Publication Timeline. Book 6 editions published in in Spanish and held by 63 WorldCat member libraries worldwide. Although less detailed and insightful than Otano's item bi , it offers a balanced assessment of Aylwin's skillful handling of challenges to Chile's transition to democracy, and his maintenance of solid support for his government's economic and social policies"--Handbook of Latin American Studies, v. Los diarios secretos del "Che. Septiembre, martes In March , the project reached the minimum funding required for its development, 10, euros.
By September , the idea had raised 11, euros and funders. New narratives, such as virtual reality and augmented reality, are beginning to be applied to journalism for the purposes of telling stories with other possibilities and reaching a wider audience Pavlik, Newskid is a transmedia content production company based on this type of technology. It was founded in mid and is currently part of the umbrella company Minushu S. She has taught subjects related to digital journalism at the Pompeu Fabra University and the Open University of Catalonia, where she is the former Director of the postgraduate course in Multimedia journalistic production.
This collaboration of professional profiles aims to make every project a unique, relevant and attractive story.
Adapting to the brave new world: Innovative organisational strategies for media companies. Kisses Spanish. Along the same lines, Ana Ormaechea highlights the need for journalists to have minimal knowledge about entrepreneurship to take advantage of market opportunities, even though not everyone is prepared to start their own project. Burrows, J. I like Spanish. Fink, Conrad C. In addition, we live in an anti-hierarchical historical epoch in which citizens seek the solution to their problems among the people and not in traditional institutions, which is a category that also includes the legacy media Prenger and Deuze,
To meet this objective Newskid creates a game, using augmented reality, in which the story revolves around a fictional character: Nushu, an alien who is visiting Earth and has been ordered by its superiors to learn everything about the Earth and human being. Children, in this way, share the learning process with the character, who is discovering about current affairs through questions and interactive information that are appealing to children. Being a transmedia project, Newskid is available on several platforms. The first one was the mobile app launched recently in validation phase in educational centres.
This app is free and works in conjunction with a sheet of newspaper, or with templates created by the startup , which must be scanned with your mobile device to activate the teaching game. Minushu has confirmed that, through , a new virtual reality app based on the adventures of Nushu will be launched.
The alien will be lost somewhere in the planet and users should find it using virtual reality glasses and with the help of another character: R. For the start of this company, the founder used his own money in order to build the prototype. However, the platform has planned other routes of income based, for the most part, on partnerships with media companies seeking to reach the younger audience, as well as schools, since the techniques and approach of the app encourages a proactive attitude in children to learn while having fun.
In addition, the startupcarried out a crowdfunding campaign in Indiegogo which raised 3, euros from 76 participants and has received philanthropic support from various public and private entities. Apart from the Newskid initiative, the production company Minushu has also opened two other projects which play with new narratives. On the one hand, the most common of the two is Birth, a series of audiovisual pieces uploaded to YouTube that presents different perspectives about birth.
On the other hand, the most innovative production is Beyond the Paradise , which is a newsgame that raises awareness about the effects of mass tourism in Thailand, Zanzibar and Dominican Republic through small games.
Results Characteristics of startups, professional profiles and innovation. The study has shown the lean startup mentality is the norm in the cases analysed here. The implementation of a small idea that meets the needs of the audience and grows while its hypotheses are validated is seen in the cases under study: Politibot, whose minimum viable product was a Telegram channel that covered the Spanish political market, and has now spread across multiple formats and with international coverage; Cuonda, which has gone from being a podcast platform to connecting producers and advertisers; Datadista, first with small narrative audiovisual materials and now with a large research project which relies on crowdfunding; and Newskid, which through experimentation with new formats has come to create an immersive universe to bring news to children.
In this sense, the founders of these projects agree with the academic literature that the main feature of startupsis the need to identify the problems of users, empathise with them and offer them useful solutions from the beginning. According to lean startup methods , an equally important factor is the market segmentation and the selection of the target audience, since this makes it possible to know and respond to the needs of the audience Anderson, The analysed cases present a segmentation by thematic niches Prenger and Deuze, In this way, Politibot is directed to a public interested in politics, Datadista to an audience fond of political, economic and social, information and Cuonda is dedicated to bringing together podcastswith different specialisations, with the aim of attracting users and advertisers in specific sectors.
