Learning through Talk: Developing Learning Dialogues in the Primary Classroom

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Easy to follow template lesson plans and activity ideas are provided, each of which has been tried and tested in classrooms and is known to succeed. Written to support all those in the field of Primary education, this book will be an essential resource for students, trainee and qualified primary teachers interested in the educational importance of dialogue. New York and London: Routledge.

Teaching thinking is key to growing a more successful economy, is needed for increased democratic engagement and is vital for the well-being of individuals faced with the complexity of a globalised world. Containing surveys and summaries of international, cutting-edge research on every aspect of teaching thinking in a range of contexts, the handbook is thorough in its delivery, examining many different approaches and methods to help readers understand what teaching thinking is and how we can best take this movement forward.

The work discusses fundamental topics such as how we conceptualize diversity as well as examining the ways in which heterogeneous cultural constructs influence the teaching and learning of science in a range of contexts. Including numerous strategies ready for adoption by interested teachers, the book addresses the varied cultural factors that influence engagement with science education. It seeks answers to the question of why increasing numbers of students fail to connect with science education in schools and looks at the more subtle impact that students' individually constructed identities have on the teaching and learning of science.

Recognizing the diversity of its audience, the book covers differing levels and science subjects, and examines material from a range of viewpoints that include pedagogy, curricula, teacher education, learning, gender, religion, and ICT, as well as those of in-service and trainee teachers at all levels. In practice, the use of the Internet disrupts this traditional logic of education by offering an experience of knowledge as participatory and multiple.

This new logic of education is dialogic and characterises education as learning to learn, think and thrive in the context of working with multiple perspectives and ultimate uncertainty. The book builds upon the simple contrast between observing dialogue from an outside point of view, and participating in a dialogue from the inside, before pinpointing an essential feature of dialogic: the gap or difference between voices in dialogue which is understood as an irreducible source of meaning.

Each chapter of the book applies this dialogic thinking to a specific challenge facing education, re-thinking the challenge and revealing a new theory of education. Wegerif zooms in on the most important ingredient of all in a learning-to-learn classroom culture - the kinds of talk that are allowed and encouraged - and brings together both scholarly and practical approaches in a highly fruitful and accessible way.

Talking to Learn: Harnessing the Power of Student Conversation

This innovative book responds to that challenge with a coherent account of what thinking and creativity are and how they can be taught. Taking a 'dialogic' approach, it shows how engaging children in real dialogue is possible in every area of the curriculum and how this can lead to more reflective, considerate and creative children who are able to think for themselves and to learn creatively. Using illustrations and activities, he explains how teaching and learning across the primary curriculum can be transformed.

This book is important reading for all primary teachers and trainees who are looking for practical ideas for teaching thinking. It will also be valuable for anyone who wants to understand education and think more about what is most important in education. New York: Springer-Verlag.

This book empowers people to go beyond themselves into new spheres of learning, thinking and creativity. Drawing on recent work in communications theory as well as psychology, computer science and philosophy, it reveals some key characteristics of learning dialogues.

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It also demonstrates ways in which computers and networks can deepen, enrich and expand such dialogues. The book's central argument is that this dialogic perspective in education and the latest developments in information and communications technology make ideal partners. Radical Encouragement: Creating Cultures for Learning. Williams, S and Wegerif, R.

Birmingham: Imaginative Minds. ISBN Based on an independent organisation working with teachers, learners, parents, and community groups. This book is for education professionals involved in creating positive cultures for learning in schools and communities. It is interesting that many digital technologies used in educational settings are initially developed for other purposes, rather than for education-specific activities Laurillard Thus, it is notable that a number of included studies are based on technology designed by researchers e.

The scoping review also revealed that there are certain methodological and theoretical assumptions that seem to characterise research in classroom dialogue and digital technologies. The majority of studies are qualitative or mixed methods research design see Section 3. This can perhaps be explained by the nature of the focus on research into the interactions between classroom dialogue and digital technologies. Thus, the majority of the studies included in the review might be characterised as being informed, either explicitly or implicitly, by a sociocultural framework of understanding, since this perspective emphasises the importance of the relationship between the individual and his or her surroundings, including the use of technologies.

