The unique data from child language offer perspectives that cannot be drawn from adult language. The first part is dedicated to the acquisition of Spanish as a first or second language by typically-developing children, the second part offers studies on children who are at risk of language delays, and the third part focuses on children with specific language impairment, disorders and syndromes. Skip to main content Skip to table of contents. Advertisement Hide. Language Development and Disorders in Spanish-speaking Children. Front Matter Pages i-xvii. Front Matter Pages Sonia Mariscal, Alejandra Auza Benavides.
Pages Naomi L. Of its author, George of Montemayor, little is known: we neither know his name nor the date of his birth. Sidney evidently read the Diana with pleasure and knew it well. He translated two lyrics from the first book: Cabellos, quanta tnudanfa: " What changes here, O haire," and De tnerced tan estremada: " Oft this high grace with bliss conjoyn'd," and shows everywhere his intimate acquaintance with the Spanish pastoral. Speaking of Sidney's Arcadianism, the successor of Euphu- ism, Landmann says : " Sidney certainly avoided Euphuism, but he brought in another taste that led to the same exaggeration as North's translation [of Guevara] had led to in Eupheus.
Sidney was the first to introduce into England the shepherd romance, with its flowery lan- guage and endless clauses, its tediousness and sentimentality, which characterize the shepherds of Sannazaro's Arcadia, from Monte- mayor's Diana to the Astree. The Italian as well as the Spanish work shows an affected style of speech.
Sidney was probably influenced by the diction of both, etc. But the Arcadia is hardly a true pastoral romance; the action takes place in the highest classes of society, the chief figures being princes and princesses. Shepherds and shepherdesses play a very subordinate part, and while the influence of the Diana is of a general character, it is none the less clear to a careful reader. That Sidney's contemporaries had no doubt of the influence of the Diana upon the Arcadia is seen in the introductory letter to Sir Fulke Greville written by Thomas Wilson, the translator of the Diana, who says : Sr.
Philipp Sidney did very much affect and imitate the excellent Author there of," i. I, , pp. Every page of the introductory portion of Schonherr's work shows, moreover, his indebtedness to Mad. Carolina Michaclis de Vasconcellos. To this friend, whose kindness is as unfailing as her learning, I also owe much in this chapter on Montemayor.
It is probable that he was born between and For an account of his early years, very vague it must be confessed, we are indebted chiefly to his letter to Sa de Miranda, a sort of autobiography, written in , while Montemayor was temporarily residing at the Por- tuguese court. But he had a good knowledge of the earlier as well as the contemporary Spanish, Portuguese, Catalan and Italian poetry, which was certainly not to the detriment of his Muse. Montemayor's early years, he himself tells us, were de- voted chiefly to music, though while still a youth he prac- ticed the art of poetry. Halle, , p.
See Appendix. See his one hundred and eleventh sonnet, beginning : " Doces e claras aguas do Mondego. The year of his birth was probably about But the statement of this pedant should not be taken literally. Montemayor certainly knew some Latin, as his Cancionero amply shows. It is quite certain, however, that he was never enrolled at any University.
Lope de Vega praises Montemayor in his Laurel de Apolo fol. The verse: "si le ayudaran letras el ingenio," may be due to Perez. As already observed, we do not know the family name of Montemayor. It has been conjectured that he must have been related in some way to the family of Payva y Pina J However this may be, his parents must have been very poor. His father seems to have been a silversmith pla- ter o and probably of Jewish extraction.
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It is a letter to the Queen of Portugal, Da. Catharina, wife of D. Joao III. This conjecture, as Schonherr remarks, is further confirmed by a reference in the eighth stanza of Montemayor's poem La Historia de Alcida y Syluano in which the poet figures under the name Syluano. Here we read: " Baxo los altos pinos muy umbrosos con los de Pina siempre conuersaua, cuyo linaje y hechos generosos al son de su c. Y los de Payua alii por muy famosos sus virtudes heroycas celebraua," etc. I, pp. Carolina Melis de Vasconcellos writes me: " Vielleicht war sein Vater ein vaternamens-loser illegitimer Sprosling jenes Hauses [i.
Payva y! Sousa-Viterbo correctly ascribes, not to the Infanta Da. Maria, daughter of Joao III. It bears no date, but is endorsed I The first information we possess of Montemayor as an author is in , when he made his literary debut in Lis- bon. Maria, which 1 The letter is as follows : " Sefiora : Monte maior tiene ay a su padre y desea mucho que el Key my senor le haga merced de un oficio que pide: suplico a V. Nuestro senor guarde a V. Sobrescripto : Reyna my Sefiora. Archive historico portugues , p.
Sousa- Viterbo, an excellent scholar, blind in his later years, died on Janu- ary 20, Maria, who never wore the crown of Spain, see an interesting article by A. Costa Lobo, in the Archive historico portuguez, Vol. I , pp. In this he is in error, as Mad. Vasconcellos in- forms me, who says, " Ueberhaupt halte ich die Tochter Johann's III nicht mehr, wie ich friiher that, fur eine der Beschutzerinnen des Dichters, wie aus nachfolgenden Notizen hervorgeht. Vasconcellos says : " Wesentlich scheint mir dass nirgends ein Wort daruber verlautet dass Montemayor zu ihrem Gefolge gehorte.
