However, mass culture also had very ambivalent effects, as becomes evident when looking at the example of sports, the most widespread leisure activity. Membership in an increasing variety of sports associations — more than 5 million in — clearly surpassed that of the combat leagues.
On the other hand, sports also had a contrasting effect.
Sports officials, along with military leaders, wanted the training that their organizations provided to be a kind of compensation for the ban on universal male conscription that the Versailles Treaty imposed. The Social Democrats only admitted cautiously that the leadership of Imperial Germany had to bear responsibility for the war to a limited extent. War memorials , erected all over Germany after , stood out for the variety of their forms and the multiple readings they suggested.
Only a few conveyed an outright revanchist message. Most centered on mourning, using religious symbols, figurative imagery, or and this was increasingly so around abstract forms. In the mids, figurative depictions of soldiers, that emphasizing an idealized and static posture took on more naturalistic and dynamic features, facilitating, but not exclusively suggesting, a heroic reading.
The definitive shift towards a hegemony of a rightist, and essentially revanchist, interpretation of the war, and the effective termination of cultural demobilization, occurred only around and resulted from a combination of factors.
As the memory of the hardships of the war faded, portraying soldiers as victims finally lost its appeal to a heroic reading, which did not deprive them of agency, and now gained some ground even in the Reichsbanner. The rightist shift of political hegemony in Germany was complete. Even the gradual militarization of political culture can only be seen to some extent as a brutalization, as this interpretation overlooks the profound pacifism among many committed republicans and marginalizes the effects of the multifaceted mass culture on German society.
Schumann, Dirk: Post-war Societies Germany , in: online. International Encyclopedia of the First World War, ed. DOI : Version 1. Post-war Societies Germany. By Dirk Schumann. Cultural Demobilization? McElligott, Anthony ed.
Politics, Society and Culture, Harlow By , those between fifteen and twenty-five years of age still made up more than a fifth of the German population according to Meerwarth, Entwicklung , p. Germany and the East, , Ithaca The overall trend of increasing gainful employment for women, which was most pronounced in, but not limited to, clerical work, continued through the s. Geschichte der Frauenarbeit in Deutschland, , Marburg , p. German Victims of the Great War, , Ithaca , pp.
Disabled Veterans in Britain and Germany, , Berkeley , pp.
A comprehensive history of the various combat leagues is provided by Diehl, James N. Eine Gesellschaftsgeschichte, , Paderborn , p. Athletes, Gender, and German Modernity, Oxford Fallstudien zum The pacifist movement itself enjoyed mass support in the first years of the Weimar Republic, with tens of thousands of participants flocking to its rallies, but it saw a considerable decline following the French occupation of the Ruhr area in Der Erste Weltkrieg in der Gewaltgeschichte des In: Zeitgeschichte-online, Thema: Fronterlebnis und Nachkriegsordnung.
Horne, Kulturelle Demobilmachung , p. Selected Bibliography Berghahn, Volker R. Cohen, Deborah: The war come home. Diehl, James M. Politik und Kriegskultur nach , Essen Klartext Verlag. Kester, Bernadette: Film front Weimar. Schumann, Dirk: Political violence in the Weimar Republic, Fight for the streets and fear of civil war , New York Berghahn Books. Weinrich, Arndt: Der Weltkrieg als Erzieher. Whalen, Robert Weldon: Bitter wounds. Ziemann, Benjamin: Contested commemorations. Metadata Subjects.
Author Keywords. GND Subject Headings. LC Subject Headings.
Rameau Subject Headings. Regional Section s. Thematic Section s.
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Please help improve it by rewriting it in an encyclopedic style. International Encyclopedia of the First World War, ed. Johannes Lepsius presented the outcome of his research in Istanbul to the German Reichstag on October 5, , the whole of the subject of the Armenians was censored by the German Reich government. If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. Besonders das Werk von Dr. The definitive shift towards a hegemony of a rightist, and essentially revanchist, interpretation of the war, and the effective termination of cultural demobilization, occurred only around and resulted from a combination of factors. Resource Guide.
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