For me, the carefully staged concluding bars of the B section Example 4b, bars 69—70 provide a similar opportunity when I engage with this music in private. I also derive equal satisfaction from the highly expressive, hypnotic coda that closes the A section bars 38—48, see Example 5a. It is this moment that, for me, contains the greatest opportunities for transcultural communication.
I would go so far as to argue that when I perform this passage and relate it to the climax in the B section, I am finally able to embody and enact aspects of a hybrid musical identity in a way that reconciles my Indian performer Self with my Western analyst Other. Upon first hearing, the A section coda and the B section climax appear to have little in common. Certainly the latter passage appears to offer greater expressive release when compared to the coda-like structure that closes the A section.
The pleasure that I derive from performing the B section has to do with the fact that its primary motive 'y', circled in Example 5a below is nothing more than an expansion of a melodic idea that occurs at middleground level in the antecedent at the beginning of the piece, and again in its expanded form in the highly expressive coda at the end of the A section compare Examples 5a and 5b to Example 2a. Example 5a: Traces of the motive y from the B section in the A section coda, bb.
Example 6: Middleground motive y in A and B sections. Of course, such communication is only possible in private, where I am free to internalise through analysis, and enact through performance. Such an enactment might involve bringing out inner voices in the B section at the expense of the tuneful soprano melody in a way that fully exploits the motivic counterpoint contained within. I might also take advantage of metrical displacements that theorists continue to find fascinating by indulging in the sort of rubato playing that many would find offensive.
For me, such exaggerated rubato is effective particularly in the coda that closes the A section—a structure that reaffirms the work's cyclical nature through its repetitive patterns, drone- like accompaniment and its re-emergence at the very end of the piece. But if Brahms's own playing in the form of a sole Edison cylinder recording from is anything to go by, such idiosyncrasies appeared to be the norm for the composer himself.
His playing is improvisatory and filled with agogic features such as underdotting and elongation. Moreover, there are a number of instances where Brahms departs from the score both by means of melodic insertion or alteration and by modification of the phrase structure to facilitate closure at a nonterminal musical point Berger, Similarly, my own interpretation of the concluding bars of both the A and B sections is based on bringing out all traces of motive 'y', even when it occurs in fragments within the inner voices. By engaging with the piece in private, I am able to perform in a quasi-improvisatory way; I add notes, rephrase sections and ensure that multiple interpretations some of which go against the grain when it comes to widely accepted notions of piano performance are free to emerge from an engagement with the music's middleground.
It is also this in-between space that offers the potential to easily reconcile the first two oppositions mentioned at the start of this paper. First, performers can clarify their intuitive reading, however unconventional, with a middleground analysis that is meaningful to them and render this in performance, whereas analysts can re present and replay multiple middleground analyses with varying levels of detail.
This processual aspect of both music analysis and piano performance allows continuous interpretation, trumping the theoretical ideal of a definitive Schenkerian graph or the performative ideal of a 'perfect' rendition of the piece. Although an in-depth exploration of the pedagogical implications of this close reading is beyond the scope of this paper, a few words drawn from my own experience are in order.
In this I remain guided by Schenker and Schoenberg, given that their own theories were devised first and foremost for pedagogical purposes. The Intermezzo invites an exploration of high-level concepts such as Schenker's motivic parallelism and Schoenberg's developing variation alongside key concepts of chromatic harmony and form. Examples of everything from chromatic diminutions to added chords, augmented sixths, motivic analysis, form and formal function can be found here. Given that many students no longer have the sort of prior knowledge of the canon once taken for granted, I think it is a good idea to use and reuse one or two short accessible pieces of which this Intermezzo is one example as a way in to larger works.
By the time students are introduced to Schenker's complex theoretical ideas, their familiarity with and prior knowledge of the piece will allow them to produce their own graphs with greater confidence. Schenkerian analysts tend to highlight such neighbour-note figures, but this is not a feature exclusive to canonic European music.
Those familiar with North Indian classical music will know that each raga contains two pitches that are considered most important vadi and samvadi , which recur over and over again in different processual contexts in the course of a performance. Ragas also contain a selection of other pitches that are crucial in giving it its distinctive flavour and identity.
Collectively, these pitches emerge in many permutations in the middleground to give the A major Intermezzo its own irresistible musical identity. But the similarities between these two musical cultures do not end there and are not confined to the aspect of pitch alone.
I would argue that the transcultural communicative potential of the coda-like conclusion of the A section lies in its interesting metrical displacements. Tala functions as a time counter, but incorporates a rhythmic cycle of beats without the constraints of bar lines. There is, as a result, some flexibility and freedom when it comes to intoning these beats. The same sense of a shifting or disappearing bar line can be applied to this Intermezzo, in which phrases begin and end on weak beats, blurring the bar line.