Nicht einmal in dem ausfiihrlichen portug. Reisebericht, wo jeder musik- alischen Auffuhrung Erwahnung geschieht. Ueberhaupt weiss die Geschichte von keiner einzigen Musikkapelle die eine portug. At this time Monte- mayor was still in Portugal, in Lisbon doubtless, without office or employment. The earliest dated work of Montemayor is his Exposi- tion moral. In Spanien besass man seit Ferdinand und Isabella vorzugliche Kapellen.
Philip, besonders, bedurfte sicherlich nicht der Sanger u. Instrumentisten seiner Braut. Und wenn auch einer oder der andre vereinzelte Musiker von hier nach Spanien ging siehe Romances Velhos Beispiele sind eben Montemor u. Gregorio Silvestre so Kamen ungleich mehr von Spanien hierher. Ganze Kapellen mit Catharine u. Juana Die Princesa D. Maria nahm J so weit ich sehe wie ihre Tanten Beatrix u. Isabel ungeheuer viel Gold und Silbergerat, Teppiche, u. Stoffe als Aussteuer mit, aber keine Musicos.
Zu ihrer Kapelle nur: 6 namenlose mofos fur den Altar u. Mess dienst : Sammtliche bei S. Juana, wie der Vergleich lehrt. Montemayor, Cancionero, ed. Carolina Michaclis de Vasconcellos says that the pliego suelto in the National Library at Lisbon, which contains the above glosas, is without date, but certainly belongs to the year or at latest to Joao da Silva, und aus der Tatsache dass der Dichter, statt Selbstandiges zu schaffen, sich mit einer Glosse begnugte, schliesse ich dass wir es mit einem Erstlings- werk zu thun haben.
Dass M. Juana, was twenty-six years old in , and on September I7th of the same year was married to Maximilian II. In the latter became King of Bohemia, whither Da. Maria then accom- panied him , and Emperor in After his death, in , Da. Maria returned to Spain, where she died in It is this Princess Da. Maria for Bohemia in , or perhaps shortly before that time, Montemayor found another patron, and his chief one, in her sister, the Princess Da. Juana of Castile, into whose service he then entered. This is shown by a document published for the first time by Sr.
Sousa-Viterbo, in which D. Colo- phon : Esta presente obra fue vista y examinada por el muy reuerendo y magnifico senor el vicario general en esta metropoli de Toledo y con su licencia impressa en la universidad de Alcala por Joan de Brocar: primero del mes de Marc,o de MDXLVIII.
In the same Archives there is another document giving a list of the singers and musicians in the chapel of the In- fanta Dona Juana, in which we find the names of Miguel Frances de Carenina, Alfonso de Renteria, Antonio de Vil- hadiego, Jorge de Motemor, and others, who are each to receive 40, maravedis yearly. On December 5, , the Princess Da. Juana married the crown prince of Portugal, D. Joao, son of Joao III. After her marriage she went to Portugal with her husband, Montemayor returning with her from Valladolid, and was escreuanynha o metaes em pose dela e Ihe deyxes ir seruir e aver o dito ordenado como dito he, e os proes e precalgos que Ihe dereyta- mente pertemcerem sem nyso Ihe ser posto duvida nem ebargo alguu, por que asy he mynha Merce, e ele jurara na chancelaria que bem e verdadeiramente a syrua.
Antonio de Mello o fez em Almeirim a xiiij dias de margo de jbclj. Amdre Soarez o fez escrepver. Torre do Tombo, Chancellaria de D. Joao 3. Doagoes, liv. Archive Historico Portuguez , p. Donna Maria. Com outros varies todos do tempo do sr. Pirez de Tauora. Maria, Mad. Joao died on January 2, , and on Jan- uary 20 Da. Juana gave birth to a posthumous son, after- ward the unfortunate King Sebastao. On May 16, she left Portugal, being called home by the Emperor to assume the regency during the absence of Philip in England July J 3 J till September, and while he was in Flanders and France, whence he did not return till On this return journey of Da.
Juana to Valladolid, Monte- mayor was in her retinue, as we have just seen. In the stanza of the Canto de Orfeo relating to the Princess Dona Juana, Montemayor refers to the death of her husband, " espejo y luz de Lusitanos. In the next stanza " la gran Dona Maria, de Portugal infanta soberana " was the daughter of Emanuel and his third wife Eleonore, 3 and the allusion to the death of the latter 1 " Memoria das pessoas que veiram com a Princeza Da. Jorge de Montemayor, tern por meu apousentador outro tanto scil.
Leonor was the third wife of D. Manoel and the sister of Charles V. Speaking of the orphan chil- dren D. Maria and D. Catharina of the Infante D. Duarte , Mad. Joao e D.
It was to Prince D. Joao and to the Princess Da. Juana that Montemayor dedicated his Cancioncro, which first appeared at Antwerp in ; ' it is probable that he passed the latter part of or the early months of in Antwerp, seeing his book through the press. Sometime between and Montemayor resided at Seville, where he was on terms of intimacy with the poet Gutierre de Cetina, as an exchange of sonnets between them shows.
