I have to "trick" a guy or two into reading her by putting them into a Cinder book club for class and then all of the sudden they are off and devouring the Lunar Chronicles as if it were their own idea - what more could a teacher ask for? Thank you, Marissa! See all questions about Heartless….
Lists with This Book. Community Reviews. Showing Rating details. More filters. Sort order. Dec 22, C. Drews added it Shelves: read , magical-fantasy , young-adult , retelling. It started off so so well with immense amounts of baking and the promise of the bizarre and creative nonsense that every Wonderland retelling should hold.
But then Sadly, the only Wonderland story that's impressed me so far is Splintered.
Small girls curtseyed and presented bouquets of flowers or in the case of Mary Oppenheimer a gift of diamonds from Kimberley was given. Mindful of the wise saying, "if the Rajadid not punish the guilty, the stronger would roast the weaker like a fish on the spit," he began the work of reform with an iron hand. Gleaning upon her previous works, Marissa Meyer has always been good at crafting unique, captivating, and well-rounded characters. With their relentless Captain leading the chase, they embark on the final hunt, one that will forever change the worlds of whales and men. O, the theatre was made to be my constant downfall. On her way out, she meets Jest, the handsome and mysterious court joker with a rhyming Raven.
Everything else And Heartless falls into the puddle of squash too. Specifically cake, but ya know, I love dessert in general. This book is literally the foodie bookworm's dream come true. There's so many descriptions!! Food plays a big part of the plot!! It makes you so hungry!! I think I ate a few pages!!! I love this!! Not enough though, which is annoying to me because hello??? There were talking animals and rhymes and a king with the brain capacity of a peanut, and of course the famed croquet with flamingos and mad hatter's tea party!!!
Because omg so much. He's the love interest, in a sort of "forbidden" romance as he's the King's jester and the King is courting Cath our protagonist Jest has lemon yellow eyes shh I don't know either, but it works and he's a wickedly good magician, but keeps his tricks simple and fun. And he's adorkable and charming and sweet and dude. I love Jest. I wasn't a fan of Hatta the Mad Hatter because I couldn't really tell what he was on about.
Cath is BFFs with her maid, Mary Ann, and they make these dreams of starting a bakery together and they're really close and it's awesome. I was here for people to be screeching with madness but they bordered more on just the "insufferably stupid" lines instead of "intriguingly mad" which I was hoping for.
Remember the Lunar Chronicles with kickass women fighting oppression and punching things and making clever plans and sacrficing things for people they loved??? The entire plot of Heartless is: a spineless whingey girl tries to avoid marrying the king but not by doing anything active, just by whining about it in her room a lot. She was as interesting as a vanilla cupcake. With no frosting. Like seriously.
Surely there were other girls in Heart who could bake?? Because that seemed to be the only interest he had in her: "ooh she makes cupcakes I shall marry her". And yes he did sprout the "You're different, Cath! Can we let that line die? Thank you? But I honestly don't get whyyyyy he liked her. She felt so pathetic. Plus she could NOT do a thing for herself, like make a decision or a stand, until she had a boy supporting her. Did it take a nap whilst this book were written? Look I avoid Historical Fiction because I can't stand how sexist it is. I get that it's historically accurate.
But we have a fantasy worlds with magical pumpkins and a Jabberwock eating people and we can't have equality???????? Especially when Cath never fought it. I didn't like the names?!? I mean, Cath Pinkerton I'm sorry. See aforementioned point of the only plot is "avoid avoid avoid marriage". So yeah it's a prequel and Cath isn't lopping off heads yet, but I mean the most exciting action scene was a cake getting cut basically.
Maybe Cath. And I have no cake. What kind of twit is she??? And when Jest died I was sad, yes, because I love Jest. But I also was just annoyed because everyone mad dumb decisions and it was an avoidable death so ARGH. Plus Cath's pendulum personality swing??? How am I supposed to believe this insipid girl could suddenly turn into a wild blood-thirsty queen? It was too sudden and too unfounded. In case you couldn't tell. Let's be real. Although the cake makes up for it a lot. I tell you: go into this book with snacks handy.
And it was clever and creative and I loved that about it! Because hopefully it'll be a lot more bloody. But seriously I like dark bloody retellings. View all comments. Amy Hahaa yes! Jun 23, PM. Becky Ginther Haha, I agree with almost everything - this is about my review but you've written it in a much more humorous manner than I could have! Jun 29, AM. Feb 16, Emily May rated it really liked it Shelves: fairy-tales , , arc , young-adult. This was so good. Meyer's writing and stories just seem to keep improving, and her latest foray into the world of Alice in Wonderland was exactly the right combination of prophecy, romance, Victorian-style female repression, and weirdness.
It was unputdownable. Also: I really really want macarons right now.
I mentioned this before, but I'm starting to understand why I enjoy Meyer's retellings so much. She gets the balance just right. Her fairy tales contain characters and references that make them instantly recognizable the phrase "fairy tale retelling" isn't just thrown around as a marketing tool. Without having to be told, anyone could read this book and understand where it gets its inspiration. However, that's also just what it is - more inspiration than retelling.
This book can be enjoyed whether you like the original or not. It stands on its own with a full cast of strong characters, and its own unique plot that doesn't just feel like the same old story told with some modern slang thrown in. It's perfectly weird without being too weird to be honest, the original gives me a fond nostalgic feeling, but it's a bit too nonsensical for me. Heartless is about Catherine - daughter of a Marquess, talented baker, and likely future bride to the King of Hearts.
Look around. To be a servant. All Cath wants is to open a bakery and unleash her goodies on the world just a warning - this is not a good book for dieters! The stifling nature of this world is palpable and infuriating, making you turn the pages in angry desperation. Not only does Cath not want to be a court lady, but her heart most definitely does not belong to the insipid King of Hearts. With a sexist society to raise your blood pressure and a forbidden love story to make your heart beat faster , just throw a murderous Jabberwock in and it's easy to see how the pages start to fly by.
But if this seems a little tame to you after all the craziness of The Lunar Chronicles - have no fear! Madness and nastiness are just around the corner. Meyer knows just how to tick all our boxes. Heartless is a nasty, evil book, but we also have the hilarious Cheshire, the sexy Joker, the yummy food, controlling parents, and strange riddles. The ending is perfect, but it makes me sad that this is just a standalone. Not that it feels unfinished Nov 08, Khanh, first of her name, mother of bunnies rated it really liked it.