The seven quantitative studies identified during the scoping review varied in their aims, scope and theoretical framing. These studies adopted experimental designs e. All of the studies, to different extents, focus on the interdependency between different components of learning. According to sociocultural perspectives, focus on how tools mental and material are used in human activity, and how humans construct knowledge and understanding by the use of tools, is central. Physical and social contexts are considered integral to the learning activity, implying that it matters where the learning occurs Lund Our thematic synthesis points up distinct themes surrounding dialogue and technology, and the ways in which they may interact to enhance learning.

This is especially apparent in relation to RQ1. Thus, the review themes reveal the components of learning that are integrated in different ways in the different studies. Two high-level themes that emerged from the thematic synthesis are identified as productive for learning - Dialogue Activity and Technological Affordances - and these include numerous sub-themes.

The studies that addressed the broader notion of Learning Environment capture other dimensions, including classroom atmosphere and relationships. This separation is a function of the approach to the review, rather than a repudiation of the sociocultural approach taken in a large proportion of the reviewed literature. Even a cursory review of the themes and sub-themes presented in Section 3. For example, by including the semiotic and incorporating the use of the visual in contributing to collective understanding, as shown in work on classroom uses of the IWB e.

Hennessy and Warwick ; Warwick et al. Such examples serve to demonstrate the complexity of the direct interaction between dialogue and digital technologies but, of course, an understanding of what constitutes productive talk for learning, shared between teacher and students, is also often central to the use of technologies for dialogic purposes. This shared understanding says much about participation structures in a dialogic classroom.

With the development of student agency through dialogic practices being a central aim, this review demonstrates how the dialogic use of classroom technologies presents many challenges and opportunities in relation to existing power relationships in classrooms. These include considering the epistemic order of classrooms Ruthven and Hofmann ; for example, is it the teacher or student who now initiates? Is it the teacher or student who now validates ideas?

The role of the teacher, student or tool in placing limits on, or extending the scope of, interaction is therefore a genuine concern, for both teachers and researchers. This all points to some of the challenges that arise with an intention to facilitate content learning, and dialogic interactions, directly and indirectly through mediating tools. In considering RQ2, it is unsurprising that the challenges relate to Students and Teachers; but again, the sociocultural perspective adopted in many studies points to the interconnectedness of the challenges reported.

Predominately, however, reported issues include the general challenges facing teachers in implementing a dialogic pedagogy; the ways in which this may, or may not, be exacerbated by the inclusion of digital technologies; the support that teachers may need in integrating technology use into their classrooms; and how technology functionality becomes affordance in the context of pedagogical intention. And certainly, there is evidence, in some studies that combine a dialogic intervention focused around digital technologies, that a fairly relentless focus on dialogic intentions over time is necessary for there to be a change in classroom culture Warwick et al.

The notion of affordance is commonly used to point out the technological potential. However, a potential may not be actualised and there is sometimes a long way to travel from potential to realisation. It appears essential that technology use has a direct link to pedagogy. As with studies on the educational uses of social media Manca and Ranieri or tablet computers Major et al.

Thus, whilst the ways in which digital technologies are used can shape different types of thinking and reasoning, and whilst dialogues can be transformed by digital technology, these changes are not necessarily unidirectional or productive Rasmussen and Ludvigsen This discussion has built upon the literature that forms the data for the scoping review. It has drawn out various themes that constitute current thinking about the interaction between digital technologies and classroom-based dialogue.

As we have said, scoping reviews are retrospective and their central contribution derives from mapping the existing geography of a field of research. However, both in the text and, especially, in the discussion we have looked forward, using this existing geography as legitimation for indicating future possible areas of study and theoretical engagement. We suggest that affordance, interdependency and dialogue itself are key concepts that frame the social situation in which students build knowledge and meaning with and through digital tools.

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Humanities and social science libraries only; only first returned articles, sorted by relevance, considered. Richard Crowther, the Research Assistant who supported this review in its early stages. Skip to main content Skip to sections. Advertisement Hide. Download PDF. Classroom dialogue and digital technologies: A scoping review. Authors Authors and affiliations L. Major P. Warwick I. Rasmussen S. Ludvigsen V. Open Access. First Online: 20 March The purpose of the review is twofold: i to provide an accessible and summarised overview of extant studies published between and to enable policy makers, practitioners and researchers to make effective use of the findings of existing research Arksey and O'Malley ; Levac et al.