Primeiro a Infanta, no momento em que a perda da mae [i. Eleonore] a perturbou profundamente : " Mirad, Ninfas, la gran dona Maria," etc. In a note, the authoress adds : " A allusao a morte de D. Leonor serve para determinarmos a data como termo a quo da conclusao e publicacao da Diana" See the very interesting work: A Infanta D. Maria de Portugal Porto, En Anuers. Con priuilegio Imperial. Colophon: Fue impresso en Anuers, en casa de Juan Lacio, , sm. I possess the Salva copy of this very rare work. Cetina addresses him as Lusitano. Philip II. It is found in the reply of Montemayor to a letter of his friend, Sr.
This volume was kindly loaned to me by my friend, Dr. Horace Howard Furness. In the dedication, Montemayor begs the Duke to receive the work " debaxo de su amparo, como el autor dello ha estado siempre," etc. This was the third Duke of Sessa, in whom we find another patron of our poet. The lines quoted above are found on fol. In the ed. This poem, how- ever, was written in Latin see Bartolome Jose Gallardo, Ensayo de una biblioteca de libros raros y curiosos, tomo iv, no.
Puttenham prints 'Vargas'. In this poem our poet men- tions Petrarch, Bembo and Sannazaro, with whose writings he was certainly well acquainted. Indeed, in the Cancionero of , fol. Cancionero General, II, p. Condon No. Evidence of the fact that our poet was in the service of Philip II, in , is found in the " Soneto de Francisco de Soto, musico de Camara de su Magestad," in which he alludes to Montemayor as: muy excellente trobador Nombrase en cas del Rey Monte mayor.
I, No. En Anvers, En casa de luan Latio. Con PriuUegio. This latter part Salva, apparently, had never seen. It is carefully de- ed by Prof. Vollmoller in Romanise he Forschungen, IV, p. In the dedication, the poet states that " he has been labouring many days upon this book and communicating with many theologians, as well in these states of Flanders as in Spain. Montemayor died in Piedmont in Turin? That his death was sudden and violent, is shown, in addition to the testimony of Padre Ponce, to be cited presently, by the Elegy of Dorantes : " With tearful voice, O muse of mine now sing The dire misfortune and the sad event, The sudden death, grievous and violent Of Lusitano, for whom sorrowing All nature is in pitiful lament, And to the world your meed of sorrow bring.
Neither of these sonnets is found in the ed. He tells us that it was Monte- mayor's intention to celebrate in verse the discovery of the East Indies, but that death prevented, or rather that Vasco de Gama de- sired fhat the greatest empire in the world should be reserved for the greatest poet, i. He continues : " So great was the fame of Montemayor that there was not a house in which the Diana was not read, nor a street in which its verses were not sung, nor a con- versation in which its style was not extolled; everybody, however great, desired a personal acquaintance with its author, who was in- vited to that splendid entertainment which the Duchess of Sessa gave in her garden to the principal ladies of the Court.
Montemayor, en- tering with some servants of the Duke, in whose house he was then lodged, the Duchess introduced him to her guests, who inquired about the beauty of Diana, about the grievous action of the shepherd in marrying her, and about other things in his book, to which he replied with many gallantries, not a little proud of such good- fortune. The Marquise of Camarasa asked him : Sr. Montemayor, if you write such pleasing things about rustic shepherds, what would you do if you were asked to write about this garden, of these fountains ami these Nymphs which you see here?
To which Montemayor replied: All these things, my lady, are matter rather for wonderment than for the pen. And the Marquise of Guadalcassar, who was present at the entertainment, being asked what pleased her most, answered: the conversation of Montemayor.
The news was telegraphed to the Home Government, and caused a great sensation in Madrid. Preserved in the archives of the Corporation of Saint Augustine in Manila. Al fin un teatro con espesura. It is in two parts, bound in one volume, the first part con- taining three hundred and forty-six, the second part three hundred and ninety- four pages. Barrows, Mr. Je n'oublierai jamais.
That his life here was irksome to him he tells us in a letter to his friend, D. He has experienced the disillusionment that comes with years, and he longs to be back once more in his native land, by the quiet waters of the Mondego of his youth.
These longings he has here expressed with a sim- plicity and a charm that are indescribable, and which rank this poem among the very best that he has written. To which he replied : I will say not one merely, but two, and reciting that of St. John, he continued and now here is the other; that you are the most flowering wit of Spain.
This Epistola is not in the edition of Al campo de Mondego nos salgamos, Al pie del alto fresno, sobre el rio que los pastores tanto celebramos. The year in which it ap- peared is not certain, as the first edition printed at Valencia, is undated. In all probability it issued from the press in I En tu florido campo muy ufano, tu dulce primauera quien la oluida, sino quien a si proprio es inhumane? Aquella alta arboleda, aquella vida que a su sombra el pastor cansado lleua, y el aue oye cantar de amor herida. Aquel ver madurar la fruta nueua, aquel ver como esta granado el trigo, y el labrador quel lino a empozar lleua.