Then he began to unravel from the tip of his tail, a slow unwinding of his stripes. Fortunately, I was wrong. This book was great. Don't get me wrong, it was unexpectedly dark at some points, but it was also adowwwable because only a stone cold dead dying heart can resist the absolutely wuvable talking Cheshire Cat. Seriously, he was so cute. And apparently I do not have a stone cold dead dying heart. It was magical, and adorable, and I really can't pull out any big fancy words so describe it, because "magical and adorable" describes it so perfectly, and yet it wasn't sickening sweet.
It was just right. I have to admit, I have never read Alice in Wonderland in its entirety. I've watched the movies, of course, but they weren't particularly memorable to me, and so I think that's what contributed to much of this book's appeal. Talking animals and magic everywhere, yet so commonplace that it feels like home. The beginning of this book surprised me with its frothiness.
There is a lot of baking in this book, and the beginning was the equivalent of a strawberry cream puff, it was so lighthearted that the gradual darkening and the development of Catherine she who is to be Queen of Hearts almost sneaks up on you. She stared at the girl in the mirror, the one who looked as though she had never known a smile. I can't say that this was the best book I've ever read. I feel like this was a very long book, and it could have been condensed without losing much of its content, and Meyer's writing style, while readable, is neither memorable nor special.
Regardless, I thoroughly enjoyed this book. View all 28 comments. LOL Lets freaking do this party people!!! This made it to my favorites lists! And just look at the gorgeous cover! I was lucky enough to get a magnetic bookmark and a recipe! Although, I don't think I have ever read a prequel to the Alice story but Marissa Meyer pulled this one off brilliantly.
In my opinion anyway. I am in love with Jest! I love all of the characters, even the evil characters are written beautifully! I am just in love with this book and oh the name "Heartless" had meaning on so many levels. You will find out when you read it. All Cath wants in life is to have her own bakery with her best friend. But that is not to be, she can't do something as lowly as that, her parents want her to marry the King of Hearts. Sigh, Cath doesn't want to marry him, he's just, no.
She already does in their part of the world anyway. Then Cath meets the wonderful Jest and has to figure out how she can love him and do what her parents and the King want at the same time. There are wonderful creatures in the book as there always is in Wonderland.
Rocking-horse flies, with are really little rocking horse flies that are really horses and they fly lol. Talking candles, animals, and everything else in between. We have Hatta who makes the brilliant hats of course, we have rabbit and the jabberwock and things and stuff and what not.
It is just filled with great things. But not all things in fairy tales have a happily ever after. It's very sad and I hated it but it put a new insight on things to come. Even so, I still loved the book so much! View all 81 comments. Oct 23, Hailey Hailey in Bookland rated it it was amazing Shelves: owned , retellings , fantasy.
I decided to reread this in a 24 hour period because I want to write a paper on it which is of course due in a couple of days. I loved it even more the second time around! Original reading October 4. I was sent the audiobook to review and do a giveaway on my channel soon! My video review will be up soon but for now, my 2 main points are: this did a great job of capturing the atmosphere of the original Alice stories, but it was lacking in the fact that it was a bit slow.
The plot could have been refined a tad.
The royal pendant (The marvellous adventures of the king of Nunar Book 1) - Kindle edition by Alessandro Sola. Download it once and read it on your Kindle. The royal pendant The marvellous adventures of the king of Nunar Book 1, Il ciondolo reale Le meravigliose avventure del Regno di Nunar Vol 1 Italian Edition.
But I highly recommend the audiobook. It is so so good! View all 9 comments. Review will be posted once we are closer to release day Heartless was beautifully tragic. I have no words to describe just how broken this book has left my heart. That ending You might have a new favorite coming soon. View all 41 comments. I think this book put me in a reading slump. Do I have no idea of my own interests? Because I truly thought this would end up on my all-time favorites shelf, my first add to an as-yet-nonexistent favorites list.
Is that not a fair expectation? After all, Alice in Wonderland is my favorite book, Marissa Meyer one of my favorite authors. This came in the best Owlcrate subscription box of all time. The rating is high. What went wrong for this book? Okay, we continue!! Wonderland is a masterpiece, a marvel, a beautiful place where nothing makes sense and everyone is mad. This was just the Lunar Chronicles, with a shitty half-hearted attempt at a mid-nineteenth century twist and various direct quotes and concepts from Wonderland forced in.
This was an uncreative disappointment. This really was just an insult to the setting of Wonderland. The real one, not Wonderland. And that goal? I am shaking with anger. Give me some stakes! Sure, she wants love, whatever, but like A surprising amount of time, actually. Get it? Like, that series takes place partially in space? Okay, fine. As a reader, I felt like they met a couple of times and then I was suddenly supposed to buy them as a Titanic-level epic love story.
Jest was a total snooze for me. I guess I have durable nerves? Is it weird to say I hate the way her mind works? I was sick of being stuck inside her cyclical, repetitive complaining. Plus she makes dumb choices, and goes from as cavity-inducingly-sweet as the in-depth descriptions of her pastries to having a legit anger management issue in a hot second. And in some ways that happened? Those ways being that we were given a plotline.
But the emotions changed in one massive leap. Like the definition of bipolar disorder so misleadingly given in When We Collided! One that made me, alone in my room, go What? But this book was also just boring. It never grabbed me. It honestly could be my fault. It just felt sooooo long. In terms of positives, I liked that Jest wore eyeliner. More of that in male love interests, please. Valeria Potter I definitely agree about the boring part. It was boring and long lol.
But I liked it? Jun 24, AM. Kayla Valeria Potter wrote: "I definitely agree about the boring part. The way everyone talks and the descriptions of things were really intriguing to me. Shame though, it didn't do well with the plot or characters for me. Dec 23, Nat marked it as dnf Shelves: arc. All Catherine wants is to be declared the office tart baker of the kingdom.
She and her best friend, Mary Ann, dream of launching their very own bakery. The King of Hearts was about to propose to her in front of the whole crowd, but the idea of marrying him seemed preposterous to her. Queens did not gossip with half-invisible cats. Queens did not have dreams of yellow-eyed boys and wake up with lemon trees over their beds.