The case of Newskid is different, since its market segmentation does not occur according to thematic criteria, but demographic, as evidenced by the fact that its products have as potential audience children aged 8 to Either way, the analysis of cases is consistent with the results of research on other cases and countries. The immediate objectives of the projects also demonstrate their will and ability to be scalable Carvajal, Politibot also has a clear objective: to develop the tool for non-fiction series for which it received funding from Google.
Finally, Newskid, which is at a more premature phase, aims to validate its hypothesis with the use of the app in schools to be able to undertake the new virtual reality project. Another phenomenon that is widely analysed in the academic literature and whose analysis is provided with the cases under study is the profile of the entrepreneurial journalist. At this point, all respondents agree that the launch of innovative startups requires specific technological, economic and legal competencies to materialise the business ideas.
All this is coupled with an open and innovative mindset that perceives changes that affect the media industry more as opportunities than as potential threats. It should be noted that the recent trend among many professionals has been to leave the traditional media to become part of native digital projects, and subsequently leave these native media to undertake these journalistic startups. In most of the startups under study we can see the diversification of professional profiles.
Two journalists, a designer, two developers, a data manager, an engineer, a sociologist and a political scientist work in Politibot; Cuonda has a journalist, a scientific journalist, an engineer and a graduate in Audiovisual communication; while Newskid has three media journalists, two multimedia engineers and one game designer. Datadista is the only case in which there is homogeneity in the profiles, although both members present very diverse and specific specialisations: data journalism and economic journalism, and they also have the help of sporadic collaborators.
The profile of the journalist is redefined in these startups as a flexible figure with multiple specialisations and competencies, and the ability to collaborate with very different profiles. The channels to distribute added value worry the interviewed entrepreneur. In addition to being sufficient and differentiated, the value proposition must be innovative when it comes to choosing the formats used to reach the public.
For this reason, everyone says that the most innovative aspects have to do with their environment. Ana Ormaechea believes that the most innovative element of Cuonda is the transference to its podcasts of the most successful solutions of American initiatives. In this sense, Antonio Delgado points out that for a startup it is easier to be sustainable than for a traditional medium, as long as they do not try to reproduce the structures of traditional large media, with their consequent cost structure.
Thus, the diversification of income streams is possible in entrepreneurial journalism, but this requires a business plan - or a lean canvas Osterwalder and Pigneur, - that considers such issues as cost structure and initial funding. Most of the startup founders agree that Spain has no consolidated entrepreneurial ecosystem. With regards to entrepreneurial initiatives as career opportunities, respondents recognise that they are a good possibility, albeit with nuances.
The most optimistic perspective was put forward by Ormaechea, who explains the difference between embarking on a digital medium and a startup to encourage young journalists to take charge of the distribution and monetisation of the content they produce Breiner, He believes that there is a lot of talent and desire that cannot find their place, so many choose to create their own space. Delgado points out that anyone can start up a project and innovate on the Internet, because costs are minimal compared to previous printing and distribution costs.
However, not everyone has a brilliant idea, or has it but finds difficulties to launch it and capture audiences. He also adds that the established media are important for the training of new graduates as the former allow the latter to come into contact with more experienced journalists. Along the same lines, Ana Ormaechea highlights the need for journalists to have minimal knowledge about entrepreneurship to take advantage of market opportunities, even though not everyone is prepared to start their own project.
The founder of Cuonda illustrates her arguments with the example of the entrepreneurship course offered by the CEU University, whose final exam is a pitch to investors and startup CEOs. Antonio Delgado goes beyond the university curricula. For him, the problem is not only the absence of notions of entrepreneurship in the curricula, but also the fact that they tend to lack practical examples for students to learn from them to identify market opportunities and trends, and that there are some disciplines that do not get enough attention and could pose job opportunities, such as data journalism and visualisations.
This article provides evidence in favour of the theories formulated by authors such as Carlson and Usher on innovation in journalism, which conceive startups from a positive point of view, as they revitalise journalism with the search for new communicative formulas and business models.
In the same way, the cases studied respond to the models of new entrepreneurial initiatives described by Prenger and Deuze , as they advocate the return to the traditional values of journalism - principles such as truthfulness, rigour, ethics, public service and independence - through the creation of models that depart from those prevailing in traditional media. This rejects the viewpoint of other researchers such as Siapera and Papadopoulou and Pein , who consider that the search for the economic benefit that occurs in startups generates a conflict with the public service that should govern journalism.
