First, open coding involves examining the data — which in this study was the list of words — for emergent themes.
The next stage was axial coding, in which the words were grouped together into categories based on their thematic similarity. It is possible that a romantic partnership, say, might be a blend of multiple flavours, and moreover that this mix may change dynamically over time.
For the purposes of poetic consistency, each category was labelled using one of the Greek words placed it. The final GT stage is selective coding, in which a single core category is identified, which in this case was love. Attempts are then made to elucidate how the main categories relate to this core category, thus telling a narrative which makes sense of the data. The first three categories pertain to love not oriented towards people per se, but towards other phenomena. This in itself distinguishes the approach here from Lee and Sternberg , who restricted themselves to love of people.
However, it was possible to group these phenomena into three main forms — experiences, objects, and places — which thus constitute the first three categories outlined below. The remaining 11 categories depict forms of love relating to other people, featuring the six types identified by Lee, together with five additional types. It should right away be emphasised that in classical Greece, philia did not signify anything sexual per se, as indeed neither does it necessarily today as per, for instance, Francophilia, a love or admiration for France.
This could be loosely translated as ardour, specifically with respect to one's own actions and creations. As a verb, meraki can express desire or longing for a specific activity, whereas as an adverb, one might undertake a task with a spirit of ardour, care and love. Besides the various philias that fall within the ambit of this term, other words helped shape this category. Some capture a passion and zest for life generally, including the Spanish nouns duende and vivencia , and the French phrase joie de vivre , with the latter an excellent example of an untranslatable phrase that has already been imported into English.
Other words denote appreciation or fondness for specific activities. As with meraki , this category encompasses a wide range of philias. Choosing an appropriate Greek term to represent this form of love was tricky, due to ambiguities and shifts in the meaning of terms over time and across contexts. In classical usage, the term tended to denote desire, often — but not exclusively — for people.
Moreover, it did not specify sexual desire, as it frequently tends to today hence the reservation over its selection. Sometimes such affection would be denoted through the philia suffix i. In the present analysis, this category was formed through the identification of various conceptually similar words — all valued in their respective cultures — that describe a deep, heartfelt connection to certain locales, particularly one's homeland.
I read The Flavours Of Love in two sittings, I wanted to do it in one but unfortunately on this occasion sleep won that competition but as soon as I woke up I had my head buried back in the book, and WOW. Ultimately, as alluded to previously, it seems the main way in which these can be distinguished is in terms of the strength of the passion or bond. Figure 1 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Trivia About The Flavours of Love. Forgot your username? View All. A special language Yes, it is a language.
For instance Coupland, Bishop, and Garrett , p. Of course, as has been noted already, philia is a contested, polysemous term, used in multiple ways. By contrast, in contemporary usage, as a suffix it is sometimes though by no means always used to represent sexual desire.
However, its selection here is guided by its usage in classical Greece, such as Plato and Aristotle's emphasis on friendship. Nestled within this category are various other words which pertain to close, affectionate friendship. There is one form of philia which does warrant its own category, since it is not a love of others, nor of experiences, objects or places. Rather, it is the unique phenomenon of loving oneself.
However, the term philautia admits positive and negative varieties. By contrast, its darker variant encompasses notions such as narcissism, arrogance and egotism. For instance, Browning , p.
Such love is quite different to usual companionship between friends, encompassing powerful sentiments of care, protection, and unconditional i. As with the other categories, various words pertain to this feeling. The second category of romantic love is labelled here as paixnidi. This was one of Lee's three primary forms of love, for which he used the Latin cognate, ludus. However, for consistency, the Greek paixnidi is preferred here. Both are nouns, meaning game or play. Moreover, both are multifaceted, capable of being deployed in positive or negative ways.
At a deeper level, in Western contemplative mystery traditions, the phrase ludus amoris depicted the divine play of God, in which God eludes and yet also entices the spiritual seeker Underhill, Comparable concepts, and concomitant terms, are found in other traditions, such as the Hindu notion of lila Kinsley, However, paixnidi and ludus can also have negative connotations, such as describing scheming and deception in relation to love. This form of love is often downplayed, or is not even regarded as love per se, as implied by Sternberg.