On her way out, she meets Jest, the handsome and mysterious court joker with a rhyming Raven. And Jest also turns out to be the boy from her dreams… literally. She blinked. She scowled.
His humor was right up my alley. It's truly been awhile since I've welcomed a book-romance with open arms. And I'm glad Jest, with his quick smiles and witty remarks, was the one I was waiting for. Plus, when Jest stole her away for a midnight rendezvous - aka a tea party with the Mad Hatter - happiness coursed to the ends of my limbs. I was anticipating every little encounter they had. I don't know what happened, but my heart just wasn't in it anymore. I gradually started losing intrest in the characters and their arcs. I think I just need to take a break from fantasy for awhile and then eventually come back so I don't feel like I'm forcing myself to read my most anticipated read of the year.
Marissa Meyer is one of the most talented writers, and I'm really hoping that when I pick this book up again, I'll enjoy it more than I can now. DNF p. ARC kindly provided by the publisher in exchange for an honest review. If you're interested in buying Heartless , just click on the image below to go through my link. I'll make a small commission! Sep 24, Gillian Berry marked it as to-read Shelves: tbr-own , hardcopies-i-own , , arcs-i-own.
Marissa's announcement. View all 10 comments. Nov 10, Lola rated it really liked it Shelves: fantasy , fairy-tales. Like many people, I hate the Queen of Hearts. But perhaps that is too strong of a word, seeing that she does entertain me. Still, I dislike her tremendously.
Which is why I needed to read this book. I needed to see what made the Queen of Hearts become such a blubbering, humourless, merciless and heartless terror. But you know what, life is different on everyone. I act Like many people, I hate the Queen of Hearts. I actually felt compassion for Catherine. All she wants is to pursue her dream of opening a bakery and cooking and baking all days long in company of her lovely maid, Mary Ann.
But her mother has other plans. She wants to make her the Queen of Hearts. She easily could have, taking lots of time to describe the world, scenes and situations the characters are put in. Instead, she assumes, to a certain degree, that we are already fairly familiar with Wonderland's elements. And are we not? Never fear, this is not at all world-building-less.
I, for one, am extremely glad for the lack of info-dump. Because, ultimately, this should be about Catherine Pinkerton. And it is. This was a treat, it really was. After all, before she was the Queen of Hearts, she was a fairly simple, good-willed girl. View all 24 comments. Jun 11, Natalie Monroe rated it it was amazing Shelves: fabulous-five-stars , girl-squad , lgbtqia-if-you-squint , surf-n-turf , bittersweet-ending , taylor-swift-like-prose. When sad, I break like glass. Once stolen, I can never be taken back. What am I? Looking at the blurb, it's hard to imagine Catherine, who just wanted to open a bakery and fall in love, would ever become the short-tempered, unpredictable Queen of Hearts we all know.
The transformation is incredibly well-done. You know it's coming, that there isn't a happily ever after, but that shit 4. You know it's coming, that there isn't a happily ever after, but that shit-hits-the-fan moment still gets you in the gut. Meyer mentioned in an interview that she wanted fans to be able to jump straight to Lewis Carroll's work straight after reading Heartless and I can assure you the lady knows what she's doing.
The Wonderland setting is wonderfully mad and whimsical, as it should be. It flows seamlessly with the narrative without any huge info-dumps. The dialogue is just beautiful—and Wonderland-worthy. We even get a peek at Carroll's "sequel. But what did you expect from an origin story of the Queen of Hearts?
There are certain tropes, such as Jest's dark secret that adversely affects their relationship or the semi-love triangle, but Meyer has a way of making them forgivable. Catherine's decisions, silly and reckless as they may be sometimes, are presented in a relatable manner. They're teenagers, and teenagers make mistakes. I did all kinds of stupid shit when I was sixteen. Heartless makes you remember that feeling; it's hard to judge them too harshly. One teeny thing did bother me Other than the mixing-up of "lose"and "loose"in that gif : view spoiler [Margaret instantly becomes "less offensive to the eyes" once a man is interested in her.
Come on, Meyer, you're better than this. View all 37 comments. He was dressed all in black and standing in an orchard of lemon trees, and she had the distinct sensation that he had something that belonged to her. Something precious and not to be shared. I swear his golden eyes and black curls immediately caused me to think of another awesome character I hold close to my heart and yes I was a goner the instant he entered the scene!
Every day, if it pleases you. No — twice a day, and at least once before breakfast. A royal joker must set the highest of expectations. Their wish to open a bakery resonated with me Yes, I love to bake too. Especially cupcakes and huge cakes and I swear I got hungry whenever I picked up the book. Like for instance the King of Hearts! Boy was he a little, giggly and incompetent man! I mean nothing wrong with being funny, but the way he acted he seemed to be the only true Fool in the game. I believe he would do his best to be a good husband.
If she would have been honest and forthright right from the beginning, nothing bad would have happened. I know her parents made it exceptionally difficult to stay true to herself and I felt this on a spiritual level, but when it comes to matters of the heart there always comes a moment when you have to draw the line. No snakes. No slippery eels. Hence the sale of three Landing Sequence Pages carried on Eagle for that momentous event was always going to be big news.
They are part of the entire manual that was carried to the lunar surface in Lunar Module Eagle on the first lunar landing mission during July 16 to 24, These are the most significant pages from the entire dictionary, and from my view point, some of the most important pages available to us during the entire flight. These steps enabled the actual landing by Man on the surface of the Moon.
English polymath Sir Francis Bacon has been called the father of empiricism. His works, primarily this book, argued for the possibility of scientific knowledge based only upon inductive and careful observation of events in nature. Most importantly, he argued this could be achieved by use of a skeptical and methodical approach whereby scientists aim to avoid misleading themselves. In sending a copy of this book to King James I, the dedicatee, Bacon wrote: " The work, in what colours soever it may be set forth, is no more but a new logic, teaching to invent and judge by induction, as finding syllogism incompetent for sciences of nature , and thereby to make philosophy and sciences both more true and more active.
