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In Stock. Book Description Praeger, Never used!. Seller Inventory P Seller Inventory BD Publisher: Praeger , This specific ISBN edition is currently not available. Therefore I hypothesis that H3 — The absence of information and territorial control contributed to the killing of civilians by Boko Haram H4 — The absence of information and territorial control contributed to the killings of civilian by the Lord Resistance Army Battlefield Losses Hultman argues that the dynamics on the battlefield influences the strategy of rebel groups, as opposed to territorial control and contestation.
Following defeats on the battlefield to the government, rebel groups face a high risk of been eliminated. Additionally, the possibility of reaching a compromise with the government is diminished if the rebel group gives up on fighting. Rebels groups that decide to pursue the conflict despite the miniature chance of winning will seek to inflict costs on the government. Killing civilians represents a tactic in which rebel groups can impose military and political cost in order to achieve concession.
Whilst violence towards civilians does not advance the rebel possibility of defeating the government, it however allows the conflict to continue. Rebels will therefore attack a high number of civilians following a losses on the battlefield. Hultman — In this study the outcome considered is the high frequency of violence directed at civilians by Boko Haram and the LRA. The limitations of employing Mill's Methods in establishing causality have been highlighted by academics such as Lieberson , who argued that Mill's Methods are unable to take account of the causal complexity which is seen in the study of social sciences phenomena.
As such this method has been accused of being reductive, in that it implies mono causality Lieberson However, Mill's Method of agreement provides a framework within which I am able to contrast the most prominent explanations given by other theorists against my additional variable of vertical networks While the approach employed in this study may be unable to fully account for causal complexity, the approach does allows for new insight in to the causes of violence against civilians to be gained.
Although employing primary data, such as in-country interviews, would have gained insight in to the micro-foundations of rebel violence against civilians it was neither practical nor within the scope of this paper to do so. The Salafi doctrine pursued by Boko Haram provides the impetus on its claim to establish an Islamic State in the surrounding states of the Lake Chad region, and use coercion to implement this goal. Nonetheless, the ideology and principles of Boko Haram remains on the margins within the Salafi community in Northern Nigeria Thurston 9- The development of Boko Haram stems from internal changes in Northern Nigeria, however, some external factors have also played a role in establishing the group.
Salafism in Nigeria comes from the Izala movement, which was established by Abubakar Gumi in the late s and gained wide currency in Northern Nigeria5. The Izala movement was later on plagued by internal divisions as a result of the emergence of a younger generation, sparking theological debates. These rapid internal developments contributed to the radicalisation of Muslims in Northern Nigeria; this occurred whilst the Nigerian state languished in it essential duties following an economic crisis in the s, angering and creating dissent amongst Muslims.
Politicians promoted the opinion that full implementation of Sharia law will contribute to the greater living standards. Sharia law was however enforced varyingly across Northern states, contributing to Intra-Muslim theological divisions. The demotion of Sharia law to secular laws in some Northern states, infuriated radical Muslims who sought for the full enforcement of Sharia. Mohammed Smith - 76 Aigbogba The rapid socio-economic and religious transformation of Northern Nigeria has contributed to the establishment of radical Islamic groups such as Boko Haram.
Nevertheless, external developments also played a role. Mohammed Boko-Haram is the widely adopted name for the group. The inception of the group remains surrounded by dispute due to the lack of evidence to verify claims. Such explanations contend that Yusuf created Boko Haram in order to achieve a Sharia state in Nigeria. It was initially a non-violent organisation until Mohammed Yusuf overthrew Lawan as the leader of the group, when Lawan travelled to Saudi Arabia Onouha 3.
Despite dissenting claims on the group origins, Muhammad Yusuf remains pivotal character in transforming the profile of the group. Yusuf charisma attracted followers to the group and brought the sect to public attention Comoli During the Kanama phase, members of the group engaged in attacks on the Nigerian government, but suffered major casualties. Violent attacks were launched on police stations and institutions of the Nigerian state.
