot in romance novels, such as the one described by Regis above.
The courtship in this variation of the romance novel genre occurs after the marriage and culminates in a declaration of love Regis Similarly to other romance novel plots, however, the heroine still often needs to tame the hero, using her beauty, charm and grace — that is, her emotion work — to soften a man known for gruffness or even cruelty.
However, the romance novels studied by Radway, Modleski, Regis and, to a lesser extent, Roach are highly heteronormative. Investigating the arranged marriage trope in slash fanfiction is further complicated by the fact that the characters are of the same gender. There is a tradition in fan studies which argues that slash erases inequalities between the partners e. Yet fanfiction writers frequently incorporate and explore inequality in the relationships they write about, and the arranged marriage trope is shaped by such inequalities.
In this case, however, they arise from factors other than gender, although some may nonetheless have gendered connotations. Fan studies has a history of approaching fan communities and fanfiction as social practices e. Jenkins; Bacon-Smith; Kustritz , but also of looking at fanfiction as literary text using textual analysis e. Derecho; Stasi. In addition, the field has a tradition of auto-ethnography e. Jenkins , as many fan studies scholars are also fans themselves. These traditions are reflected in my approach to the arranged marriage fanfiction trope.
My involvement with the fanfiction community as a reader and writer predates my choice of it as a site for research by decades. I therefore bring to my research a dual perspective: that of fan and that of scholar. This is reflected in my approach to both data collection and data analysis. To select stories for analysis, I followed the path any fan new to a fandom, trope or pairing may follow to find stories that are considered good or impactful by the community at large, a path I myself have followed many times as a fan. I used the technical features of the Archive of Our Own to search, sort and filter stories of interest, and immersed myself in them.
Finally, in line with fan studies best practice and to protect the privacy of individual fans and fan authors, I have not provided complete URLs for fan works. To investigate the arranged marriage trope and how readers and writers of fanfiction use it to explore issues of consent, I have chosen a small selection of stories from the Marvel Cinematic Universe fandom, centred on the relationship between Loki and Thor.
The trope is popular for Thor and Loki, as in the originary works the two characters, although not related by blood, are raised as brothers and therefore are an unlikely romantic pairing. I then narrowed my selection down to two complementary stories for in-depth analysis: Bride themantlingdark and XVII stereobone. These similarities and differences are worth summarising here, as key elements of my readings of the stories arise from them.
This is a common depiction of Loki in fanfiction, incorporating elements of Norse mythology not present in the MCU version, though they are to an extent present in some of the Marvel comics. It is the structure of the marriage arrangements that makes these two stories a complementary pair for analysis. Conversely, and unusually for this pairing, in Bride it is Thor who must leave his home to marry Loki. As in many other [End Page 7] Arranged Marriage fanfiction stories, these marriage arrangements, alongside other factors, give rise to significant inequality between the partners at the start of each story.
In the next section, I explore how the institution of marriage in its legal, social and emotional aspects is constructed in these stories. I focus in particular on how the marriage arrangements relate to the inequalities between the partners in a range of gendered and non-gendered ways, and what these inequalities mean for sexual consent. I then explore how the power imbalances are addressed through emotion work, and finally analyse in detail the consummation of each of the marriages and how sexual consent in the presence of power imbalances is handled in these stories.
Marriage as a social and legal institution has a history of constructing and legitimising gendered social inequalities. One mechanism for this is through the legal structures which codify marriage, for instance, the historical doctrine of coverture Donovan 3 or exemptions for marriage in rape law e. Smart; Donovan. Yet despite extensive reforms of the legal institution of marriage, changes in the material circumstances of women have been slower and more difficult to achieve Smart Discourse, and the subject positions it makes available or inaccessible, may account for some of this discrepancy, as Gavey argues:.
Those discourses which are commensurate with widely shared commonsense understanding of the world are perhaps most powerful in constituting subjectivity, yet their influence can most easily remain hidden and difficult to identify and, therefore, resist With this in mind, it is worth examining how arranged marriage fanfiction stories depict marriage as an institution, including the possible inequalities it produces, reproduces and amplifies.
