The AJP reports instances of torture under the Najibullah government, during which high-level members of the security forces were present , Amnesty International AI alleges that, under the Najibullah government, those "suspected of involvement in armed opposition or non-violent anti-government activity [were] held in isolation cells during an interrogation period which may last several months.
Detainees [were] reportedly subject to routine torture" Mar. The UN Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Afghanistan reports an incident in which nine members of opposition movements and seven children were killed in Paktia in January by Afghan and Soviet troops 26 Feb. The AJP reports that Afghan armed forces executed captured mujahideen fighters in , Human Rights Watch reports allegations that Afghan government forces executed "suspected guerrillas and civilians supporting them" in 1 Feb.
The UN Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Afghanistan also notes cases of alleged "ill-treatment" by state elements of prisoners suspected of having been involved in the March coup against then President Najibullah 17 Feb. The UN Special Rapporteur noted that "he ha[d] received corroborating allegations from a variety of sources concerning the killing of Afghan soldiers, Mujaheddin and civilians by members of opposition movements [including mujahideen groups]" 31 Jan.
The AJP reports that the Shura-i Nazar militia engaged in torture and the "cruel and degrading treatment" of prisoners, which was "practiced within a proto-governmental structure … that was subsequently absorbed within the Islamic State of Afghanistan, after the Najibullah government fell in " , The AJP reports that "witnesses from within Shura-i Nazar testify to a particularly strong chain of command, in terms of deciding where to attack and giving direct orders" , Human Rights Watch also states that members of the government of the Islamic State of Afghanistan "were involved in military decision-making processes" , During the period , there were reports of summary executions by mujahideen of individuals associated with the former government AI May and mujahideen and militia forces Human Rights Watch Jan.
There is also evidence that Jamiat forces targeted civilian areas for attack at the beginning of the February Afshar campaign. According to the AJP, during a military offensive by the Islamic State of Afghanistan in the Afshar neighbourhood in Kabul in February , de facto state and allied forces engaged in "war crimes," including "indiscriminate attacks, rapes, abductions, and summary executions" , While it has not been possible to identify individual commanders responsible for specific instances of execution or rape, the Afghanistan Justice Project has been able to identify a number of the commanders who led troops in the operation.
Testimony indicates that both Jamiat and Ittihad troops committed abuses. AJP , The AJP reports witness testimony that members of armed militias, including Ittihad-i Islami and Hizb-i Wahdat, beat, robbed, and committed sexual violence against civilians during and ibid. AI's Annual Report describes, for the year , the use of torture in both official and opposition prisons, sexual violence against civilians, and deliberate and arbitrary killings by both government forces and mujahideen, "but often in circumstances which made it impossible to determine who was responsible.
They allege that the "high authorities of Junbish in Kabul were … placed very close to where their soldiers were carrying out rape, murder and looting" ibid. The UN Special Rapporteur for Afghanistan also noted cases of sexual violence against women that took place during the period from to 20 Jan. AI reports that, in Kabul in , prior to the Taliban takeover, there were reports of "women being raped by armed guards of the government of then President Rabbani" AI reports allegations of mutilation and killing of prisoners by the Taliban from to , including one incident in which "22 corpses were discovered in a mass grave" Apr.
Country Reports also reported the discovery of this mass grave US 30 Jan. Further information on opposition forces during the period from to could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response. The Amnesty International Report reports that "Taleban guards systematically and deliberately killed thousands of ethnic Hazara civilians in the days following their military takeover of Mazar-e Sharif in August. The report of the UN Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary, or arbitrary executions states that "[s]eventeen elders were summarily executed in the village Khassar in Gosfandi province" between January and April 3 Feb.
In May , Taliban forces reportedly executed at least 26 "Ismaili Shia Hazara civilians" at Robatak Pass in north-central Afghanistan, "some [of whom] were tortured before they were killed" Human Rights Watch 1 Feb. The report of the UN Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary, or arbitrary executions states that, in "May , the Taliban tortured and killed 31 ethnic Hazara prisoners in an area known as Hazara Mazari, on the border between Baghlan and Samangan Province" 3 Feb. Human Rights Watch reports that they were publicly executed by firing squad ibid.
AI says that all the victims were "summarily executed or deliberately killed" Mar. The AJP reports that "[r]obberies, kidnapping and sexual assaults by commanders and troops of all parties were commonplace" ibid.