They however suffered a high level of casualties to the Nigerian government. Mohammed Yusuf and other members who survived the barrage of attack from the government fled Mohammed 12 Although this stage though involved an intensification in its ideological stance and accumulation of resources. The political entrepreneur Mohammed Yusuf through his charismatic preaching and provision of selective incentives such as micro-financing, attracted supporters to Boko Haram.
Yusuf also condemned local Muslims leaders who engaged with the corrupt regime of the Borno state government, through such messages, he was able to increase the membership base of the group Mohammed 14 — 19 Comoli 51 - The third period began in June , a month that would be defining in the metamorphosis and capricious transformation of a local sect into a lethal organisation. Some Boko Haram members disputed wearing motorcyclist helmets, this instigated clashes between Boko Haram members and the government.
Around 20 Boko Haram members were killed during this quarrel with the government. Yusuf and other members angered by the attacks carried out retaliation assaults on July , against the police force in Borno, Bauchi and Yobe State, leading to a fierce confrontation over 3 days between the government forces and Boko Haram members. Yusuf and other key members were executed by the government, overall Boko Haram combatants were killed. During August — April , the group were believed by the government to have been eliminated following the crackdown and its members were arrested.
Abubakar Shekau, Yusuf second in command, took over the group Mustapha Comoli 53 - Prior to attacks on the government involved local guns and knives; however its armoury now comprised of improvised explosive device IEDs , grenades and suicide bombs. Prominent attacks included the suicide bombing of the UN base in Abuja in Mustapha Onuoha Furthermore the sect use of suicide attacks was a new emergence in Nigeria Montclos b: The transformation of Boko Haram from a local group engaged in minor skirmishes with the government to a violent virulent organisation, is partially due to the response of the Nigerian security forces.
They failed to respond broader issues raised by members, but rather chose to engage in a vicious attack towards Boko Haram members. This ineffective response combined with the execution of the Yusuf created a deep rooted vengeance and radicalisation within the group.
Secondly, the Nigerian state was incompetent in halting the immediate reprisal attacks by Boko Haram members, even members of the security forces are reported to have defected in battle. This provided Boko Haram members with a renewed confidence to pursue its wave of violence Mohammed Boko Haram is not a unified group. The International Crisis Groups claims that there are at least six groups which have fragmented from Boko Haram, it is difficult to verify such assertions due to unreliable evidence.
Ansaru is the most well-known splinter group of Boko Haram, formed in Ansaru emerged following a divergence in tactics, such as Boko Haram killing of Muslims and disputes over rank and file duties amongst Boko Haram members Kanuri vs Hausa members. Ansaru has become prominent for its kidnapping of foreign citizens Montclos 11 Comoli 65 — Boko Haram has been able to sustain its modus operandi through participating in criminal enterprises, such as bank robberies, co-operation with local gangs and weapon sales.
The attacks it undertakes requires little finance because it raids the Nigerian Army weapons. In , the town of Baga was the centre of a massacre, following the refusal of local sellers to be extorted by Boko Haram members. Boko Haram replied with brutal attacks to civilians, and security forces also exacerbated the situation through carrying out further attacks Montclos The extent of the links between both groups still remains subject to uncertainty, nevertheless pledging allegiance raised the publicity of both groups Blanchard : 6. The timing of Boko Haram allegiance to ISIL indicated a weakened group, it announcement occurred after it experienced territorial losses to the Nigerian government.
Boko Haram could argue that its Salafi-jihad doctrine is gaining global credence following the declaration, however it is improbable that this will result in fighters, finance or weapons from ISIL. Boko Haram still remains a regional sect and is reacting to its local environment Thurston Also a state of emergency was announced in January , in 16 Local Government Areas.
These response nonetheless failed to halt the daily occurrence of violence and Boko Haram even managed to place its flags on Mosques in certain regions. On May , another state of emergency was announced, covering the larger territories of Borno, Yobe and Adamawa states. The JTF nevertheless have been responsible for human right abuses towards civilians and extrajudicial executions Comoli : Mustapha Falode Currently, the Nigerian government under the leadership of Muhammad Buhari has achieved major successes against Boko Haram.