The examination of classroom talk has a long and rich tradition, including significant contributions from researchers working in the fields of Conversation Analysis, Discourse Analysis and Corpus Linguistics. For those considering learning from a sociocultural perspective Vygotsky , , the early work of Barnes is significant in defining a type of talk seen as effective for thinking and learning, and is part of a clear trajectory in academic discourse Alexander ; Howe and Abedin ; Mercer and Dawes ; Schwarz and Baker Shor and Freire offer the following definition: Dialogue is a means to transform social relations in the classroom, and to raise awareness about relations in society at large.

Our methodological approach was underpinned by this scoping review framework. As one strength of a scoping review is to provide an overview of studies in an emergent field, such a review is a sensible mechanism for considering the connections between educational dialogue and digital technology Section 1. We therefore first identify the characteristics of extant research in this area Section 3. Further, to extend this work, we address two thematic research questions Sections 3.

In devising our thematic research questions RQs , we wished to examine what might be considered two of the recurrent themes evident in classroom-based empirical research; namely, how a combination of variables might be productive for learning, and the challenges that arise in introducing any form of classroom intervention.

Our RQs were thus: i in what ways does research suggest that use of digital technologies enhance productive classroom dialogue? Studies were screened based on their titles and abstracts. Table 1 Keywords used to facilitate automated searches of digital libraries. This involved: two reviewers LM and VC independently analysing, categorising and coding extracted data; a collaborative review and discussion with a third reviewer PW to discuss the initial themes emerging; team members revising and refining themes to agree a final set of themes; collaboratively re-coding extracted data using the updated set of themes.

Following implementation of the search procedure, 72 studies were included in the final scoping review see Fig. Open image in new window. Twitter [4 studies] Wikis [1 study] Touch Table technology [1 study]. As demonstrated in Fig. A greater proportion of this qualitative research took place in primary schools; more mixed methods research was in secondary schools. This is in comparison to a limited number of quantitative studies 7 in total.

In this section, we present the results of our thematic synthesis to address RQ1.

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We consider each of these themes and their sub-themes in turn, presenting examples from studies that are considered to be particularly illustrative of the theme being considered. All themes and sub-themes for RQ1 can be seen in Table 2. In this section, we present the results of our thematic synthesis to address RQ2. Following a process of thematic synthesis, two high-level themes were established, this time relating to the challenges of using digital technology to support dialogic teaching and learning from the perspective of the users i.

As with the thematic synthesis reported for RQ1, these are broad categories and several studies mention more than one of these challenges. An overview of all themes and sub-themes for RQ2 can be seen in Table 3. Acknowledgements Richard Crowther, the Research Assistant who supported this review in its early stages. Alexander, R. Towards dialogic teaching: Rethinking classroom talk 4th ed. Thirsk: Dialogos. Google Scholar. Arksey, H. Scoping studies: Towards a methodological framework.

International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 8 1 , 19— CrossRef Google Scholar. Baines, E.

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Improving the effectiveness of collaborative group work in primary schools: Effects on science attainment. British Educational Research Journal, 33 5 , Barnes, D. From communication to curriculum. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. Exploratory talk for learning.

Hodgkinson Eds. London: Sage. Beauchamp, G. An evaluation of iPad implementation across a network of primary schools in Cardiff. Bennett, J. Science talking: The research evidence on the use of small-group discussions in science teaching. York: University of York. Cazden, C. Classroom discourse: The language of teaching and learning.

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Portsmouth: Heinemann. Cole, M. A conception of culture for a communication theory of mind. Vocate Ed. Hillsdale: Erlbaum. Davis, K. What are scoping studies? A review of the nursing literature. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 46 10 , — Dawes, L. School Science Review, 90 , 1—8. DeLuca, C. Collaborative inquiry as a professional learning structure for educators: A scoping review. Professional Development in Education, 41 4 , — Dialogic Teaching - Evaluation report and executive summary.