In this regard, it could be argued that these companies not only pursue the individual benefit of their creators, but that, through the search for a model that helps them generate and capture value, they are forced to pay attention to the demands of communities, who see certain needs covered. Otherwise, startups could not achieve sustainability. Therefore, this article supports the theories of Breiner and Jarvis , who advocate that journalists take the economic control of their own industry and stop blushing when handling concepts from the business field.
The product and the formats used by startups reflect the cultural and technological change that the media industry is going undergoing Pavlik, A chatbot specialised in political information, thematic podcasts with a high editorial production, audiovisual narratives through data journalism and the application of emerging technologies such as augmented and virtual reality for a very specific public, like children, show a landscape that is radically different from the trends of the traditional company in recent years when it comes to offering new information products in the market.
However, the study also has certain limitations and leaves open possibilities for future research. A wider sample would have made it possible to extract more conditions that could be extrapolated to the entire market, in the same way that the inclusion of international initiatives could help to compare the development of the entrepreneurial fabric for journalism in Spain with those of other countries. In addition, some quantitative methods could have been used to evaluate the results of the startups in the market in economic terms. Future analyses could also take into account cases of failure, in addition to those of success, to discern the causes that determine whether an initiative is going to succeed or not among its target audience.
This would be useful to be able to also analyse iteration processes, which do not appear in this article. As final conclusion, we offer ten recommendations for launching a journalistic startup. The enumeration is not intended to be a manual, but a compilation of lessons learned from the cases studied:. Solve a problem of the audience : identify the needs of your target community and develop a value proposition that contributes to the meeting of these needs.
The audience must be willing to invest time or money in it. Directing the product to a specific niche : whether of a thematic or demographic nature, the audience must be segmented and identified. Differentiate yourself from the competition : generate sufficient and differentiated added value that makes investments worthwhile. Propose scalable value proposals : start with an idea that serves as a minimum viable product, but with the possibility of expanding the business if the hypothesis is validated.
Pay attention to formats : decide which narratives or media platforms are best suited to your product and audience. Diversify income sources : try to enable multiple revenue streams and avoid relying heavily on a single source.
To do this, you must plan through a business plan or a lean canvas. Integrate new professional profiles : the mixture of workers with different specialisations and competencies enriches the products and processes. In addition, the innovative mindset is key to startups. Establish small structures : one of the main advantages of startups is the flexibility provided by their infrastructures and small-scale processes.
Do not attempt to replicate the traditional model. Be aware that it is not the panacea : the beginnings of entrepreneurial innovative projects are hard, so it is necessary to have passion and desire to undertake them, and not to see them only as a career opportunity. Change the Spanish entrepreneurial context : startups can, through the creation of collaborative networks, contribute to generate a more fertile entrepreneurial fabric for innovative ideas.
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Roberto de Miguel Pascual. Spanish populism from the far right to the emergence of Podemos. Sanders, Rosa Berganza, and Roberto de Miguel Introduction There is a lack of systematic research on populism and populist political communication in Spain, consisting as it does of mainly descriptive and case study work. This state of research contrasts to the greater body of work carried out in the Latin American context. The absence of a developed corpus of theoretical and empirical research leads us to argue that caution should be exercised in assessing and classifying populism and populist communication in the Spanish context at this stage.
However, the evidence that we have been able to collect from published research, survey data, media accounts, and interviews with political actors allows us to present what we hope is a useful review of the state of political populism scholarship regarding Spain. Platform for Catalonia PxC is considered to be the paradigm of a far-right populist party and has received most research attention to date.
Few works, however, attempt to conceptualize and define populism as such in the Spanish context. Although the two major national parties have occasionally been described by the media as pursuing populist policies, Podemos is the party most widely considered to be populist by media and political commentators. The term is used exclusively in a pejorative manner in both academic and media writing, whether it is applied to left-wing or right-wing parties or to politicians.
This categorization should nonetheless be treated with caution until further systematic research can be carried out to provide rigorous analysis of the Podemos phenomenon. Casals provides a more systematic view of the emergence of political populist actors and their styles, shared in part by a number of other researchers, as we detail below.
He distinguishes three distinct waves of populism. The growth of the xenophobic extreme right in Europe, although relatively insignificant in the Spanish case, was a decisive factor in the limited renewal of right-wing populism in Spain. Extreme right-wing parties abandoned their nostalgic Franco-ist discourse for the language provided by overseas xenophobic groups see Casals, The increased receptivity to the intolerant language of European political parties coupled with the growth of plebiscitary claims from Catalan separatists gave birth to Platform for Catalonia, a political party founded in that combined attacks on Muslim residents in Spain with pro-centralist policies.