II, p. It bears neither date nor printer's name, but Salva says : " la im- primio positivamente Joan Mey" I have again examined the copy in the Ticknor library, Boston, which bears the factitious date I am now convinced that it was done with a pen. See the note in the Ticknor Catalogue, p. At the end: Fue impressa la presente obra en la muy noble y leal ciudad de Caragoga, en casa de Pedro Bernuz.
Aca- bose a veinte de Agosto, ano Of these I possess the Antwerp edition ; it does not contain the story of Abindarracz, which was first added in that of Valladolid, I am inclined to be- lieve that she is not. The only other important work of Montemayor besides those previously mentioned , is his translation of the Catalan poet Ausias March, which probably appeared at Valencia, before Salva, Catdlogo, Vol. It is of this work that Lope de Vega says : " Castissimos son aquellos versos que escriuio Ausias March en lengua Lemosina, que tan mal y sin entenderlos Montemayor traduxo.
Compuesta por el muy Reverendo Padre fray Bartholome Ponce. En Caragoqa, Impressa por Lorenzo de Robles. Ano There was an edition at Epila, Salva, Catdlogo, II, No. In the prologo he says: "Being at the Court of Philip II, in I I saw and read the Diana of Montemayor, which was at that time in such favor as I had never seen any book in the vernacular. Expressing a desire to know the author, I was introduced to him at the house of a friend. Taking courage to tell him that he was wasting time and talents in making rhymes and composing books of love, Montemayor, with a hearty laugh, replied: Padre Ponce, let the friars do penance for all ; as for the hijosdalgo, arms and love are their pro- fession.
May God have mercy on his soul, for I never saw him again. A few months after this, I was told how a good friend of his had killed him on account of jealousy, or some love-affair. Origenes, Vol. Schonherr, op. I may add that the ed. She is described as even then bearing traces of her former beauty, though more than sixty years old. This would fix her birth somewhere about , and would, of course, effectually dispose of the belief that an edition of the Diana existed as early as , when the heroine was only two years old.
She loved and was loved in return by a shepherd named Sireno, with a love chaste and pure. At the same time she was loved by another shepherd, Silvano, whom she, however, abhorred. It now happened that Diana, Marfida, Danteo and Floriano. In the opening lines Diana bewails the absence of Sireno: "Do estas, Sireno mio?
Now, we know that Sireno is the poeti- cal name assumed by Montemayor in the Diana, while the one he adopts in his poems is Lusitano; so there is no inconsistency. As the scene in this eclogue is also laid on the banks of " el claro rio Mondego celebrado," fol.
II, fol. II, col. II, Ch. See Bosqucjo historico sobre la Novela espanola, by D. Eustaquio Fernandez de Navarrete, pre- fixed to Vol. Since the first ed. For a while Diana grieved on account of his absence, but as time changed, her heart changed also, and she was married to another shepherd named Delio. Sireno, returning after a year's absence, learns of her marriage, " and here begins the first book, and in the remaining ones you shall find various histories of things that have really happened, although disguised beneath a pastoral style. That, in the early years of the seventeenth century, the story of the Diana was gener- ally believed to be founded upon an actual fact in Montemayor's life, can hardly be doubted.
Upon this point the testimony of Lope de Vega, given above p. Lope's memory he was born in the year following Montemayor's death certainly reached back to a time when everything concerning our poet was vivid in the minds of educated men; indeed, Lope may have had his information from one who had personally known Montemayor. His own pastoral romance, the Arcadia, was begun about , and we may well believe that his interest in the subject and in its celebrated exemplar, had long antedated this period.
This want of logical development, the failure to properly subordinate the var- ious incidents of the story and thus hold the attention of the reader, is a fault conspicuous not only in the Diana, but in all Spanish romances of its class. Many of the incidents in the Diana are quite improbable, and its beauty is often marred by an excessive sentimentality, at times bordering on the ridiculous. It is fair to presume that this was a well-known tradition at the time, As to the story related by Faria y Sousa in , we must admit that we should be on surer ground had it been vouched for by some more reliable chronicler.
Faria says that the lady celebrated as Diana was named Ana, and that she was one of the wealthiest persons in Valencia de Don Juan. It is, probably, of no significance in the present inquiry. But as already stated above, the germ of the Diana is present in the third Eclogue of Montemayor, though I am inclined to think that Diana and Marfida are different persons. Sidney's Arcadia shows some remarkable passages: "The sun drew clouds up to hide his face from so pitiful a sight, and the very stone wall did yield drops of sweat for agony of such a mischief: each senseless thing had sense of pity; only they that had sense were senseless.
O would to God that I had died obscurely, whilst my life might still have lived famous with others and my death have died with myself. Another shepherd complains : " O my dun-cow, I did think some evil was towards me ever since the last day thou didst run away from me, and held up thy tail so pitifully: did I not see an eagle kill a cuckoo, which was a plain foretoken unto me, Pamela should be my destruc- tion?
O wife Miso, if I durst say it to thy face, why didst thou suspect thy husband, that loveth a piece of cheese better than a woman," etc. IV, p. Or such verses as these, which can add nothing to Sidney's reputation : As I my little flock on Ister bank A little flock; but well my pipe they couth Did piping lead, the sun already sank Beyond our world, and e'er I got my booth, Each thing with mantle black the night doth scoth; Saving the glow-worm which would courteous be Of that small light oft watching shepherds see.