Previous areas under the dominance of Boko Haram have been retrieved by the government forces, its members have retreated to the remote mountainous region of the Sambisa Forest. Boko Haram is certainly not defeated. It remains a highly resilient group and while its operational capacity has declined, the geographic area makes complete defeat challenging, borders are porous and the topography is mountainous. Furthermore the roots of Boko Haram lie in systemic changes in Nigeria, such as intra-Muslim disputes over Sharia Law, corruption and sub-national inequalities.
In comparison to other African rebel movements, which have varyingly adopted ruthless strategies, the LRA has continuous and systemically perpetrated atrocities towards it civilian constituency Sage During — , it was responsible for a campaign of widespread abduction, with to 80, young people abducted by the LRA. The violence exhibited by the LRA is barbaric, but it is not illogical. Violence towards civilians has been carried out to allow the group to continue functioning, through raids, abduction, and to eliminate government support Branch The LRA has committed mutilation acts such as cutting off the ears, lips, noses and legs of civilians.
Actions such as this are often viewed as madness in the West, but this violence has a symbolic meaning. The disfigurement of civilians allows the LRA to inflict fear on the population and send a message to the population. For example, cutting of lips sends a message against the population not to pass information about the LRA to the government. Vinci Colonial rule under the British contributed to the polarisation between North and South.
Under the colonial regime, Northerners served as a labour pool for military activities, whilst Southerners dominated government roles such as the civil service. This contributed to national inequalities, with the South becoming more affluent than the North. Disagreements in government were resolved through military power, leading to unpopular regimes such as Idi Amin overthrown militarily. The NRA was a Southern movement which represented a campaign against the Northern dominance in Ugandan politics, and managed to harness a significant amount of public support.
After a coup, which ousted Obote in , the NRA were later able to successful capture the capital, Kampala and were now in power. Following the ascension of Yoweri Museveni to power, the remainder of the Northern political elite attempted to recapture power militarily. The army previously dominated by Northerners, now comprised of Southerners. The history of Uganda has produced brutal ethnic reprisals, therefore the Acholi and Northerners feared that a retaliation attack would occur from the new Southern government.
Such as the killing of at least 40 people from Namu-Okra in , these violent operations intensified resentment against the new government within the North Branch 10 Branch The UPDA managed to harness support from the Acholi community, as they represented a means to halt the government violence. However the movement however did not survive for long, and its fragmentation contributed to the HSM.
The HSM founded by Alice Auma Lakwena in , incorporated a mixture of Christian doctrine and local customs to create distinctive military group. HSM members had to undergo a process of purification through rituals such as singing songs before combat and they use oils to protect themselves from weapons. Through its cleansing and purification rituals, the HSM became a magnet for members, who regarded themselves as invincible. Whilst the HSM had some moderate success against the government, they were eventually defeated in The LRA also never managed to harness the same support from the population as the HSM, as the Acholi were fatigued from the ongoing spate of violence; therefore the LRA used violence to mobilise support Branch - 14 Vinci — Cline They were provided with weapons such machetes, bows and arrows it proved to be a successful mission in mobilising a significant number of people against the LRA.
The LRA retaliated brutally to diminished public support, viciously attacking locals who co-operated with the government. The government were hesitant to provide security to civilians, leaving them helpless to LRA attacks. There was a temporary cease fire from the LRA but the peace process was short-lived. Kony requested for at least 6 months to engage in negotiations, the government were impatient with this time frame, and argued that they had obtained military report that the LRA was using peace talks to enlarge their military ability.
During the s, two significant factors occurred which impacted the transformation of the LRA. The Sudanese government provided support for Kony, which included ammunition and a military base in Sudan. Secondly, Kony began to assert that the Acholi people were disloyal to him. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 13 3. Greenwood, Christopher The law of weaponry at the start of the new millenium.
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