Its populism is expressed through a strategy of common- sense populism, according to which parties campaign on local issues that mainstream parties have been unable to solve. National Democracy DN , founded in , and Spain- , founded in , are nationwide, anti-elitist, Spanish national parties. These parties have developed rhetorical strategies which often make strong appeals to ordinary citizens, enhancing nationalist feelings. Candidature of Popular Unity and Catalan Solidarity for Independence, both of which call for independence, might be considered as falling within the excluding populism category, together with Platform for Catalonia.
Citizens appears to have adopted empty populism, which, according to Jagers and Walgrave, exists when parties base their messages on appeals and references to the people. This second wave of populism is not restricted to Catalonia. Until the emergence of Podemos in , populist parties were largely focused on garnering regional or peripheral nationalist support the case of the Catalan and Galician parties , and to date, they have received relatively low-level electoral support.
Platform for Catalonia, for example, received just over two percent of the Catalan vote in the regional elections and, in the national elections, it received a total of 59, votes, falling below the number required to obtain parliamentary representation. The party had more success in the local elections in Catalan towns with large immigrant populations, where voters elected 67 town councilors compared to 17 in the previous local elections.
Citizens the nationwide successor party to the Catalan Citizens party , on the other hand, achieved a significant breakthrough in electoral support in the European Parliament elections, gaining around three percent of the vote and two seats in the Parliament, with the two ministers becoming members of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe group. We have already noted the astonishing results chalked up by Podemos in the European Parliament elections.
The governing conservative Popular Party lost 2. To conclude this survey of political populism scholarship and knowledge in Spain, it should be noted that more systematic and comparative research of political populism has been carried out in the Latin American context see Mansilla, Sociologists, historians, and political scientists have provided the bulk of research, seeking to pin down what they consider to be a slippery concept Weyland, or to explore the political economy or ideological rationales that give rise to populism Miralles, Most media and academic analysis is descriptive and impressionistic, pointing to the declarations and actions of the leaders of Podemos as evidence for a well-crafted and professional communication strategy that makes clever use of a combination of mainstream and social media Carlin, ; Sanders, This constructivist view of political discourse has allowed a transverse appeal to a disgruntled social majority which is beyond the left- right divide.
In their campaign video, for example, images of Iglesias as an ordinary citizen putting clothes into the washing machine, filling out his tax return, and catching a bus were contrasted with images and words of the two mainstream rival candidates in their official cars, remote from the cares of normal life see Podemos campaign video A number of authors Aira, ; Laguna, have examined the effects of political marketing and the professionalization of political communication on democratic politics in Spain.
This marketization of politics is considered to contain a populist and even demagogic dynamic that is deleterious for democratic principles and values. No comparative research, however, examines systematic differences and similarities in the rhetorical styles and language of populist and mainstream parties and politicians.
Some authors have touched on what might be considered tangentially related themes. Aira points to the growing dominance of specific communication formats, driven by professional spin doctors, who seek to ensure that politicians communicate with their audiences in ways that suit the televisual language of spectacle. The Media and Populism There appear to be no studies specifically dealing with the media and populism or populist political communication. He suggested that television programming should not be simply populist but should respond to the professional ethics of responsible communication in a democracy.
Since the s, the Spanish press has experienced a process of adaptation to the dramatic changes in the media marketplace brought about by the financial crisis. Among those innovations, perhaps the most noteworthy has been the drive toward the popularization of content to ensure the widest possible audience Beam, However, Spain does not have an equivalent to the British or German tabloid populist press and its mass audience. Newspaper readership is historically low compared to the rest of Europe.
The M Movement as well as the emergence of Podemos have produced what Palao has described as a hybrid form of political communication that combines the use of mainstream broadcasting formats and of social media. During the European election campaign, Podemos effectively engaged the public through the use of social media such as Twitter and Facebook.
Its use of social media made clear the generational gulf between the younger leaders of Podemos and those of the mainstream parties, who were men and women at least one generation older. Iglesias opened a Twitter account in and habitually used it to communicate with his followers. By the time of the European elections he had around , followers Bollero, On Facebook and YouTube, Podemos also outdid its mainstream rivals in terms of presence and content.
Citizens and Populism We have not identified any studies that explore the effects of populist political communication on citizens in Spain.