In the coda of the A section, this fluid rhythmic quality is enhanced by a delayed resolution held by the A in the bass Example 7. Example 7: A 3-beat cycle across bar lines the last one augmented, constituting a displaced hemiola in the opening bars The completion of this rhythmic cycle does not end in a pause, but generates its continuation. It is partly this type of overlapping that contributes to the generative process in this Intermezzo, especially where the thematic material advances by one phrase growing seemingly naturally out of another, rather than by formal repetition.
Therefore, applying some of the Indian notions of time is helpful in order to transcend the so-called metrical ambiguities. But unlike my earlier pitch- centred analysis, in which decidedly formalist Schenkerian graphs were used to shed light on transcultural elements within the music's materiality, when it comes to rhythm, a performance- orientated analysis of this Intermezzo inflected by Indian conceptualisation of rhythm will make graphic notational representation highly complicated, if at all useful. Like the rubato in Western classical music or a raga performance, in which the performer's rhythmic nuances retain a certain ineffability, what I have outlined above can be better represented, perhaps, using audio or video analysis.
To demonstrate this would require another paper, however. In this paper I endeavoured to show how re-engaging with certain processual qualities emancipates Western art music from the thorny ideologies surrounding its practice and theory in the present-day, allowing for the reconciliation of binary oppositions between performer and theorist, theorist and pedagogue, or even Eastern and Western identities. It is hardly surprising that Op. In this piece, Brahms reaffirms the value of introspection rather than literalism, of individuality rather than theatricality, and does so in a way that re-emphasises the everyday instead of the extraordinary.
Crucially, re engaging with this Intermezzo's musical processes has led me to conclude that a state of in-betweenness is no longer something to escape from. Bibliography Schumann, Eugenie. Memoirs of Eugenie Schumann. Marie Busch, London: Agawu, Kofi. Music as Discourse: Semiotic Heinemann, Rings, Steven. Heather Platt and Music Theory Online 2 no. Peter H. Berger, Jonathan.
Accessed 10th October Hubbe, Walter. Brahms in Hamburg Kessinger Puffett, Derek. May, Florence. The Life of Johannes Brahms. Accessed 20 January Volume 1 London: Edward Arnold, While a number of speakers character of the repeated diversions into major as adopted his approach to investigate non-Western a way of expressing memory and grief. Guiding the audience The session on the Classical era, which contained through the salient moments in the work, Kamien the only paper on operatic music offered during invited those present to disregard the conventional the conference, presents a neat pivot to the view of the Prelude as bearing a nocturne-like somewhat less conventional analytical subjects.
Both closely tonic, E-flat minor. Horn Trio, op. Ryan Jones monophonic vocal melodies to illustrate how the tested the boundaries of the notion of the singer improvises around a static harmony. For Rothstein, the composer in his private teaching. His paper, as indeed the entire above. He surveyed the chamber music, and in teaching — in his early institutional homes of Schenkerian own home Hedi Siegel. This was followed by an future issue of Music Analysis. The piece was chosen because, for all its Session 1: Approaches to Brahms, popularity, it has attracted little analysis, a Schumann, and the Piano particularly puzzling blind spot given its potential value for the teaching of music theory.
Illuminated Chair: Dr David Bretherton by her inspired performance at the keyboard, she examined both large and small-scale structures in the piece, illustrated by voice-leading diagrams. After a buffet Op. All three papers sparked movement and won the essay prize, this fruitful discussions that continued into the time he turned to the fourth movement. The following coffee break.
In a detailed analysis of the coda, he gave examples of how Brahms utilised these patterns. Making reference to the autograph manuscript, he examined alterations made by Brahms and demonstrated how these did not affect the harmonic conclusion of the piece, but enhanced the rhythmic resolution. Such meticulous research and presentation raised the bar for the conference as a whole from its very opening. What came next met raised expectations. Roy E.
Carter Berkeley: University starting point, Holden set out to show that there of California Press, , p. He demonstrated through vividly animated audio-visual diagrams Despite the remarkable diversity expressed by all the development of individual musical segments. What is more, I was struck by how easily and effortlessly participants were able to present their work in a way that reconciled Schoenbergian Frederick Reece Harvard University explored oppositions between 'style' and 'idea'.
Although the elaborate charts were generative potential contained within each work, occasionally difficult to absorb, this thorough while also taking into account the concepts and investigation made for a rich presentation. Next, Joseph Knowles sought to examine the The themes of timelessness and ineffability implications of set-theory analysis on Gesualdo's continued to provide an unconventional but fitting moving harmonies, in which modally conceived introduction to the final paper of this session in structures exist alongside passages of striking which Steve Tromans, himself an accomplished chromaticism, producing music that resists jazz pianist, moved easily between the categorical fixity due to its inherent hybridity.