While gender has historically been a key structuring element of marriage, it is not the primary source of power differentials in arranged marriage slash fanfiction relationships. There are, however, gendered elements to how both Thor and Loki are presented and it is worth exploring those briefly, particularly as they relate to other inequalities and are reproduced and amplified by the marriage arrangements. Lamb and Veith argue that the primary effect of slash is to remove power imbalances from sexual and romantic relationships by focusing on same-gender relationships.
They also note that in slash fanfiction, characters who are men — often extremely masculine men — in the originary work acquire androgynous characteristics This kind of androgynous characterisation is present for both Thor and Loki in all five of the stories reviewed, and particularly in the two chosen for in-depth analysis. Thor is most obviously feminised in Bride , where even the title associates him with the feminine role in a heterosexual marriage.
In this story, Thor is both younger and — unusually for fanfiction [End Page 8] about this pairing — physically smaller than Loki. He is also forced to leave his home and join the family and household of his husband. Through the mechanism of side-by-side reading Derecho 73 , this gendering of the characters therefore clearly evokes popular romance novel tropes and sets expectations for the reader based on the generic conventions of romance novels many fanfiction readers are familiar with: by the end of the story Thor will have tamed Loki and transformed him into a loving and caring husband.
Yet the characterisation of Thor as feminine heroine and Loki as masculine hero is complicated in Bride in two key ways. Firstly, Loki himself is shown to have feminine characteristics as well as masculine ones. He is described as both beautiful and handsome.
Secondly, on several occasions factors which make Thor feel feminine and vulnerable in the context of his wedding are shown to have gender-neutral or masculine associations in other contexts. When Thor balks at the expectation to be nude for part of the wedding ceremony, Frigga again re-contextualises this for him by pointing out that in Asgard Thor is frequently nude, for instance in public baths. Such departures in turn are a key tool for fanfiction writers and readers to explore and challenge dominant discourses about power, gender and sexuality in romance novels.
As Bride can be seen as part of three different archives — those of romance novels, arranged marriage fanfiction stories, and the Marvel Cinematic Universe — additional layers of meanings are created through other side-by-side readings, with both the MCU and other works of fanfiction. More frequently, it is Thor who starts out as the more powerful partner in the relationship, as is the case in XVII : he is the heir of Asgard, with Loki having to leave his family and make a life for himself in a realm [End Page 9] strange to him. Yet it is Thor who is too nervous to eat at their wedding feast, while Loki is also described as muscled and a competent fighter.
Both Bride and XVII therefore rework their central characters — men in the originary work — into more androgynous versions of themselves, incorporating characteristics associated with both femininity and masculinity. However, far from entirely removing inequality from the relationship, as Lamb and Veith would argue , these stories use the arranged marriage trope and related romance novel conventions to introduce other power imbalances between the characters.
There are several other factors, both internal and external to the relationship, through which power differentials are established between Thor and Loki in the two stories. Differences in physical size and strength, for instance, are used to establish — and sometimes negate — power differentials between the characters. This causes him significant anxiety, as this extract from Bride shows:.
Even in XVII , where Thor in many ways has the upper hand in the marriage arrangement, he is concerned about Loki being a frost giant:. And they are cold. In addition to that, Loki is a powerful magic user, and often uses his magic and intelligence to get his way. Finally, differences in age and experience play a significant role in Bride. Conversely in Bride , while Thor has to leave Asgard and is somewhat dependent on Loki, his parents repeatedly reassure him that they will continue to visit and support him.
Therefore the consequences of a failed marriage for Loki in XVII are much greater than those for Thor in Bride , which in turn exacerbates the power differential. When read side by side with both romance novels and an understanding of the history of marriage laws and customs in Western cultures, these stories then clearly cast marriage as an institution characterised by and potentially reproducing and exacerbating inequalities. While Roach sees risk-taking in the name of love as a key element of the romance novel Happily Ever After 24 , the risks in arranged marriage fanfiction stories are often taken out of a lack of options instead, as the personal, social and legal repercussions of failure — a life spent in an unhappy and unloving marriage, social isolation, or loss of legal status and the financial means for survival — are simply too great.