Education Endowment Foundation. Flitton, L. From classroom analysis to whole-school professional development: Promoting talk as a tool for learning across school departments. Professional Development in Education, 39 1 , 99— Gibson, J. The theory of affordances. Bransford Eds. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Hakkarainen, K. A knowledge-practice perspective on technology-mediated learning.

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Perspectives on technology, resources and learning. Faculty of Education, University of Cambridge. Tablet use in schools: A critical review of the evidence for learning outcomes. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 32 2 , — Hennessy, S. The role of digital artefacts on the interactive whiteboard in supporting classroom dialogue. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 27 6 , — Research into teaching with whole-class interactive technologies.

Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 19 2 , — Developing a coding scheme for analysing classroom dialogue across educational contexts. Learning, Culture and Social Interaction, 9 , 16— Hoadley, C. Teaching science through online, peer discussions: SpeakEasy in the Knowledge Integration Environment. International Journal of Science Education, 22 8 , — Howe, C. Classroom dialogue: A systematic review across four decades of research. Cambridge Journal of Education, 43 3 , — Jeong, H. Seven affordances of computer-supported collaborative learning: How to support collaborative learning?

How can technologies help? Educational Psychologist, 51 2 , — Kerawalla, L. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 22 1 , 89— Kim, I. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 16 3 , — Kitchenham, B. Evidence-Based Software engineering and systematic reviews Vol. Kreijns, K. Educational Psychologist, 48 4 , — Kuhn, D. Thinking together and alone. Educational Researcher, 44 1 , 46— A role for reasoning in a dialogic approach to critical thinking. Topoi , 1—8.

Laurillard, D. Digital technologies and their role in achieving our ambitions for education. University of London, Institute of Education. Levac, D.

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Buber, educational technology, and the expansion of dialogic space. Meridith asks what she did and whom she saw. Nevertheless, research studies show that the majority of children regard talk as an important part of their learning experience, and motivated further learning during lessons Braund and Leigh, Meridith engages Kelsey in conversation. Teachers also noted their concerns regarding new behaviour management issues. You are commenting using your WordPress.

Scoping studies: Advancing the methodology. Implementation Science, 5 1 , Linell, P. Rethinking language, mind, and world dialogically: Interactional and contextual theories of human sense-making. Charlotte: Information Age Pub.

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Littleton, K. Interthinking: Putting talk to work. Abingdon: Routledge. Lund, A. University of Oslo, Norway. Major, L. Using video to support in-service teacher professional development: The state of the field, limitations and possibilities. Technology, Pedagogy and Education. Tablets in schools: Impact, affordances and recommendations. Hourigan Eds. Cham: Springer. Manca, S. Is it a tool suitable for learning? A critical review of the literature on Facebook as a technology-enhanced learning environment. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 29 6 , — McEvoy, E. Physical education teacher educators: A year scoping review of literature.

Teaching and Teacher Education, 51 , — Mercer, N. The Guided Construction of Knowledge: Talk amongst teachers and learners. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Words and minds: How we use language to think together. London: Routledge. The social brain, language, and goal-directed collective thinking: A social conception of cognition and its implications for understanding how we think, teach, and learn. Educational Psychologist, 48 3 , — The study of talk between teachers and students, from the s until the s.

Oxford Review of Education, 40 4 , — Reading, 37 2 , 81— Reasoning as a scientist: Ways of helping children to use language to learn science. British Educational Research Journal, 30 3 , — Using interactive whiteboards to orchestrate classroom dialogue. Michaels, S. Talk Science Primer. Boston: TERC. Mortimer, E. Meaning making in secondary science classrooms. Buckingham: Open University Press. Version Nystrand, M. Questions in time: Investigating the structure and dynamics of unfolding classroom discourse.

Discourse Processes, 35 3 , — Scoping the field: Identifying key research priorities in HIV and rehabilitation. AIDS and Behavior, 14 2 , — Human Development, 50 5 , — O'Flaherty, J. The use of flipped classrooms in higher education: A scoping review. The Internet and Higher Education, 25 , 85— Osborne, J. The challenges of scale. Resnick, C. Clarke Eds.

Washington, D. Wiki-supported collaborative learning in primary education: How a dialogic space is created for thinking together. Rasmussen, I. Learning with computer tools and environments: A sociocultural perspective. Littleton, C. Staarman Eds.