Drawing on a wide range of piangendo Mercy, I cry, weeping as an extended sociological theoretical frameworks, Tromans analytical example, Knowles was able to make sought to make sense of the temporal sense of the composer's procedures through a complexities inherent in the music-making pitch-class-set analysis that demonstrated an process. Personal anecdotes and demonstrations awareness of socio-historical contexts as well as a at the piano served to foreground how the keen sensitivity to performative issues.
Moreover, academic discourse generated by such a this paper was evidence enough that even the performative investigation can be communicated most complex, forbidding-to-the-uninitiated to music practitioners. According to especially when one relates syntactical Kelly, interdisciplinary work should be matched by organisation to expressive indications. Taking his more collaboration between the different fields of cue from Mozart, Zubillaga-Pow managed to musical study. Forgotten your password? Log In Via Your Institution. Related Content Search Find related content.
Most Read Most Cited No results returned. No results returned. Remember me. Difcite Latinam linguam. Learne uhe Latine tongue. Pro veftro captu. Being neat and elegant. Comprehendye it. According to your capacity. Et varias res. Deus vos juvabit. Gad will help you. Alii laudabunt. Ifthe begimhing be hard. Medium erit facile. De accidentibus rcrum. Mundus temporarius. Angelus immortalis. Corpus vifibile. The body is vifflle. Thefoule likewife. Heavem is the higheff. Terra infima. INubes eft remota. A miff mcere. Area Iata vel angufta.
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Bomes are hard. Glacies lubrica. Indi nudi. The Imdians maked. Vacca manfuetum cicgr.
Ovis mite. Conviva eft hilaris. Locus amoenus. Goodncwes is joyfult. Sylya eft denfa vel rara. Agef foecundus aut fterilis. IMotus eft celer aut tardus. Motionis fwif orflow. Sermo jocofus vel ferius. The firft is learnea. Am elephant the biggeft. A'e is g00d. Cervifia eft bona. Mulfum melius. Vinum optimum. Lacerta eft mala. Vipera pejor. An affe the worff. Ad ucat us of gold. Ducatus eft aureus. Talerus argenteus.
Akettle ofcopper. A hammer ofirom. A wrentheleaft. Taurus eft magnus. Camelus major. Elephas maximus. Malleus ferreus. The ftars dotwinckle. Angeli celebrant eum. Sol lucet. Luna fplendet. Elementa alunt nos. The elements do nourfhus. Ignis ardet. Flamma flagrat. The fire burnetb. The fame flafher. Ventus fiat. The raimraineth. Nix ningit. Thefmow fwoweth. Aqua in plana fuit. E fonte falit. It is drawn out ofapit. Herba crefcit. Lapis jacet. Animal fe movet. Avis volat. A bird fyetb.
Pifcis natat. Quadrupes graditur. Afour-footed beaff goeth. Vermis repit. A taorme crawleth. Cervus currit. A hart rummetb, Equus hinnit. A horfe meigheth. Eos mugit. Agnus balat. An oxe loweth. Lupus ululat. A wolfe bowleth. B 3 A dogg. A dogge barketh. A ram butteth. Canis latrat. Aries arietat. Bellua laniat. A wild beaf? A hare flieth. Lepus fugit. Vulpes mutat pilos. Gallina ponitova. A cat catcheth mice. A hem layeth ggges. Woymes gnavfat thingt.
Vermes rodunt pinguia. Lice dobite the skim. Pediculi mordent cutem. As aljo gnaty and fcas. Formica eft laboriofa. Aranea artificiofa. Am am- is laboriou4. Afpider artificiall. Apes pungunt aculeo. Quicquid vivit viget. Stomachus concoquit.
The ftomack concotietb. The bowels do caf out. Inteftina egerunt. Cor palpitat. A beard adorneth the chim. Labia funt circa os. Barba ornat mentum. Women are beafdleff?. We carry omthefhoulders. Manibus Iaboramus. Theleft holdeth, theright perfor Siniftra tenet, dextra Peragi; opus. We handle with the palme. Pugno percutimus. Wefmite with thefiff. Weftraitem any thing witb the. The belly is under tbe breaff. Infra axillas latera.
Fonteio Capitone coss. So Ellie got to make her first road trip up to D. A gladiator who was practising with him, and voluntarily threw himself at his feet, he stabbed with a poniard, and then ran about with a palm branch in his hand, after the manner of those who are victorious in the games. JOhn Owen. If only we could send all of our politicians to see Coriolanus and hope that they would understand how contempt for the electorate does in a great military man! He considered her as his own child for no better reason than her savage temper, which was such even in her infancy, that she would attack with her nails the face and eyes of the children at play with her.