Nicolaus Copernicus booked himself a place in history with the publication of De revolutionibus orbium coelestium On the revolutions of the heavenly spheres in , offering the first compelling evidence that the Earth was not the center of the universe, though he acknowledged Aristarchus of Samos had proposed such a model years prior, which had been rejected in favor of the incorrect geocentric theories of Aristotle and Ptolemy.
That said, this book represents the only other published scientific work by Copernicus, and is extremely rare, with only two other copies having sold at auction in the last 40 years. The auctioned copy includes the section on trigonometry that appeared in De Revolutionibus, making it a partial first edition of one of science's landmark publications. The book also contains the first publication of Rheticus' trigonometric tables.
The frontispiece of the atlas features a hand-colored engraving by Jan van Vianen at left above offering an indication of the extraordinary illustration it contains. As the title suggests, it is of English origin and was designed and engraved by Romeyn de Hooghe, then in the service of English King William III, and designed to facilitate William's plans for war against France. An extremely rare only one copy is known and large x mm wall map of the world by Frederick de Wit and Giovanni Giacomo de Rossi, published in De Rossi's newly engraved map is approximately the same size of De Wit's earlier twelve-sheet map and the geographical correspondence is very close, with the addition of 21 city views along the borders plus other changes which suggest an additional source.
Two atlases bound together as one, published on vellum in by Johann Schott in Strasbourg. This atlas was described by medieval authority Michel Pastoureau as "an event in the history of cartography. The best-known book by German Jesuit scholar and polymath Athanasius Kircher who published 40 major works in the fields of comparative religion, geology, and medicine. Mundus Subterraneus is based on Kircher's visit to Sicily in where he witnessed the eruptions of Mount Etna and Stromboli. His observations of these volcanoes led him to conclude that the center of the earth is a massive internal fire for which volcanoes are safety valves.
Kircher's speculations about the interior of the earth in this book include its hidden lakes, rivers of fire and strange inhabitants. It also includes discussions about the moon, the sun, eclipses, ocean currents, meteorology, hydraulics, minerals and fossils, poisons, metallurgy and mining, alchemy, herbs, astrological medicine, distillation and fireworks.
A very rare work by Amerigo Vespucci , the man who gave America its name. The auctioned copy is a third edition, second issue of the first printed account of Brazil. As a pioneer in exploration and skilled astronomer, Vespucci was the first to measure the positions of the most important southern hemisphere stars, and this work includes the first brief description of the southern skies, along with three star diagrams.
An English translation of this book can be found on the internet archive. Entomology, or natural history of Insects is the best known work of French entomologist traveller Guillaume Antoine Olivier , renowned for his scientific accuracy in depicting and classifying the insects he collected in his travels. He would often dissect the insects to ensure complete authenticity of every aspect of his descriptions. This lot contained around original drawings used to illustrate the book which can be seen here in full. The first edition in Latin of Fracanzano da Montalboddo 's Itinerarium Portugallensium e Lusitania in Indiam is one of the most important collections of voyages ever printed.
This copy contains an index, which was printed after publication and inserted into the remaining copies. First printed in Italian in Vicenza in as Paesi novamente retrovati , the work was translated into Latin in In addition to the first map of Africa in which the continent is represented as surrounded by ocean, it includes the first three voyages of Columbus , the third voyage of Vespucci , Pedro Alvares Cabral's discovery of the Brasilian, Guianaian and Venezuelan coasts in , Alvise da Cadamosto's explorations along the West African coast in , and Vasco da Gama's explorations of Africa and India in Available in full here.
Anna Atkins was an English botanist and photographer who published the first book illustrated with photographic images British Algae Volume I in and she is believed to be the first woman to create a photograph. This was made possible through her friendship with Sir John Herschel , the inventor of the cyanotype printing method.
The process, known as blueprinting, was later used to reproduce architectural and engineering drawings, but Atkins chose to use it for capturing images of algae specifically sea-weed. Extremely rare, this third volume was published in , containing cyanotypes and three text pages, one of which is initialed "A. The book's rarity and historical importance make it very valuable.
Originally conceived as a work that might be printed on four or five sheets of paper, Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species evolved during the eight months of its writing into a volume of nearly pages, and when finally published, it changed mankind's self perception and became one of the most important books in history.
This single autograph page is one of a handful of scattered leaves that survive from the manuscript that Darwin rushed to complete in the second half of It is one of just five different autograph pages that have appeared at auction in the last three decades, and hence the value. A 14th-century compendium of manuscripts on astronomy and astrology yes, we know, but the work constitutes science at this time , as well as more esoteric talismanic treatises on such subjects as pricing, and divining specific latitudes and longitudes.
Franciscan friar Luca Pacioli was the man who taught mathematics to Leonardo da Vinci. His book Summa di Aritmetica Geometria Proporzioni e Proporzionalita was the first work on general mathematics ever printed and contained the first detailed description of the double-entry accounting system , making Pacioli the "Father of Accounting". Many of the illustrations for Divina Proportione were done by Leonardo, too.
This particular book is a first edition and contains three works, being Divina Proportione a summary of Euclid's propositions on the golden section , a second work on architecture, inspired by Vitruvius and Alberti, and an Italian translation of a Latin treatise of geometry by Piero della Francesca. An extremely rare cm celestial table globe by the best known globe maker, Willem Janszoon Blaeu. It was decided to add a geologist to the expedition, but a leading geologist could not be persuaded to make the voyage. The job finally went to a young Cambridge graduate named Charles Darwin who had studied to become an Anglican parson but had a keen interest in natural sciences.
What Charles Darwin learned on that voyage helped change the world. Six volumes on vellum bound as two of the French edition of the same book which appears at 43 on this list. Accurately described by the catalog description as a "striking testament to medieval scientific knowledge : a rare compilation of astronomical texts, including an astrolabe model, various apparently unpublished medical treatises, and an illustrated herbal.
This item sold for such a significant amount because it is a first edition of the first printed work by Italian polymath astronomer, physicist, engineer, philosopher, inventor and mathematician , Galileo Galilei - , one of the giants of the scientific revolution of the 17th century. This page booklet is also the first published work on an analogue calculator, which Galileo had manufactured and sold between and The book is believed to be one of only 60 copies produced by Galileo for patrons and buyers of his geometrical and military compass.