They are caused by factors internal to the characters — physical size and strength, age, experience — as well as exacerbated by ones external to them — marriage customs and access to material and emotional support outside the relationship. While both characters are given androgynous characteristics, the overall picture of their relationship is still one of inequality: more specifically, inequality similar to that in marriage of convenience romance novels Regis The construction of marriage as a sexual relationship, as evidenced by the emphasis on marriage consummation I shall explore further below, puts additional pressures on the partner with less power.
Even though these inequalities are only partially structural within the setting, they cast doubt on the ability of the less powerful character to give consent to sexual relations in a meaningful way. In the next section, I turn to the emotion work framework to examine how such power imbalances are negotiated within the relationships in the two stories, how the happily ever after ending is achieved, and what this means for sexual consent. The hero and the heroine have taken risks, worked hard, the heroine has tamed the hero, and they finally come together in [End Page 11] a mutually loving relationship, often a marriage.
In marriage of convenience stories, of course, the marriage itself has already happened, but it is transformed from a purely transactional arrangement into one of love Regis Emotion work is often gendered and the burden of it falls disproportionately on women, particularly in heterosexual relationships Erickson ; Umberson et al. Radway and Modleski both make convincing arguments as to why, rather than a transformation of the hero or the relationship, this development is actually a transformation of the heroine.
Posted on 11th avril by Carlos in Uncategorized. Voyons, donc! Posted on 19th avril by Carlos in Uncategorized. Posted on 20th avril by Gunter in Uncategorized. Posted on 25th avril by Carlos in Uncategorized. Bonne question!!! Posted on 3rd mai by Carlos in Uncategorized. Le Premier Mai! Le Muguet!!! Jules Renard. Posted on 4th mai by Gunter in Uncategorized. Posted on 17th mai by Carlos in Uncategorized.
Bouilhet m'est revenu fort assombri. Leucade se trouve maintenant dans un golfe qu'on appelle golfe d'Adramite j'ignore le nom antique. Photo au Nikon D4 rafale haute vitesse, 12 photos par seconde. Biscator, ce ne serait pas le livreur du petit Nicolas? Issy, g.
Va savoir!!! Art ou Vertu? Est-ce, donc, un Art? Ou serait-ce une Vertu? Bien malin celui qui en distinguerait la nuance!!! Posted on 23rd mai by Carlos in Uncategorized. Posted on 25th mai by Gunter in Uncategorized. Posted on 7th juin by Carlos in Uncategorized. Posted on 8th juin by Gunter in Uncategorized. Posted on 14th juin by Carlos in Uncategorized.
Pourtant, la question persiste! A quoi cela lui servirait? Qui sert-il? A-t-il une famille? Prend-il des transports en commun? Posted on 21st juin by Carlos in Uncategorized. Il vaut mieux! Posted on 22nd juin by Gunter in Uncategorized. Posted on 3rd juillet by Gunter in Uncategorized. Posted on 11th juillet by Carlos in Uncategorized. Posted on 18th juillet by Carlos in Uncategorized. Posted on 21st juillet by Gunter in Uncategorized. Posted on 29th juillet by Gunter in Uncategorized.
Posted on 5th septembre by Carlos in Uncategorized. Point du tout!!! Posted on 8th septembre by Gunter in Uncategorized. Posted on 14th septembre by Gunter in Uncategorized. Posted on 21st septembre by Gunter in Uncategorized. Posted on 2nd octobre by Carlos in Uncategorized. Etrange question!!! La Loi du plus fort? La Loi du plus offrant?
La Loi de la Jungle? Posted on 24th octobre by Carlos in Uncategorized. Venez, ici, que je vous montre comment on tient le balai!!! Posted on 30th octobre by Carlos in Uncategorized. Mais enfin! Or, il y a dans un alphabet, une vingtaine de consonnes! Posted on 2nd novembre by Gunter in Uncategorized. Posted on 9th novembre by Gunter in Uncategorized.
