See also the Turabian citation guide.
See also the official Chicago Manual of Style website. A citation is a reference to a source.
A citation consists of an abbreviated alphanumeric expression e. Generally the combination of both the in-body citation and the bibliographic entry constitutes what is commonly thought of as a citation whereas bibliographic entries by themselves are not.
In your text, when you need to give a reference for a claim or assertion, you would use a citation , linked to your full bibliography at the end of your work. There are two main systems for doing this:.
Secession is a detachment of a territory from an existing state with the aim of creating a new state on the detached territory. Secession is usually an outcome of. This research companion has the following three complementary aims. First, to offer an overview of the theoretical approaches to secession. Second, to outline.
The Oxford Referencing System relies on footnotes. The first time you reference a publication, you would give a footnote reference, for example:. Footnote 3, in this example, would contain the complete bibliographic reference see above to the relevant publication.
The concepts of strategic management, supply chain management, port and transport economics and economic and transport geography are applied The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism. This entry has no external links. Applied ethics. Add one.
When you subsequently reference the same source, you should include a further footnote, but this time you need only include the author, date of publication, and page number if appropriate, for example:. The Harvard Referencing System does not use footnotes for references.
Instead, the reference is always given in the main text as the author's name and date of publication, and where a direct quotation is used the page number should also be given. For example:.
In both the Oxford and Harvard systems, you must include a full bibliography at the end of the chapter, article, or book, containing all of the references in full bibliographic form, as shown on this page, in several widely-used styles. I have published an article which examines the content of the Inter-American Democratic Charter and its application in Latin America and the Caribbean, and an article which reflects on the theory and practice of an enforceable international right to democracy in the broader global context.
Most recently, I began a book project probing the historical evolution and current dilemmas of the norm of territorial integrity. This research grows out of, and will build upon, my work on state recognition. Sovereign statehood and territory are interrelated concepts which share one crucial characteristic: they are both regulated not just domestically but also internationally. International society has institutionalized standards of not only legitimate sovereign statehood but also of legitimate territorial possession.
The norm of territorial integrity in international relations, specifically, embodies the twin notions that 1 the territorial unity of a sovereign state cannot be disrupted against the will of its government, and 2 the protection of that territorial unity is not just a national, but an international responsibility. Recent invocations of the norm helped generate conflicts in various parts of the world, leading in the Balkans and the Caucasus to great power disputes over its actual meaning. This practical need to make sense of territorial integrity, coupled with the relatively underdeveloped scholarly understandings of the norm, call for a systematic and comprehensive investigation.
Innumerable global and regional documents espouse territorial integrity as a fundamental norm of international relations and law.
However, despite reflexive diplomatic invocations of the term, the last twenty years have seen various controversies over its actual meaning. Most consequential for international order have been the intense disputes set off in by two seemingly like cases of foreign recognition of unilateral secession: the US-led recognition of the independence of Kosovo from Serbia and the Russian-led recognition of the independence of Abkhazia and South Ossetia from Georgia.
Taking these controversies as the starting point, the project will offer the first book-length examination of the idea and historical practice of territorial integrity in world politics. Skip to main content. Bio In the course of my M. High Res Photo