The welkin had full niggardly enclosed In coffer of dim clouds his silver groats, Ycleped stars ; each thing to rest disposed, The caves were full, the mountains void of goats : The birds' eyes clos'd; closed their chirping notes. As for the nightingale, wood-musick's king: It August was, he deign'd not then to sing. Page I have not read Sidney's Arcadia for many years, and no longer have a stomach for such pastime. Book II, fol. Belisa is determined to be wretched ; she says : " Muy gran consuelo seria para tan desconsolado coragon como este mio, estar segura de que nadie con palabras ni con obras pretendiesse darmele, por- que la gran razon, o hermosas Nimphas, que tengo de biuir tan enbuelta en tristezas como biuo, ha puesto enemistad entre mi y el consuelo de mi mal ; de manera que si pensasse en algun tiempo tenelle, yo misma me daria la muerte.
Their tears augment the streams and cause the grass to grow: " Mas que ventura ha guiado tan hermosa compania, a do jamas se vio cosa que diesse contento? Quien pensays que haze crescer la verde yerua desta ysla, y acrescentar las aguas que le cercan, sino mis lagrimas? Quien pensays que menea los arboles deste hermoso valle, sino la boz de mis sospiros tristes, que inflamando el ayre, hazen aquello que el por si no haria?
Porque pensays que cantan los dulces paxaros por entre las matas, quando el dorado Phebo esta en toda su fuerqa, sino para ayudar a llorar mis des- uenturas? A que pensays que las temerosas fieras salen al verde prado, sino a oyr mis continuas quexas? The shepherds are so overcome by this recital that they. The ' forgotten ' Syreno, coming from the mountain dis- tricts of Leon, arrives at the delightful meadows watered by the Ezla, and muses upon " the happy time when, in these fields and by these lovely banks, he tended his flocks.
Bieri pensaua yo, cabellos, aunque con algun temor que no fuera otro pastor digno de verse cabe ellos. Ay cabellos, quantos dias la mi Diana miraua, si os traya, o si os dexaua, y otras cien mil ninerias. LXVI p. Los ojos que me matauan, dezi, dorados cabellos, que culpa tuue en creellos, pues ellos me assegurauan? O cabellos, no os correys, por venir de a do venistes, viendome como me vistes, en verme como me veys? Sobre el arena sentada de aquel rio, la vi yo, do con el dedo escriuio: antes muerta, que mudada.
Mira el amor lo que ordena, que os viene a hazer creer cosas dichas por muger, y escritas en el arena. Replacing the " golden locks," he finds in his shepherd's scrip a letter, formerly written to him by Diana, which he reads, and " deeply sighing," says : " How could forget- ful ness ever enter a breast whence such words have is- sued? La noche a un amador le es enojosa, quando del dia atiende bien alguno, y el otro de la noche espera cosa qu'el dia le haze largo e importune; con lo que un hombre cansa, otro reposa, tras su desseo camina cada uno, mas yo siempre llorando el dia espero, y en viendo el dia por la noche muero.
Quexarme yo de Amor es escusado, pinta en el agua, o da bozes al viento, busca remedio en quien jamas le ha dado, que al fin venga a dexalle sin descuento ; llegaos a el a ser aconsejado, diraos un disparate, y otros ciento; pues quien es este Amor? Es una sciencia que no la alcanga estudio, ni esperiencia. Amaua mi senora al su Sireno, dexaua a mi, quic. A estar mi cielo algun dia sereno, quexara yo de amor si le anublaua, mas ningun bien dire que me ha quitado ; ved, como quitara lo que no ha dado?
Perceiving Sireno by the fountain, he draws near, and " they embrace each other with many tears. Silvano now re- lates how Diana at first pined during Sireno's absence, how he had once observed her lying upon the ground weep- ing ; how Diana then drew forth a small pipe, " and played so sweetly that the valley, the mountain, the river and the enamoured birds, even the wild beasts of the dense wood were charmed. Silvano, continuing, relates how, on approaching, he was invited by Diana to sit beside her. How he began to tell Diana of his love for her, whereupon she promptly inter- rupted him, saying: " If your tongue again dares to speak of your own affairs, and fails to speak to me of my Sireno, I shall leave you to enjoy this clear spring at your pleas- On hearing this Sireno sighs and asks whether Diana is happy since her marriage with Delio, to which ano replies : " They tell me that she is not happy, for though Delio, her husband, is rich in the gifts of fortune.
The result of all this sighing is that Montano marries Is- menia. Having finished her story, " Selvagia began to shed copious tears, and the shepherds aided her therein, for it was an occupation in which they had great experience. Silvano now appears, singing some octavas to the music of a lute; both sit down beneath the shade of a dense myrtle, and with many sighs and a fair amount of tears, they relate to each other their imaginary woes.