Galileo's sector was based on the proportional compass, an instrument first developed by Federico Commandino — , but Galileo's version included numerous additions and improvements that rendered it the most useful mathematical instrument of its period. Galileo's geometrical compass was invaluable as a surveyor's tool.
As a calculating device, Galileo's compass remained unsurpassed until the advent of the slide rule in the midth-century. The entire paper with illustrations is available online at the Library of Congress. If you've ever felt unappreciated for your work, take heart from this story. This paper was written in by Augustinian Monk Johann Gregor Mendel - , and it outlines the Mendelian inheritance mechanism by which evolution by natural selection could work. Despite being widely distributed to more than universities and places of higher learning, this paper was entirely ignored.
Charles Darwin's book On the Origin of Species was equally controversial and hence not initially well received, either. In , three pioneer geneticists acknowledged Mendel's prior work in their research papers and subsequent research over the following half century established its breakthrough significance. It is now acknowledged as "one of the most important papers in the history of biology, and the foundation of modern genetics.
It required the passing of a century before we recognized Mendel's legacy. The title of this Chinese map translates as "Complete map of the great Qing's ten-thousand-year unified realm of all under heaven. Apart from its beauty, the most stunning feature of this treasure is the size, having been created with woodblock printing of 16 sections on 8 sheets for a total size of x mm.
Translated as "Treasury dedicated to the King of Khwarazmshahi," this is three partial books part of Book 1, plus all of Books 2 and 3 of ten volumes of an encyclopaedia of medical science, written by Zayn al-Din Jurjani in AD. Volume I covers "the definition and utility of medicine; composition, structure, and powers of the human body," Volume II covers "health and disease; causes and symptoms of disease; accidents of the body" and Volume III covers "the preservation of health. One of several Blaeu atlases on this list, and one of the many remarkable achievements of a father and son who contributed so much to our understanding of the world.
Both Dutch cartographers, atlas and globe makers and publishers, Johannes Blaeu — was the son of cartographer Willem Blaeu - The Atlas Major was published between and , in Latin 11 volumes , French 12 volumes , Dutch 9 volumes , German 10 volumes and Spanish 10 volumes , containing maps and around 3, pages of text. Whilst labouring under this curse, Gandharba-Sena persuaded the King of Dhara to give him a daughter in marriage, but it unfortunately so happened that at the wedding hour he was unable to show himself in any but asinine shape.
After bathing, however, he proceeded to the assembly, and, hearing songs and music, he resolved to give them a specimen of his voice. The guests were filled with sorrow that so beautiful a virgin should be married to a donkey. They were afraid to express their feelings to the king, but they could not refrain from smiling, covering their mouths with their garments. At length some one interrupted the general silence and said: "O king, is this the son of Indra? You have found a fine bridegroom; you are indeed happy; don't delay the marriage; delay is improper in doing good; we never saw so glorious a wedding!
It is true that we once heard of a camel being married to a jenny-ass; when the ass, looking up to the camel, said, 'Bless me, what a bridegroom! The women all cried out: "O my mother! What a miserable thing! He reminded his future father-in-law that there is no act more meritorious than speaking truth; that the mortal frame is a mere dress, and that wise men never estimate the value of a person by his clothes.
He added that he was in that shape from the curse of his sire, and that during the night he had the body of a man. Of his being the son of Indra there could be no doubt. Hearing the donkey thus speak Sanskrit, for it was never known that an ass could discourse in that classical tongue, the minds of the people were changed, and they confessed that, although he had an asinine form he was unquestionably the son of Indra. The king, therefore, gave him his daughter in marriage. Gandharba-Sena is a quasi-historical personage, who lived in the century preceding the Christian era. The story had, therefore, ample time to reach the ears of the learned African Apuleius, who was born A.
The Baital-Pachisi, or Twenty-five tales of a Baital[FN 5] - a Vampire or evil spirit which animates dead bodies - is an old and thoroughly Hindu repertory. It is the rude beginning of that fictitious history which ripened to the Arabian Nights' Entertainments, and which, fostered by the genius of Boccaccio, produced the romance of the chivalrous days, and its last development, the novel - that prose-epic of modern Europe. Composed in Sanskrit, "the language of the gods," alias the Latin of India, it has been translated into all the Prakrit or vernacular and modern dialects of the great peninsula.
The reason why it has not found favour with the Moslems is doubtless the highly polytheistic spirit which pervades it; moreover, the Faithful had already a specimen of that style of composition. This was the Hitopadesa, or Advice of a Friend, which, as a line in its introduction informs us, was borrowed from an older book, the Panchatantra, or Five Chapters. It is a collection of apologues recited by a learned Brahman, Vishnu Sharma by name, for the edification of his pupils, the sons of an Indian Raja. They have been adapted to or translated into a number of languages, notably into Pehlvi and Persian, Syriac and Turkish, Greek and Latin, Hebrew and Arabic.
Voltaire remarks,[FN 7] "Quand on fait reflexion que presque toute la terre a ete infatuee de pareils comes, et qu'ils ont fait l'education du genre humain, on trouve les fables de Pilpay, Lokman, d'Esope bien raisonnables. A modern Italian critic describes the now classical fiction as a collection of one hundred of those novels which Boccaccio is believed to have read out at the court of Queen Joanna of Naples, and which later in life were by him assorted together by a most simple and ingenious contrivance.
But the great Florentine invented neither his stories nor his " plot," if we may so call it. He wrote in the middle of the fourteenth century when the West had borrowed many things from the East, rhymes[FN 8] and romance, lutes and drums, alchemy and knight-errantry. Many of the "Novelle" are, as Orientalists well know, to this day sung and recited almost textually by the wandering tale-tellers, bards, and rhapsodists of Persia and Central Asia.
He is a semi-historical personage. The son of Gandharba-Sena the donkey and the daughter of the King of Dhara, he was promised by his father the strength of a thousand male elephants. When his sire died, his grandfather, the deity Indra, resolved that the babe should not be born, upon which his mother stabbed herself. But the tragic event duly happening during the ninth month, Vikram came into the world by himself, and was carried to Indra, who pitied and adopted him, and gave him a good education. The circumstances of his accession to the throne, as will presently appear, are differently told.
