Another set of pages, with folios from the same volume, is owned by the Edinburgh University Library. The early illustrated manuscripts together represent "one of the most important surviving examples of Ilkhanid art in any medium",  and are the largest surviving body of early examples of the Persian miniature.
The son of an apothecary , he studied medicine and joined the court of the Ilkhan emperor, Abaqa Khan , in that capacity. He converted to Islam around the age of thirty. He rapidly gained political importance, and in became the vizier of emperor and Muslim convert Ghazan. Hamdani was responsible for setting up a stable social and economic system in Iran after the destruction of the Mongol invasions, and was an important artistic and architectural patron. He expanded the university at Rab'-e Rashidi , which attracted scholars and students from Egypt and Syria to China, and which published his many works.
His immense wealth made it said of him that he was the best paid author in Iran. To compile the History, Rashid al-Din set up an entire precinct at the university of Rab'-e Rashidi in the capital of Tabriz. It contained multiple buildings, including a mosque , hospital, library, and classrooms, employing over workers.
This text was finally completed in sometime between and After Rashid al-Din's execution in , the Rab-i-Rashidi precinct was plundered, but the in-process copy that was being created at the time survived, probably somewhere in the city of Tabriz, possibly in the library of Rashid's son, Ghiyath al-Din. Later, Rashid's son became Vizier, in his own right, and expanded the restored university precinct of his father. In the 15th century, the Arabic copy was in Herat , perhaps claimed after a victory by the Timurid dynasty.
It then passed to the court of the Mughal Empire in India, where it was in the possession of the emperor Akbar r.
There is then a record of it passing through the hands of later Mughal emperors for the next few centuries. It was probably divided into two parts in the mids, though both sections remained in India until the 19th century, when they were acquired by the British. At some point during the next two decades it was brought to England, probably when Harriott came home on furlough, when the manuscript entered the collection of Major General Thomas Gordon. He then bequeathed it to the Royal Asiatic Society in The Suwar al-akalim , a geographical compendium.
Unfortunately, it has not survived in any known manuscript. Recent scholarship has noted that, although surviving early examples are now uncommon, human figurative art was a continuous tradition in the Muslim world in secular contexts such as literature, science, and history ; as early as the 9th century, such art flourished during the Abbasid Caliphate c.
The scene now in the Kahlili collection illustrating the Battle of Badr used a collection of stock figures, and scholars are in disagreement as to who is represented. One descriptor says it shows Muhammad with Hamza ibn Abdul-Muttalib and Ali before sending them to battle. Another says Muhammad is on the right, but Hamza and Ali on the left, or perhaps the center.
Another description says it is Muhammad exhorting his family to fight, and that he may be one of the central figures, but it is not clear which one. There is little reason to doubt Rashid al-Din's editorial authorship but the work is generally considered a collective effort. It may also be possible that it was compiled by a group of international scholars under his leadership.
Rashid al-Din was of course a very busy man, with his public life, and would have employed assistants to handle the materials assembled and to write the first draft: Abu'l Qasim may have been one of them. Furthermore, not all of the work is original: for instance, the section on the period following the death of Genghis Khan in particular is directly borrowed from Juvayni. Other questions concern the objectivity of the author and his point of view: it is after all an official history, concerning events with which Rashid al-Din in his political capacity was often involved at first hand for the history of the Ilkhanate in particular.
Nonetheless, the work "is characterized by a matter-of-fact tone and a refreshing absence of sycophantic flattery. The workshop was ordered to produce one manuscript each in Arabic and Persian every year, which were to be distributed to different cities. Other later copies were made from the first set, with some illustrations and history added to match current events.
Then came the threats of U. Sunday, Pompeo said Iran was behind the attacks on the tankers in the Gulf of Oman and that Tehran instigated an attack that injured four U. But as Trump does not want war with Iran, Iran does not want war with us. Tehran has denied any role in the tanker attacks, helped put out the fire on one tanker, and accused its enemies of "false flag" attacks to instigate a war.
If the Revolutionary Guard, which answers to the ayatollah, did attach explosives to the hull of the tankers, it was most likely to send a direct message: If our exports are halted by U. Not the Germans or Japanese, both of whom are asking for more proof that Iran instigated the tanker attacks.
Japan's prime minster was meeting with the ayatollah when the attacks occurred, and one of the tankers was a Japanese vessel. In a piece titled, "America Can Face Down a Fragile Iran," the pair make the case that Trump should squeeze the Iranian regime relentlessly and not fear a military clash, and a war with Iran would be a cakewalk.
The regime is in a politically precarious position.
The sullen Iranian middle class has given up on the possibility of reform or prosperity. Technical memos for members Receiving using Gmail Sending using Gmail 0xccc0e 0xccc19 0xccc The word guanxi collocation and meanings of bribe: Deeply rooted, disgusting, sad endings. Pragmatics: Politeness trends from the historical perspective of global trade Computer mediated communications: Social network — Came riding the waves of amazing coincidences. Language acquisition: A critique on "A corpus driven study of the potential for vocabulary learning through watching movies" Grammatical analysis: "When a linguist stumbled upon a Buttonwood" Lexicon and the corpus: "John Sinclair's lexical items — an introduction".
It is likely to backfire. A classical Marxist, Gluck has been studying China for 60 years in history and modern development.
He has lectured all over the U. I am proud to announce that the Commentary. Usman is a network consultant and works in a mixed environment of Windows and Linux platforms. He likes to study about the latest advancements in computer technology and shares his views on his blog.