To Silvano's query " perhaps thou knowest some remedy for our ills? Do- rida now sings of the love of Diana and Sireno, much to the astonishment of Sireno, who is concealed behind the trees. The whole story is sung in a long cancion, of which one of the strophes is as follows : Diana speaks: Toma, pastor, un cordon que hize de mis cabellos, porque se te acuerde en vellos que tomaste posesion de mi coragon y dellos. Y este anillo as de lleuar do estan dos manos asidas, que aunque se acaben las vidas, no se pueden apartar dos almos que estan unidas. Sireno gives to Diana his shepherd's crook and his lute, " to which he has sung to her a thousand condones, re- counting her perfections.
Y aunque a Diana le di6 pena rabiosa y mortal la ausencia de su zagal, en ella misma hallo el remedio de su mal. Scarcely had Dorida finished her song, when three wild men, " very tall and ugly," rush out of the wood, seize the nymphs and bind their hands. Now the shepherds spring from their ambush and attack the giants with slings. The nymphs turn out to be priestesses of Diana, and the rescuing maiden, whose name is Felismena, now relates her story. After a brief account of her early years, she informs us how, at the age of seventeen she was be- loved by Don Felix, whose love, at first, she did not return.
Don Felix sends a letter by Rosina, the maid of Felismena, which letter the latter rejects, saying: " If I did not ob- serve who I am and what might be said, I should mark your face which shows little modesty so that it were easily known among all others. And so the day passed till night, mid various thoughts. To which she answered dryly : ' My lady, these are things that love brings with it ; I beg you to for- give me, for if I had thought that it would anger you, I would rather have torn out my eyes.
Show it to me. It is nothing, my lady, said she. Show it to me, and do not make me angry, or tell me what it is. Why, my lady, do you wish to see it? It is the letter of yesterday. That is surely not so, said I ; show it to me; I will see whether you told the truth. Scarcely had I spoken, when she placed it in my hand, and I, though knowing it very well, said, truly it is not the same and you must be in love with some one. I wish to read it, and see what he writes to you.
And so the lovers were happy for some time, till it came to the knowledge of the father of Felix, who sent him to the court of the great princess Au- gusta Csesarina, to gain some knowledge and experience of the world. Felismena, however, could not bear the separation, but determined to do " what never woman thought of to dress in male attire, visit the court, and see him in whose sight rested all my hope. Felismena now enters the service of Don Felix as a page, under the name of Valerio, and soon gains the confidence of his master to such a degree that the latter makes Valerio his confidant, telling him of his love for Celia and reading the contents of Celia's letters to him.
Don Felix now sends a letter to Celia by his page Valerio, the result of which is that Celia falls deeply in love with the latter. The peculiar dilemma in which Valerio found himself or her- self , was suddenly resolved by the death of Celia, who, finding her love for Valerio unrequited, fell in a swoon, from which she never awoke. At this news Don Felix dis- appeared.
Two years had elapsed since then, and during all this time Felismena has been in search of the faithless Don Felix. End of Book ii. At the conclusion of Felismena's story all proceed to the temple of Diana, to find some solace for their suffer- ings. They had not journeyed long, when they came to a beautiful lake, in the midst of which was a small island upon which they saw a hut and a flock of sheep. Pass- ing over the water " upon stones placed in a row," Poly- doro enters the hut and finds a shepherdess sleeping therein, " whose beauty causes no less astonishment that if Diana herself had appeared before their eyes.
The beautiful shepherdess is Belisa, who presently relates how an old shepherd named Arsenio, whose wife had died, fell in love with her.
Arsenio, how- ever, had a son Arsileo who, in addition to being hand- somer than Arsenio, had the advantage of being somewhat younger. Arsileo is also a poet and writes the verses which his father, Arsenio, sends to Belisa. Since then Belisa wanders about only wishing for death. All the shepherds shed copious tears on hearing this tale, and invite Belisa to accompany them to Diana's temple. End of Book iii. All finally arrive at a magnificent palace, where they are graciously received by the wise Felicia, who bids them have no fear of the ills that pursue them, as she has a remedy for them.
Over the doorway of the palace, which is built of jasper, silver, and various marbles, are two nymphs bearing tablets of copper on which is the following inscrip- tion in letters of gold : Quien entra mire bien como ha biuido, 1 etc. They enter a magnificent hall adorned with ivory and alabaster, and here, by a spring of pure silver, sits Orpheus, who touches his harp at the ap- proach of the group and sings a song Canto de Orpheo in praise of famous Spanish women.
Proceeding further they come to a spacious lawn, where they sit down, and having dined sumptuously, Felismena relates the story of Abindarraez. As already observed, this story was added to the Diana after the death of Montemayor. End of Book iv. Felicia now proceeds to cure the lovers of their ills. She appears with two goblets of fine crystal, one of which she hands to Sireno and the other to Selvagia and the unloved Silvano, saying : " take this goblet, in which you will find the best remedy for all your past misfortunes.
When Felicia thinks Cf. So Silvano, on awaken- ing, forgets entirely his former love for Diana, but becomes enamoured of Selvagia, who, in turn, forgetting Alanio, falls in love with Silvano. These three then return to their flocks, and now, for the first time we meet with Diana. The voice of a shepherdess is heard singing, and is recognized by Silvano. She sits by the fountain and sings : 44 Quando yo triste nasci, luego nasci desdichada; luego los hados mostraron mi suerte desuenturada," 1 etc.