Once, however, made King of Malaya, the modern Malwa, a province of Western Upper India, he so distinguished himself that the Hindu fabulists, with their usual brave kind of speaking, have made him "bring the whole earth under the shadow of one umbrella," The last ruler of the race of Mayura, which reigned years, was Raja-pal. He reigned 25 years, but giving himself up to effeminacy, his country was invaded by Shakaditya, a king from the highlands of Kumaon.
Vikramaditya, in the fourteenth year of his reign, pretended to espouse the cause of Raja-pal, attacked and destroyed Shakaditya, and ascended the throne of Delhi. His capital was Avanti, or Ujjayani, the modern Ujjain. It was 13 kos 26 miles long by 18 miles wide, an area of square miles, but a trifle in Indian History. He obtained the title of Shakari, "foe of the Shakas," the Sacae or Scythians, by his victories over that redoubtable race. Nine persons under his patronage, popularly known as the "Nine Gems of Science," hold in India the honourable position of the Seven Wise Men of Greece.
These learned persons wrote works in the eighteen original dialects from which, say the Hindus, all the languages of the earth have been derived. Kshapanaka treated the primary elements. Amara-Singha compiled a Sanskrit dictionary and a philosophical treatise. Shankubetalabhatta composed comments, and Ghatakarpara a poetical work of no great merit. The books of Mihira are not mentioned. Varaha produced two works on astrology and one on arithmetic. And Bararuchi introduced certain improvements in grammar, commented upon the incantations, and wrote a poem in praise of King Madhava.
But the most celebrated of all the patronized ones was Kalidasa. His two dramas, Sakuntala,[FN 11] and Vikram and Urvasi,[FN 12] have descended to our day; besides which he produced a poem on the seasons, a work on astronomy, a poetical history of the gods, and many other books. After a long, happy, and glorious reign, he lost his life in a war with Shalivahana, King of Pratisthana.
That monarch also left behind him an era called the " Shaka," beginning with A. It is employed, even now, by the Hindus in recording their births, marriages, and similar occasions. King Vikramaditya was succeeded by his infant son Vikrama-Sena, and father and son reigned over a period of 93 years.
At last the latter was supplanted by a devotee named Samudra-pala, who entered into his body by miraculous means. The usurper reigned 24 years and 2 months, and the throne of Delhi continued in the hands of his sixteen successors, who reigned years and 3 months. It is not pretended that the words of these Hindu tales are preserved to the letter.
The question about the metamorphosis of cats into tigers, for instance, proceeded from a Gem of Learning in a university much nearer home than Gaur. Similarly the learned and still living Mgr. Gaume Traite du Saint-Esprit, p.. And he quotes p.. The merit of the old stories lies in their suggestiveness and in their general applicability. I have ventured to remedy the conciseness of their language, and to clothe the skeleton with flesh and blood. Finally, that by aid of the lessons inculcated in the following pages, man will pass happily through this world into the state of absorption, where fables will be no longer required.
He then teaches us how Vikramaditya the Brave became King of Ujjayani. Some nineteen centuries ago, the renowned city of Ujjayani witnessed the birth of a prince to whom was given the gigantic name Vikramaditya. Even the Sanskrit-speaking people, who are not usually pressed for time, shortened it to "Vikram", and a little further West it would infallibly have been docked down to "Vik". Vikram was the second son of an old king Gandharba-Sena, concerning whom little favourable has reached posterity, except that he became an ass, married four queens, and had by them six sons, each of whom was more learned and powerful than the other.
It so happened that in course of time the father died. Thereupon his eldest heir, who was known as Shank, succeeded to the carpet of Rajaship, and was instantly murdered by Vikram, his "scorpion", the hero of the following pages. He began to rule well, and the gods so favoured him that day by day his dominions increased.
At length he became lord of all India, and having firmly established his government, he instituted an era--an uncommon feat for a mere monarch, especially when hereditary. The steps,[FN 16] says the historian, which he took to arrive at that pinnacle of grandeur, were these: The old King calling his two grandsons Bhartari-hari and Vikramaditya, gave them good counsel respecting their future learning. They were told to master everything, a certain way not to succeed in anything. They were diligently to learn grammar, the Scriptures, and all the religious sciences.
They were to become familiar with military tactics, international law, and music, the riding of horses and elephants-- especially the latter--the driving of chariots, and the use of the broadsword, the bow, and the mogdars or Indian clubs. They were ordered to be skilful in all kinds of games, in leaping and running, in besieging forts, in forming and breaking bodies of troops; they were to endeavour to excel in every princely quality, to be cunning in ascertaining the power of an enemy, how to make war, to perform journeys, to sit in the presence of the nobles, to separate the different sides of a question, to form alliances, to distinguish between the innocent and the guilty, to assign proper punishments to the wicked, to exercise authority with perfect justice, and to be liberal.
The boys were then sent to school, and were placed under the care of excellent teachers, where they became truly famous. Whilst under pupilage, the eldest was allowed all the power necessary to obtain a knowledge of royal affairs, and he was not invested with the regal office till in these preparatory steps he had given full satisfaction to his subjects, who expressed high approval of his conduct. The two brothers often conversed on the duties of kings, when the great Vikramaditya gave the great Bhartari-hari the following valuable advice[FN 17]: "As Indra, during the four rainy months, fills the earth with water, so a king should replenish his treasury with money.
As Surya the sun, in warming the earth eight months, does not scorch it, so a king, in drawing revenues from his people, ought not to oppress them. As Vayu, the wind, surrounds and fills everything, so the king by his officers and spies should become acquainted with the affairs and circumstances of his whole people. As Yama judges men without partiality or prejudice, and punishes the guilty, so should a king chastise, without favour, all offenders.
As Varuna, the regent of water, binds with his pasha or divine noose his enemies, so let a king bind every malefactor safely in prison. As Chandra,[FN 18] the moon, by his cheering light gives pleasure to all, thus should a king, by gifts and generosity, make his people happy. And as Prithwi, the earth, sustains all alike, so should a king feel an equal affection and forbearance towards every one. He punctually observed all the ordinances laid down by the author of the Niti, or institutes of government. His night and day were divided into sixteen pahars or portions, each one hour and a half, and they were disposed of as follows Before dawn Vikram was awakened by a servant appointed to this special duty.