We come to the fifth and final type of romantic love — one that might be regarded as its deepest and most complete form, although it can also be associated with tragedy, as per the archetype of Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet. This type of love is strongly represented among the words analysed here. The term is closely associated with Greek versions of the Bible, in which it is prominent as the kind of unconditional love that God was depicted as holding towards humanity. In that context, Jesus implored his followers to emulate this in their relations with one another.
That is, a parent might feel unconditional, selfless love towards their child, such that they would sacrifice themselves to protect their progeny. Related too are words concerning the virtue of showing kindness and hospitality to others, even or especially to strangers, from melmastia in Pashto to ubuntu in Nguni Bantu. This penultimate type tends to be overlooked or underappreciated in discussions around love, mainly because people usually only refer to love in the context of stable or enduring relationships.
Indeed, Fredrickson argues that this is love, and that other forms, as discussed above, are essentially elaborations of these fleeting intimacies. However, here this type is included as one flavour among many. This momentary type of love is perhaps evoked by the French noun frisson , which depicts a sudden thrill, involving a potent combination of fear and excitement. This final form of love is also not often included in prominent typologies, like Lee's or Sternberg's This form of love combines the utmost of respect and devotion, together with darker elements such as fear, reflecting the power asymmetry of the dyad, which in the case of a relationship with God is essentially infinite Johnson, A somewhat similar form of devotional love, found within the Hindu tradition, is expressed by the Sanskrit term bhakti.
The Flavours of Love book. Read reviews from the world's largest community for readers. The Flavours of Love Paperback – by KOOMSON DOROTHY (Author) This was my first adventure into Dorothy Koomson's writing but several of my friends had suggested some of her works and I am glad that I listened to the recommendation.
However, in that cultural context, devotion can potentially take on different emotional qualities to those usually found within Western traditions, such as intimacy; this point shall be addressed further in the discussion below. Relatedly, there are words which pertain to other kinds of persons — aside from Gods — that may be a focus of such love, like the Sanskrit term guru , which describes a revered spiritual teacher or guide. This paper has sought to extend the typologies of love previously formulated by Lee and Sternberg To go beyond a merely descriptive typology, it will be helpful to understand the conceptual interrelationships between these different types.
With these forms, the fundamental dynamic appears to be appreciation: above all, the person takes pleasure or interest in the phenomenon in question Carlson, They may of course also care for these items, but this is not necessarily the case.
Nor is it the kind of deep concern and responsibility associated with love for family members, say. This brings us to the second category, caring love. Here the fundamental dynamic is arguably concern, in the sense of being in vested in the other person's welfare, with incumbent feelings of duty and responsibility Myers, Here the main dynamic is desire, i. Thus, one can see that this schema considerably extends the earlier typologies of Lee and Sternberg For as useful as their earlier efforts were, those typologies were limited to love for people, and often though not exclusively romantic forms of love.
Clearly, these are all different forms of love, as Lee and Sternberg would readily acknowledge. But there is no room in their schemas for the love I hold for those latter four items. After all, it could be argued that the concept of love is enriched through a degree of specificity and uniqueness. However, the prerogative of this paper is to reflect the way in which the term love functions in common discourse, where it covers a wide range of phenomena, as argued above. That said, this broader conception of love raises the question of the extent to which it differs from related stances such as liking.
Ultimately, as alluded to previously, it seems the main way in which these can be distinguished is in terms of the strength of the passion or bond. TODAY Time Choose an available time slot. Enter Guest Details. Madhura - Flavours of Love Film Nagar. Enter OTP Sent to false.
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Enter the password. There is also a tension within the story: Joel's killer is still out there somewhere roaming free and the reader is in suspense as to whether they will be caught and brought to justice. I very much enjoyed reading The Flavours of Love and found myself caught up in the story from the very first page.
It's a must for all Dorothy Koomson fans.
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Category: General Fiction. Reviewer: Jo Heffer.