But Sireno remains unmoved by her song, and they pro- ceed on their way. Felismena now leaves the company, going homeward, and on her way sees a shepherd's hut, which she enters and finds therein Arsileo, the lover of Belisa, who had not been slain by the arrow of his father, as Belisa had supposed, but Alfeo, a great sorcerer and the rejected suitor of Belisa, had conjured up two spirits to represent Arsenio and Arsileo, and the whole scene in which Arsenio shoots his son, merely out of revenge against Belisa. End of Book v. Though quite freed of his love for Diana, yet, once, on coming to the spring of the Alders, Sireno thinks of the happy past and feels lonely, because at all times " the memory of a happy state causes a feeling of solitude in him who has lost it.
See Origenes, p. Memoria, quereys oirme? Los dias, las noches buenas, paguelos con las setenas, no teneys mas que pedirme ; todo se acabo en partirme como veys, dexadme, no me canseys. Campo verde, valle umbroso donde algun tiempo goze, ved lo que despues passe, y dexadme en mi reposo; si estoy con razon medroso, ya lo veys, dexadme, no me canseys. Vi mudado un corac.
Corderos, y ouejas mias, pues algun tiempo lo fuistes, las horas ledas, o tristes passaronse con los dias; no hagays las alegrias que soleys, pues ya no m'enganareys. Here " soledad " is evidently used in the sense of the Portuguese " saudade. At the conclusion of the song Diana was shedding copious tears, " and with a sigh, in company with which her soul seemed to have gone forth," she arose, and braiding her golden hair, disappeared in the valley. End of Book vi.
Felismena, on her journey, arrives at a beautiful city by a majestic river. It recalls to her mind the great city of Soldina, " her birthplace, from which Don Felix had caused her exile ". From the language of two shepherdesses, Ar- mia and Duarda, whom she meets, she learns that she is in 1 1 append Bartholomew Yonge's translation of the first stanza : Passed contents what mean ye? Forsake me now, and doe not wearie me. Wilt thou heare me, O memorie? My pleasant daies, and nights againe, 1 have appaid with sevenfold paine : Thou hast no more to aske me why, For when I went, they all did die, As thou dost see, O leave me then, and doe not wearie me.
Another gloss upon the first three verses was written by Vincente Espinel, Diversas Rimas, Madrid, , fol. Floresta, I, p. And the castle before them is called in the Portuguese tongue " Monte-Mor o Velho, 1 where force of genius, valor and courage have remained as trophies of the deeds which its inhabitants performed in the past, 2 and whose ladies and gentlemen are adorned with all virtues. A esperanga nao me val pola causa em que se tern, nem promete tanto bem quanto a saudade faz mal: mais amor, desconfianqa, me derao tal calidade, que nem me mata saudade, nem me da vida esperanga.
Erraraose se queixarem os olhos com que eu olhei, porque nao me queixarei em quanto os seus me lembrarem; nem podera hauer mudanc. For the valiant deeds to which Montemayor here alludes, see Mencndez Pidal, La l. Dresden, , pp. Besides this, a short cancion which precedes, beginning " Os tempos sc mudario," and Danteo's conversation generally, are in Portuguese.
Just as Felis- mena is about to reconcile these lovers, her attention is at- tracted by the voice of a combat. Upon an island in the stream she sees a knight struggling with three assailants, one of whom he kills, but the others press the knight so hard, that Felismena draws her bow and slays them. The knight turns out to be Don Felix, who is forgiven by Felis- mena. At this moment Dorida, the messenger of Felicia, appears with two goblets, one of silver and the other of gold, and bids Felix drink of the former, to forget his love for Celia, and of the latter, to heal his wounds.
All now return to the temple of Diana, where Felix and Felismena, Selvagia and Silvano are united and, it is pre- sumed, live happily ever thereafter. The fate of Danteo and Duarda the author reserved for a second part. Perhaps a few words may here be said upon the prin- cipal episodes of the Diana. That of the enchantress Fe- licia, priestess of Diana, and the magic potion she admin- isters to the lovers to cure them of their ills, is a very old one in literature.
As to the story of Felix and Felismena Book II , upon which Shakespeare is said to have founded his Two Gentle- men of Verona, a like expedient of a young lady disguis- ing herself as a page to serve her lover, occurs in Bandello 1 Cervantes, speaking of the Diana, puts these words in the mouth of the priest : " To begin, then, with the Diana of Montemayor. I am of the opinion it should not be burned, but that it should be cleared of all that about the sage Felicia and the magic water, and of almost all the longer pieces of verse: let it keep, and welcome, its prose and the honor of being the first of books of the kind.
A like incident forms the basis of the plot of one of Lope de Rueda's best comedies, called Comedia de los Enganos. Indeed the plot of this comedy is very similar to the story in Bandello; 2 in both cases the twin-brother of the heroine 1 Underbill shows that Shakespeare's version is due to the story of Montemayor, not to the novel of Bandello. He says that Shakes- peare seems to have been ignorant of Spanish, nor is it probable that he had access to any English translation, unless it be Googe's eclogue.