He swallowed-- a thing allowed only to a khshatriya or warrior-- Mithridatic every morning on the saliva[FN 19], and he made the cooks taste every dish before he ate of it. As soon as he had risen, the pages in waiting repeated his splendid qualities, and as he left his sleeping-room in full dress, several Brahmans rehearsed the praises of the gods. Presently he bathed, worshipped his guardian deity, again heard hymns, drank a little water, and saw alms distributed to the poor.
He ended this watch by auditing his accounts. Next entering his court, he placed himself amidst the assembly. He was always armed when he received strangers, and he caused even women to be searched for concealed weapons. He was surrounded by so many spies and so artful, that of a thousand, no two ever told the same tale. At the levee, on his right sat his relations, the Brahmans, and men of distinguished birth. The other castes were on the left, and close to him stood the ministers and those whom he delighted to consult. Afar in front gathered the bards chanting the praises of the gods and of the king; also the charioteers, elephanteers, horsemen, and soldiers of valour.
Amongst the learned men in those assemblies there were ever some who were well instructed in all the scriptures, and others who had studied in one particular school of philosophy, and were acquainted only with the works on divine wisdom, or with those on justice, civil and criminal, on the arts, mineralogy or the practice of physic; also persons cunning in all kinds of customs; riding-masters, dancing- masters, teachers of good behaviour, examiners, tasters, mimics, mountebanks, and others, who all attended the court and awaited the king's commands.
He here pronounced judgment in suits of appeal. Before the second sandhya,[FN 20] or noon, about the beginning of the third watch, he recited the names of the gods, bathed, and broke his fast in his private room; then rising from food, he was amused by singers and dancing girls. The labours of the day now became lighter. After eating he retired, repeating the name of his guardian deity, visited the temples, saluted the gods conversed with the priests, and proceeded to receive and to distribute presents.
Fifthly, he discussed political questions with his ministers and councillors. On the announcement of the herald that it was the sixth watch-- about 2 or 3 P. After gaining strength by rest, he proceeded to review his troops, examining the men, saluting the officers, and holding military councils. At sunset he bathed a third time and performed the five sacraments of listening to a prelection of the Veda; making oblations to the manes; sacrificing to Fire in honour of the deities; giving rice to dumb creatures; and receiving guests with due ceremonies.
He spent the evening amidst a select company of wise, learned, and pious men, conversing on different subjects, and reviewing the business of the day. The night was distributed with equal care. During the first portion Vikram received the reports which his spies and envoys, dressed in every disguise, brought to him about his enemies. Against the latter he ceased not to use the five arts, namely--dividing the kingdom, bribes, mischief-making, negotiations, and brute-force-- especially preferring the first two and the last. His forethought and prudence taught him to regard all his nearest neighbours and their allies as hostile.
The powers beyond those natural enemies he considered friendly because they were the foes of his foes. And all the remoter nations he looked upon as neutrals, in a transitional or provisional state as it were, till they became either his neighbours' neighbours, or his own neighbours, that is to say, his friends or his foes. This important duty finished he supped, and at the end of the third watch he retired to sleep, which was not allowed to last beyond three hours. In the sixth watch he arose and purified himself. The seventh was devoted to holding private consultations with his ministers, and to furnishing the officers of government with requisite instructions.
The eighth or last watch was spent with the Purohita or priest, and with Brahmans, hailing the dawn with its appropriate rites; he then bathed, made the customary offerings, and prayed in some unfrequented place near pure water. And throughout these occupations he bore in mind the duty of kings, namely--to pursue every object till it be accomplished; to succour all dependents, and hospitably to receive guests, however numerous.
He was generous to his subjects respecting taxes, and kind of speech; yet he was inexorable as death in the punishment of offenses. He rarely hunted, and he visited his pleasure gardens only on stated days. He acted in his own dominions with justice; he chastised foreign foes with rigour; he behaved generously to Brahmans, and he avoided favouritism amongst his friends. In war he never slew a suppliant, a spectator, a person asleep or undressed, or anyone that showed fear.
Whatever country he conquered, offerings were presented to its gods, and effects and money were given to the reverends. But what benefited him most was his attention to the creature comforts of the nine Gems of Science: those eminent men ate and drank themselves into fits of enthusiasm, and ended by immortalizing their patron's name. Become Vikram the Great he established his court at a delightful and beautiful location rich in the best of water.
The country was difficult of access, and artificially made incapable of supporting a host of invaders, but four great roads met near the city. The capital was surrounded with durable ramparts, having gates of defence, and near it was a mountain fortress, under the especial charge of a great captain. The metropolis was well garrisoned and provisioned, and it surrounded the royal palace, a noble building without as well as within. Grandeur seemed embodied there, and Prosperity had made it her own.
The nearer ground, viewed from the terraces and pleasure pavilions, was a lovely mingling of rock and mountain, plain and valley, field and fallow, crystal lake and glittering stream. The banks of the winding Lavana were fringed with meads whose herbage, pearly with morning dew, afforded choicest grazing for the sacred cow, and were dotted with perfumed clumps of Bo-trees, tamarinds, and holy figs: in one place Vikram planted , in a single orchard and gave them to his spiritual advisers. The river valley separated the stream from a belt of forest growth which extended to a hill range, dark with impervious jungle, and cleared here and there for the cultivator's village.
Behind it, rose another sub-range, wooded with a lower bush and already blue with air, whilst in the background towered range upon range, here rising abruptly into points and peaks, there ramp-shaped or wall- formed, with sheer descents, and all of light azure hue adorned with glories of silver and gold. After reigning for some years, Vikram the Brave found himself at the age of thirty, a staid and sober middle-aged man, He had several sons--daughters are naught in India--by his several wives, and he had some paternal affection for nearly all--except of course, for his eldest son, a youth who seemed to conduct himself as though he had a claim to the succession.
In fact, the king seemed to have taken up his abode for life at Ujjayani, when suddenly he bethought himself, "I must visit those countries of whose names I am ever hearing. Having thus resolved, Vikram the Brave gave the government into the charge of a younger brother, Bhartari Raja, and in the garb of a religious mendicant, accompanied by Dharma Dhwaj, his second son, a youth bordering on the age of puberty, he began to travel from city to city, and from forest to forest.
