Review native language verification applications submitted by your peers. Reviewing applications can be fun and only takes a few minutes. KudoZ activity Questions: 2 open 8 without valid answers 13 closed without grading Answers: 0.
Grading comment Thanks a lot Mike 4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer. Discussion entries: 0. Automatic update in Espalhe - an agency of guerrilla Marketing. Grading comment Thanks a lot Mike. Peer comments on this answer and responses from the answerer. Espalhe Guerrilla Marketing.
Return to KudoZ list. View Ideas submitted by the community. Post Your ideas for ProZ. Vote Promote or demote ideas. View forum View forum without registering on UserVoice. You have native languages that can be verified You can request verification for native languages by completing a simple application that takes only a couple of minutes.
For instance, and to start in a period of some relevance for these late colonial counter-insurgencies, van der Waals follows the old and now largely discredited official line that the MPLA was founded in p. Van der Waals also makes reference to Portugal becoming a member of NATO as a positive factor in the course of the campaigns, but, if this is not a mistranslation, then it is a mistake. Portugal was a founding member of NATO back in , well before Van der Waals does, in fact, then point out that only France really provided vital equipment to Portugal without any caveats, not least helicopters, which are vital in a counterinsurgency campaign.
But this is not because, as van der Waals p. But perhaps this misperception by van der Waals should be seen primarily as revealing of the extent to which apartheid South African elites felt isolated internationally, even relative to Portugal. Regarding the official Portuguese counter-insurgency guidelines, van der Waals rightly points to the strong influence of French counter-insurgency doctrine.
But this was not, as van der Waals claims pp.
A guerrilha do riso: Carlos Nobre x ditadura militar brasileira (Portuguese Edition ) [Marco Antônio Villalobos] on rapyzure.tk *FREE* shipping on qualifying. A Guerrilha Surreal (Em Portuguese do Brasil) [José Chrispiniano] on Amazon. com. Paperback; Publisher: Conrad; 1 edition (); Language: Portuguese.
The key point is that this was not simply a way for the many to carry out scattered in loco observations, but a deliberate doctrinal emulation and development on the part of a few, very influential, Portuguese officers. But again the relatively multi-racial nature of the Portuguese troops, even of its officers, was something that definitely caused an impression in Apartheid era South African, and is a point to which these authors make frequent reference. But the lack of rigid or legalized racism in the Portuguese colonies, in contrast to South Africa, does not mean that it did not exist.
After all, even South Africa eventually used black troops recruited in Angola. And this is not just simply a matter of his captivating journalistic style.
For instance, Al Venter pp. Last but not least, these sources that they quote also claimed that the coup of the 25 April had been in the making since What is the problem with these views? No credible sources show the existence of a network of disgruntled young officers before late And, while the involvement of Costa Gomes in the failed pronunciamento led by the Defense Minister General Botelho Moniz in April, , is not open to question, this had nothing to do with a Communist conspiracy.
Instead, it involved almost all the top Portuguese military leaders that had been loyal to the regime for decades. And this thesis begs the question why would Costa Gomes go on to basically win the war in Angola insofar as you can win against an insurgency with cross-border support , a point about which these often skeptical South Africans have no doubts. Still, it is impossible to disagree that General Costa Gomes was an enigmatic figure. And even if these views about the remote Communist origins and long-term planning of the April military coup are probably wrong, and in any event almost impossible to prove, they are still highly revealing of the kind of tensions, linked with the conduct and the end-game of these late colonial wars in Africa, which were emerging within senior Portuguese military and political elites, years before the coup brought them spectacularly into the open.
In fact, this growing division at the very top of the Portuguese civil and military elite is a powerful explanation of the April military coup that brought an abrupt end to almost half a century of the authoritarian regime of the Estado Novo and more than a decade of counter-insurgency campaigns designed to stop the decolonization of Portuguese Africa.
Venter pp. But this kind of comparison seems to ignores the significant subsidies that Portuguese officers posted overseas and operating in war zones received. More importantly, it ignores the very low average Portuguese wage, as well as the difference in the cost of living between a country like Britain or France and Portugal. The first official Portuguese minimum wage came with the revolutionary labor legislation enacted after the military coup of April , and no one disputes that it represented a significant increase relative to the average wage until then.
This new minimum wage was 3, escudos. In , a captain was earning 10, escudos. Portuguese officers were not poorly paid, given the country they were living in, and certainly not in comparison with the majority of the population earring close to the minimum wage.
This recurrent complaint clear reflects a very real and significant undercurrent of dissatisfaction. The key problem with making this the main trigger of the military coup of April is that this seems to have been a recurrent complaint of professional and conscripted officers for a long time. Portuguese Prepositions. Portuguese Connectors. Portuguese Question Words. Portuguese Numbers. Portuguese words similar to English.
Direct and Reported Speech. Useful Portuguese Phrases. Days Of The Week.
Phrases to get by - Brazilian Portuguese. Brazilian Portuguese phrases for second meeting.
Some Portuguese Bad Words. Difference Between Por and Para in Portuguese. Present Subjunctive in Portuguese.
Personal Infinitive in Portuguese.