The report of the UN Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary, or arbitrary executions states that, in "May , the Taliban tortured and killed 31 ethnic Hazara prisoners in an area known as Hazara Mazari, on the border between Baghlan and Samangan Province" 3 Feb. The political impasse in Algeria has tipped the scales out of the hands of a long-standing regime, and towards the demand for democratisation. Year of publication: Category: Global Reports Language: English Upload date: The GEM Global Report finds that high levels of entrepreneurial optimism, ambition and innovation are vital to advancing economies. Our newsletter delivers a digest of analytical articles and op-eds published on our website, along with the latest updates on the IMR activities on a monthly basis. AI 9 Feb.
Corroborating information on violence carried out by militias during Taliban rule could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate. In some cases, people said they witnessed detainees being gun butted or kicked, sometimes while handcuffed. The Afghanistan Independent Human Rights Commission AIHRC describes raids by international and national forces, noting that "[i]n some incidents such actions can rise to the level of 'cruel treatment and torture' … as prohibited per Common Article 3 of the Geneva Conventions" , 5.
As a result of another operation that killed at least 33 Afghan civilians, "two ANA commanders involved in the operation were reportedly dismissed and under investigation for their involvement" ibid. In other cases of civilian deaths at which Afghanistan National Army personnel were present, the UN Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary, or arbitrary executions notes that no military leaders are willing to accept responsibility for the deaths UN 6 May , In a report based on research conducted between January and June of that year, Human Rights Watch has documented instances of "violent criminal offences - armed robbery, extortion, and kidnappings … governmental attacks on media and political actors; and violations of the human rights of women and girls" carried out by members of the army and security forces Human Rights Watch , The organization "found evidence of government involvement or complicity in abuses in virtually ever district in the southeast" ibid.
One specific case cited by Human Rights Watch is the killing of two men by armed men who witnesses thought "were either affiliated with the local commander or were former fighters" ibid. Mani December , 9.
However, too many with criminal records have secured places in political office or security agencies. The AJP also writes that "failure to scrutinize the records of those claiming a place at the table has led to the entrenchment of persons who continue to terrorize civilians and otherwise undermine the political process" , The government was either unwilling or unable to prosecute abuses by officials consistently and effectively.
US 24 May , 2. Human Rights Watch's World Report from January states that "[t]he Afghan government continues to allow well-known warlords, human rights abusers, corrupt politicians, and businesspeople to operate with impunity" 3. In , the Afghan Parliament passed a bill granting immunity for "serious violations of human rights, including war crimes and crimes against humanity committed in the past 30 years" AI 9 Feb.
The bill was "not publicly divulged until January " and was not signed by President Karzai, although it was published in the official gazette in ibid. The International Federation for Human Rights FIDH writes that "a blanket amnesty will cover all those responsible for the international crimes committed during Afghanistan's civil war, some of whom currently [as of ] hold prominent positions in the Parliament and in the Government" 6 Feb.
The terms of the legislation are such that people who committed. AI 9 Feb. Amnesty International writes that "[Taliban] figures who agree to cooperate with the Afghan government would also be immune to prosecution" ibid. EurasiaNet reports that. However, human rights groups point out that the lack of security and rule of law in Afghanistan makes it almost impossible for individuals to gather evidence and pursue criminal cases against powerful parties involved in the war.
FIDH "stresses that international law prohibits any sort of amnesty for crimes under international law" 6 Feb. This Response was prepared after researching publicly accessible information currently available to the Research Directorate within time constraints.
Comparing the findings from the latest HRW report with its studies from many years ago, it is apparent that there is a great difference between the late s and today in terms of expanding dialogue on human rights issues. The HRW report suggests that a number of Soviet leaders were more critical of the human rights situation in their country than even their foreign counterparts, including the U. State Department.
Two decades later, conditions in Russia are quite different. A good example is the predictable official reaction to criticism from HRW. This year, the Kremlin is continuing its campaign against international human rights reports. The World Report suggests that the Arab Spring gave hope to residents of a region where it was traditionally believed that resistance to democratic change might never be overcome. Human Rights Watch also has hopes—hopes of establishing at least some dialogue with the Russian authorities. We are ready for dialogue. We would be happy to have talks with Peskov, Putin, anyone else.
We are ready, open — let us do this. Even if rights are violated, it does not matter that much.
Events of Purchase this report in the US or from around the globe >> World Report Challenges for Rights After Arab Spring. This 23rd annual World Report summarizes human rights conditions in more than 90 countries and territories worldwide in It reflects extensive.
Helsinki Watch. December, Toward the rule of law: Soviet legal reform under perestroika. The U. Helsinki Watch Committee. Thomas, D. If you are interested in getting a rare insight into what Russia is really about ; what the Russian government and the Russian people are really thinking; what the Russian expert community is really discussing; subscribe to our newsletter below or by letting us know at info imrussia. Our newsletter delivers a digest of analytical articles and op-eds published on our website, along with the latest updates on the IMR activities on a monthly basis.