The Regent was of a settled melancholic turn of mind, having lost in early youth a very peculiar wife. One day, whilst out hunting, he happened to pass a funeral pyre, upon which a Brahman's widow had just become Sati a holy woman with the greatest fortitude. On his return home he related the adventure to Sita Rani, his spouse, and she at once made reply that virtuous women die with their husbands, killed by the fire of grief, not by the flames of the pile. To prove her truth the prince, after an affectionate farewell, rode forth to the chase, and presently sent back the suite with his robes torn and stained, to report his accidental death.
Sita perished upon the spot, and the widower remained inconsolable--for a time. He led the dullest of lives, and took to himself sundry spouses, all equally distinguished for birth, beauty, and modesty. Like his brother, he performed all the proper devoirs of a Raja, rising before the day to finish his ablutions, to worship the gods, and to do due obeisance to the Brahmans.
He then ascended the throne, to judge his people according to the Shastra, carefully keeping in subjection lust, anger, avarice, folly, drunkenness, and pride; preserving himself from being seduced by the love of gaming and of the chase; restraining his desire for dancing, singing, and playing on musical instruments, and refraining from sleep during daytime, from wine, from molesting men of worth, from dice, from putting human beings to death by artful means, from useless travelling, and from holding any one guilty without the commission of a crime.
His levees were in a hall decently splendid, and he was distinguished only by an umbrella of peacock's feathers; he received all complainants, petitioners, and presenters of offenses with kind looks and soft words. He united to himself the seven or eight wise councillors, and the sober and virtuous secretary that formed the high cabinet of his royal brother, and they met in some secret lonely spot, as a mountain, a terrace, a bower or a forest, whence women, parrots, and other talkative birds were carefully excluded. And at the end of this useful and somewhat laborious day, he retired to his private apartments, and, after listening to spiritual songs and to soft music, he fell asleep.
Sometimes he would summon his brother's "Nine Gems of Science," and give ear to their learned discourses. But it was observed that the viceroy reserved this exercise for nights when he was troubled with insomnia--the words of wisdom being to him an infallible remedy for that disorder. Thus passed onwards his youth, doing nothing that it could desire, forbidden all pleasures because they were unprincely, and working in the palace harder than in the pauper's hut. Having, however, fortunately for himself, few predilections and no imagination, he began to pride himself upon being a philosopher.
Much business from an early age had dulled his wits, which were never of the most brilliant; and in the steadily increasing torpidity of his spirit, he traced the germs of that quietude which forms the highest happiness of man in this storm of matter called the world. He therefore allowed himself but one friend of his soul. He retained, I have said, his brother's seven or eight ministers; he was constant in attendance upon the Brahman priests who officiated at the palace, and who kept the impious from touching sacred property; and he was courteous to the commander-in-chief who directed his warriors, to the officers of justice who inflicted punishment upon offenders, and to the lords of towns, varying in number from one to a thousand.
But he placed an intimate of his own in the high position of confidential councillor, the ambassador to regulate war and peace. Mahi-pala was a person of noble birth, endowed with shining abilities, popular, dexterous in business, acquainted with foreign parts, famed for eloquence and intrepidity, and as Menu the Lawgiver advises, remarkably handsome. Bhartari Raja, as I have said, became a quietist and a philosopher. But Kama,[FN 21] the bright god who exerts his sway over the three worlds, heaven and earth and grewsome Hades,[FN 22] had marked out the prince once more as the victim of his blossom- tipped shafts and his flowery bow.
How, indeed, could he hope to escape the doom which has fallen equally upon Brahma the Creator, Vishnu the Preserver, and dreadful Shiva the Three-eyed Destroyer[FN 23]? By reason of her exceeding beauty, her face was a full moon shining in the clearest sky; her hair was the purple cloud of autumn when, gravid with rain, it hangs low over earth; and her complexion mocked the pale waxen hue of the large-flowered jasmine.
Her eyes were those of the timid antelope; her lips were as red as those of the pomegranate's bud, and when they opened, from them distilled a fountain of ambrosia. Her neck was like a pigeon's; her hand the pink lining of the conch-shell; her waist a leopard's; her feet the softest lotuses. In a word, a model of grace and loveliness was Dangalah Rani, Raja Bhartari's last and youngest wife. The warrior laid down his arms before her; the politician spoke out every secret in her presence. The religious prince would have slaughtered a cow--that sole unforgivable sin--to save one of her eyelashes: the absolute king would not drink a cup of water without her permission; the staid philosopher, the sober quietist, to win from her the shadow of a smile, would have danced before her like a singing-girl.
So desperately enamoured became Bhartari Raja. It is written, however, that love, alas! The warmth of his affection, instead of animating his wife, annoyed her; his protestations wearied her; his vows gave her the headache; and his caresses were a colic that made her blood run cold. Of course, the prince perceived nothing, being lost in wonder and admiration of the beauty's coyness and coquetry.
And as women must give away their hearts, whether asked or not, so the lovely Dangalah Rani lost no time in lavishing all the passion of her idle soul upon Mahi-pala, the handsome ambassador of peace and war. By this means the three were happy and were contented; their felicity, however, being built on a rotten foundation, could not long endure. It soon ended in the following extraordinary way. In the city of Ujjayani,[FN 24] within sight of the palace, dwelt a Brahman and his wife, who, being old and poor, and having nothing else to do, had applied themselves to the practice of austere devotion.
In fine, as a reward for their exceeding piety, the venerable pair received at the hands of a celestial messenger an apple of the tree Kalpavriksha-- a fruit which has the virtue of conferring eternal life upon him that tastes it. Scarcely had the god disappeared, when the Brahman, opening his toothless mouth, prepared to eat the fruit of immortality.
Then his wife addressed him in these words, shedding copious tears the while: "To die, O man, is a passing pain; to be poor is an interminable anguish. Surely our present lot is the penalty of some great crime committed by us in a past state of being. Better we die at once, and so escape the woes of the world! Presently he found tongue: "I have accepted the fruit, and have brought it here; but having heard thy speech, my intellect hath wasted away; now I will do whatever thou pointest out. Truly quoth the poet-- Die loved in youth, not hated in age. If that fruit could have restored thy dimmed eyes, and deaf ears, and blunted taste, and warmth of love, I had not spoken to thee thus.