Sub his coftae. Etiam in fomniofomniat. Ratio ratiocinatur. IMemoria meminit. Biut is often deceived. It rejoycetb and is fad.
Securus curat nihil. Tutus timet nihil. Vegetus laborat. Vigilia enim fatigat. Sanus fi benevalet. He that is dainty choofeth, one that is found is in good bealth. B4 A ficte s. ThePortalltothe Gateof Tongues. Cui dolet is queritur. Recens vulnus fanatur. A bile abounds with corrupt A new wound is bealed. Agricola arat. A husbandmam ploweth. He jwctb in the primg. In vere feminat.
In autumno vindemiat.
Paftor pafcit gregem. Venator venatur feras. A fowler catcheth birds. A fifher fiJheth. Pifcator pifcatur. Coquus parat cibos. Elixat in olla. He boileth it in a pot. He frieth ft im biuter. Torret in craticula. Fercula condimus aromatibus. He broilcth it om a grcdirom. Potum condimus in cella. Ex uvis fit vinufh. Auriga jungit equos. Et ungit rotas. A carterjoynetb horfes. Nauta navigat navi. Nauclerus gubernat. Remiges remigant. Apilotguidetb it. Et cavet he erret.
Aut cadat in foveam. Orfalliato a ditab. Textor texit linteum, telam. A weaverweaves linmem, a web. Sartor menfurat veftes.
A taylor meafureth clothes. Sutor fuit calceos ex corio. Reftio torquet reftim.
Aropertwineth a rope. Figulus fingit fidelias. Scriniarius fua fcrinia glutinat Afmith beateth. Faber cudit. Verbs Imperfonals. Ifit liffeth you, it is lawfull. Si tibi libet, licet. Ofthc circumftancesofthings. De rerum circumftamtiir. Ho calleth me? Is it thou? Q; es? Cur non repetis?
Why dofi tbou mot repeat? I will goe together witb , quam. C7 mot, but we are alone. Quomodo ludemus? Alltbe day. But they are holy-dayer. Totum diem. Let him climbe over the top. Quia eft palam. I have bcene unthankfull toward Erga praeceptorem ingratus fui. Juxta viam currcns, citra fta gnum con titit. Obibat circa paludes. Oberrabat inter nemora. Navigabat trans mare, ufque ad extremas infulas. Prope orbis terminos. Extra patriam vagans. Pro quo intercedunt. Wandringout ofthe country. For whom they eztreat. Quatuor The Portal1to tie Gate of Tongues.
Thrice three are yime. Triginta dies funt menfis. Twelve articles of thefaith. Centum anni funt feculum. Satanis the forger ofa ihoufand cepted. Thirty dayes area moneth. Ofthings in a fchoole. Cholafticus frequentat fcholam. We read filently out ofa booke. Or recite it aloud. Et ponimus in pulpito. Sataaas eft mille fraudum ar tifex. Ille emendat mendas. Non verberant baculo. But shaftifempitb rods. Sed caedunt virgis. Go mot out without leave. Poft moram redeas. Hiftoricus res geftas narrat.
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Prive away flies with a flap. Take away the covers. Mufcas abige mufcario. And drinkto the guefis. Parentes educunr fobolem. Cognati affines. Rbs munitur moeniis. Thegate hath folding doores. Porta habet valvas. Hence gothefireets. Abhinc eunt platcae. Rex in regno regnet. Dominus domi dominetur. Pax eft prorfus optanda. Bellum eft perniciofum. Armis fe defendunt. Quum fitis, bibe. Jcjunare aliquando expedit. Omnibus efto coinis, nemini te gemiieioait,fattaringto mone blandus.
ThePortalltothe GateofTongues. Diffidit in inopia. Furari turpe eft. Merces pro merito. Pufillanimis non eft fortis. In profperis effertur. In adverfis trepidat. Tu efto ad operas alacris. Kecp in thine anger,ffaream of Cohibe Tiram, delinquenti ' fender. Deprecanti ignofce. Confilii indiges confulit.
Amicus diligit, inimicus odit. Comes comitatur. Nam hocVeftibulum eft tan for this Portallis omely abegin tum exordium. Bur as we go to work, what a coile have wee now to begin Lego, but then lejit, lejimus, lejitis, yet - ; not lejumt but legunt? Gard, cepts? But the heavieft cleg to retard a ftudents profici ency,is the large circuit ofthat vaft and uncertain walke, which he muft perambulate, before he can attaine any reafortable acquaintance with the Latim tongue.
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