Posted on 21st novembre by Carlos in Uncategorized. Plus de peur que de mal!!! Posted on 10th janvier by Carlos in Uncategorized. Alors, je raccroche!!! Je ne cause pas avec la Musique!!! Posted on 16th janvier by Carlos in Uncategorized. Nous avions, donc, deux mots! Je suis sortis, pour remplir le Constat. Posted on 24th janvier by Carlos in Uncategorized. Ou le consommerait-il? Posted on 30th janvier by Carlos in Uncategorized. Tout serait dit!!! Posted on 6th mars by Carlos in Uncategorized. Le juge :. Posted on 13th mars by Carlos in Uncategorized.
Quel rapport entretiennent - elles? Posted on 21st mars by Carlos in Uncategorized. Il est, naturellement. Posted on 28th mars by Carlos in Uncategorized. Mais, enfin!!! Posted on 3rd avril by Carlos in Uncategorized. Posted on 10th avril by Carlos in Uncategorized. Les trains passent, mais la Gare demeure. Posted on 1st mai by Carlos in Uncategorized. J Il pleut! Je crois que je vais les laisser rentrer!!! Cause perdue. Il reste, donc!!! Posted on 29th mai by Carlos in Uncategorized. Posted on 5th juin by Carlos in Uncategorized. Posted on 20th juin by Carlos in Uncategorized.
Nous nous saluons, certes, mais nous ne nous parlons point!!! Posted on 28th juin by Carlos in Uncategorized. Le Monde, quoi! Deux fous sont dans leur chambre. Posted on 2nd juillet by Carlos in Uncategorized.
Et Paf!!! Posted on 18th juillet by Gunter in Uncategorized. Posted on 26th juillet by Gunter in Uncategorized. Posted on 4th septembre by Carlos in Uncategorized. Posted on 12th septembre by Carlos in Uncategorized. Martin et St. Posted on 19th septembre by Carlos in Uncategorized. Est-ce Pourquoi, ou Comment?
Quelle est-elle, la Question? Ne serait-ce pas trop de sable pour notre Camionnette? Vaut-il la peine? Quel en est le Sens? Y a-t-il, finalement, une Question? Celle-ci la traverse Toute!!! Ce que nous sommes!!! Acte de Langage? Posted on 22nd septembre by Gunter in Uncategorized. Posted on 3rd octobre by Carlos in Uncategorized.
Cocasse, non? Posted on 9th octobre by Carlos in Uncategorized. Note joyeuse, …ou deux!!! Aurait-elle disparu un jour? Posted on 15th octobre by Carlos in Uncategorized. Posted on 24th octobre by Gunter in Uncategorized. Posted on 29th octobre by Carlos in Uncategorized. Posted on 1st novembre by Gunter in Uncategorized. Posted on 13th novembre by Carlos in Uncategorized. Quand je pense!!! Posted on 28th novembre by Carlos in Uncategorized. A Souvenirs! En avons-nous besoin? Le webmaster. A quel propos? Dans quel but? Gilles a eu le dernier mot.
Quelle alternative? En fait, il est rouge. Pour moi, un pastis. Un paysan mettait, le soir, un peu de farine sur le pas de sa porte. Il te surveille? Personne ne va nous poser des questions sur les quatorze millions! Reprenons, donc! On rentre! Mais quoi? Il faut tout essayer. Combien en aviez-vous? Mais il revenait toujours chez moi! Demandez-moi autre chose. Fariboles, donc. Beaucoup de bruit pour rien.
Max Elskamp publia ses premiers vers en Les quatre volumes que signa M. Max Elskamp, dit M. Avec ses pieds et ses mains rouges, Et puis encor les Anges blonds Jouant de tous leurs violons…. Me voici. Je passe sur la! Maintenant, que sera cet octobre nouveau?
Il va neiger dans quelques jours. Je me souviens de mes tristesses au coin du feu. Pourquoi donc pensons-nous et parlons-nous? Bonheur est la. Tu as soif? Je parle. Et tu me laisses dire. Le soir vient. Et nous longeons le gave. Je bavarde. Tu souris encore. Bonheur se tait. Ta mort ne change rien. Je ne regrette pas ta mort. Je songe aux montagnes natales. Je songe au vide pur des cieux. On le voyait. Il dressait les oreilles. Et le troupeau passait, passait, passait. Et sa rumeur divine se perdait. Et les cris de la Lucie. Et les chiens dans le ciel gris, avec, debout, Martin.