See my Spanish Stage, p. The first trace of Montemayor's Diana in any other literature is found in the fifth and seventh Eglogs of Barnabe Googe , and from the latter's very free and greatly abridged version of Felismena's story in the fifth eclogue, Shakespeare, it has been suggested, might have taken his story; but Googe's version would have given him a very imperfect idea of the story, as it omits some of its most essential features.
But why could not Shakespeare have used the French translation of the Diana by Nicolas Colin, which appeared in , and of which there were editions in and ? I possess the latter edition to which the other two parts have been added, translated by Gabriel Chappuys. Perhaps the critics will deny that Shakespeare had suffi- cient knowledge of French to read these versions.
Did Shakespeare only begin his study of French in , when he became a lodger in the house of Christopher Monjoy, at the corner of Silver and Monk- well Streets? For the influence of the Diana upon other literatures, see the excellent account of Menendez y Pelayo, Origenes, I, pp. IX, p.
Lope de Rueda flourished as an actor and author from about 1 to 1 , while Mpnte- mayor wrote the Diana between and Monte- mayor doubtless saw Rueda's plays performed in the public squares, for Rueda enjoyed great popularity throughout Spain. However this may be, both had a source near at hand. The same story was afterward greatly elaborated by Tirso de Molina in one of his most famous comedies, Don Gil de las Colzas verdcs.
It does not appear in the first edition of the Diana ? He says: Apart from mere priority of date, the play itself reveals Bandello's indebtedness to it. Piccolomini, Archbishop of Patras, one of the Intronati. Concerning the sources of Lope de Rueda's comedies, see the very interesting article by A. Stiefel, in the Zeitschrift filr Roman. XV, pp.
See the article La Espanola de Florenda by Prof. Stiefel, in Bausteine zur roman. Rosenberg, Phila- delphia, Literatur und Kunst in Spanien, Vol. Ixv, of the excellent intro- duction by the editor, Sr. Emilio Cotarelo. Menendez y Pelayo, Origenes, I, p. Montemayor, it will be remembered, died in Feburary, Ticknor maintains that Montemayor took the story from the Inventario of Antonio de Villegas, of which he cites an edition of I56I.
I have carefully read the two works side by side, and made many excerpts from them, where they either agreed word for word, or where the sim- ilarity was so great that it was evident one must have been 1 History of Spanish Lit. Salva, Catd- logo, I, No.
It is not a question here as to the origin of this tradicion popular, as Gayangos calls it, the principal personage of which was an historical character, Rodrigo de Narvaez, but one of priority in these two versions, of which the shortest, the simplest and the one written with most naturalness and good taste, is undoubtedly that of Villegas, and there can hardly be any doubt that the version in the Diana is merely an amplification of it, inserted in the work by some dishonest book-seller.
Menendez, moreover, does not think that Villegas is the author of the story as it appears in his ;;tario, but that he and the refundidor of the Diana version are equally guilty of plagiarism, the original being the very rare Cronica del inclito infante D. Fernando, que gand d Antequera: en la qual trata coma se casaron d hurto el Abendarraxe sic Abindarraes con la linda Xarifa, etc. In his Ortgenes, I, p. See also ibid. There is no need to say anything here of the merits of the Diana; its beauties have been so aptly pointed out and so competently discussed, that further praise would be superfluous.
Pages and of the Diana are almost identical, word for word, with pages loo and of the Inventario. I possess a copy of the edition of Medina del Campo, , and also of a reduced fac-simile of the story of Villegas, with the title-page: El Abencerraje de Antonio de Villegas, En Medina del Campo im- presso, por Francisco del Canto. This fac-simile, I think, is due to Sr. We may with absolute confidence accept the opinion of Menendez y Pelayo, who says: "La Diana es la mejor escrita de todas las novelas pas- toriles, sin exceptuar la de Gil Polo.
This ' second part ' Montemayor never wrote, but in three years after his death Alonso Perez, a physi- cian of Salamanca, about whose life we know nothing, published at Valencia a Second Part of the Diana of George Montemayor. We learn, moreover, that before Montemayor left Spain he had communicated the plan of the second part of the Diana to Perez, which was that JDelio, the husband of Diana, having died, the latter should i -ireno, but Perez suggested that Diana re- main a widow at the end of the book, and that her hand be sought by Sireno and other suitors, as this would leave the way open for a third part.
To this, he says, Monte- mayor assented. That the pedantic physician had no small opinion of his own ability is evident, for he observes that Montemayor would have been better equipped for his task had he pos- sessed a knowledge of Latin. This of course Perez had 1 According to Nicolas Antonio, it also appeared at Alcala in the same year. Menendez y Pelayo re- marks that the most casual inspection of the volume, for to read it entirely is almost impossible, shows that San- nazaro's Arcadia and Ovid's MetoJMfphose..
Though finished in , Yong first printed his Diana in London, in He seems to have passed nearly three years in Spain, returning in His translation of the prose por- tions of the Diana is very faithful to the original his rendering of the verse, however, is very unfortunate. I purpose publishing this soon. To whom, with a seemly blush, as partly ashamed thereat, she saide in this sort. It is now no time my deere Sylvanus to use circumstances of such arte, where there is no cause, neither doe they well become this place.