Et Jean pleura. Et elle grommelait, hargneuse. Elle haletait un peu, les joues rouges comme une grenade ou de la farouche, levant vers lui ses yeux, son nez, sa bouche. Ses dents riaient, elle frissonnait toute. Ainsi fut fait. Et quand, vers le vieux puits, Jean de Noarrieu se retourna, il vit, la bouche rouge et riante, une fille. Ses mollets ronds et fermes se touchaient, et, hardiment, elle lui souriait. Le Triomphe de la Vie. Tout jeune, en , M.
Me connais-tu? Le jour croit. Blonde, tu me souris vaguement, tu tressailles! A genoux! Depuis , M. Tout le ciel vert se meurt. Narcisse, ou meurs! A notre demande, M. Cette mesure qui me transporte et que je colore, me garde du vrai et du faux. Ni le doute ne me divise, ni la raison ne me travaille. Nul hasard, — mais une chance extraordinaire se continue. Les vers de M. Daniel de Venancourt sont souples et gracieux.
Les Adolescents. Combien de tendres confidences Ont-ils entendu, — doux secrets! Sa main tremble en tirant le fil de sa quenouille. La chanson des grillons vibre au loin dans la plaine. Je suis la fille du fermier, Qui sanglote dans le sentier! Je ne suis pas le fils du roi, Et je veux causer avec toi! Ton courage est-il abattu? Bergerette, ma mie, ajuste ta cornette! Rassemble tes brebis et prends ta quenouillette! En route! Il habite actuellement Ostende. En , M. Delagrave, Paris, Souffle, souffle, grand souffle amer,. Chez Paul Ollendorff, Paris. Chez Diodet, Paris.
Jamais, on le sait, M. Xavier Privas. Il semble que, moralement aussi bien que physiquement, deux races bataillent en lui. Han Ryner assista, avec MM. Boschot, G. Normandy, Ph. Pagnat et M. La berceuse indolente des eaux ou des bois. Tout aime! Sully Prudhomme E. Etudiant, MM. Rappelons que ce fut M. Dans les jardins, lents et tremblants, Les pauvres vieux tous les soirs viennent.
Sur les vieux bancs ils se souviennent, Les pauvres vieux aux cheveux blancs. Il marcha longtemps. Sous la neige des ans moroses, Tu voudras revivre. Le long du chemin, la jeunesse danse. III Le long du chemin, vieillard, fais ton somme! Ici se rencontrent les. Tout ce qui fut persiste. La Nuit.
Comme un vin orgueilleux, plein de rouges prestiges. Ses lourds et sombres yeux, tout de braise et de soie Brillent hideusement lorsque passe une proie. Seul, je me connais. Seul, je sais ce que je suis. Je me couche, comme un chartreux, dans mon linceul. Je suis les animaux, les plantes et la mer. Depuis, M. La gorge est endormie et sombre encore. Mais soit! Ce soir, ils soupent chez Pluton.
La Cithare. Les Tombeaux. Ne grave ni flambeau, ni colombe, ni fleur. Sur les champs nage au loin sa cendre bleue et brune. Le ressac lourd tonnait au bas du promontoire. Le Semeur de Cendres. Le Jardin Secret. Un songe immense et doux de sommeil et de mort… Oh! Alfred Vallette. Graves, nous nous taisons. Voici que les jardins de la nuit vont fleurir. Les lignes, les couleurs, les sons, deviennent vagues. Il est de clairs matins, de roses se coiffant. Douceur des yeux!
Bras tendus au ciel! Grande Nuit! Seule, tu sais calmer les tourments inconnus De ceux que le mentir quotidien torture. Sylvio Lazzari La Chambre blanche lait songer au Kinderscenen de Schumann. On trouve — comme le fait remarquer M. Les larmes sont en nous. Et les larmes aussi pleurent de nous quitter. Mon enfance, adieu mon enfance. Pas souffert? La Chambre blanche. Botrel est revenu au pays.