The Lords Resistance Army (Praeger Security International)

The Lord's Resistance Army
Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download and read online The Lords Resistance Army (Praeger Security International) file PDF Book only if you are registered here. And also you can download or read online all Book PDF file that related with The Lords Resistance Army (Praeger Security International) book. Happy reading The Lords Resistance Army (Praeger Security International) Bookeveryone. Download file Free Book PDF The Lords Resistance Army (Praeger Security International) at Complete PDF Library. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. Here is The CompletePDF Book Library. It's free to register here to get Book file PDF The Lords Resistance Army (Praeger Security International) Pocket Guide.

Book Description Condition: New. Seller Inventory n. New copy - Usually dispatched within 2 working days. Seller Inventory B Language: English. Brand new Book. Seller Inventory LHB Book Description Praeger Pub Text, Condition: Brand New.

Bestselling Series

In Stock. Book Description Praeger, Never used!. Seller Inventory P Seller Inventory BD Publisher: Praeger , This specific ISBN edition is currently not available. Therefore I hypothesis that H3 — The absence of information and territorial control contributed to the killing of civilians by Boko Haram H4 — The absence of information and territorial control contributed to the killings of civilian by the Lord Resistance Army Battlefield Losses Hultman argues that the dynamics on the battlefield influences the strategy of rebel groups, as opposed to territorial control and contestation.

Following defeats on the battlefield to the government, rebel groups face a high risk of been eliminated. Additionally, the possibility of reaching a compromise with the government is diminished if the rebel group gives up on fighting. Rebels groups that decide to pursue the conflict despite the miniature chance of winning will seek to inflict costs on the government. Killing civilians represents a tactic in which rebel groups can impose military and political cost in order to achieve concession.

Whilst violence towards civilians does not advance the rebel possibility of defeating the government, it however allows the conflict to continue. Rebels will therefore attack a high number of civilians following a losses on the battlefield. Hultman — In this study the outcome considered is the high frequency of violence directed at civilians by Boko Haram and the LRA. The limitations of employing Mill's Methods in establishing causality have been highlighted by academics such as Lieberson , who argued that Mill's Methods are unable to take account of the causal complexity which is seen in the study of social sciences phenomena.

As such this method has been accused of being reductive, in that it implies mono causality Lieberson However, Mill's Method of agreement provides a framework within which I am able to contrast the most prominent explanations given by other theorists against my additional variable of vertical networks While the approach employed in this study may be unable to fully account for causal complexity, the approach does allows for new insight in to the causes of violence against civilians to be gained.

Although employing primary data, such as in-country interviews, would have gained insight in to the micro-foundations of rebel violence against civilians it was neither practical nor within the scope of this paper to do so. The Salafi doctrine pursued by Boko Haram provides the impetus on its claim to establish an Islamic State in the surrounding states of the Lake Chad region, and use coercion to implement this goal. Nonetheless, the ideology and principles of Boko Haram remains on the margins within the Salafi community in Northern Nigeria Thurston 9- The development of Boko Haram stems from internal changes in Northern Nigeria, however, some external factors have also played a role in establishing the group.

Salafism in Nigeria comes from the Izala movement, which was established by Abubakar Gumi in the late s and gained wide currency in Northern Nigeria5. The Izala movement was later on plagued by internal divisions as a result of the emergence of a younger generation, sparking theological debates. These rapid internal developments contributed to the radicalisation of Muslims in Northern Nigeria; this occurred whilst the Nigerian state languished in it essential duties following an economic crisis in the s, angering and creating dissent amongst Muslims.

Politicians promoted the opinion that full implementation of Sharia law will contribute to the greater living standards. Sharia law was however enforced varyingly across Northern states, contributing to Intra-Muslim theological divisions. The demotion of Sharia law to secular laws in some Northern states, infuriated radical Muslims who sought for the full enforcement of Sharia. Mohammed Smith - 76 Aigbogba The rapid socio-economic and religious transformation of Northern Nigeria has contributed to the establishment of radical Islamic groups such as Boko Haram.

Bestselling Series

Nevertheless, external developments also played a role. Mohammed Boko-Haram is the widely adopted name for the group. The inception of the group remains surrounded by dispute due to the lack of evidence to verify claims. Such explanations contend that Yusuf created Boko Haram in order to achieve a Sharia state in Nigeria. It was initially a non-violent organisation until Mohammed Yusuf overthrew Lawan as the leader of the group, when Lawan travelled to Saudi Arabia Onouha 3.

Despite dissenting claims on the group origins, Muhammad Yusuf remains pivotal character in transforming the profile of the group. Yusuf charisma attracted followers to the group and brought the sect to public attention Comoli During the Kanama phase, members of the group engaged in attacks on the Nigerian government, but suffered major casualties. Violent attacks were launched on police stations and institutions of the Nigerian state.

They however suffered a high level of casualties to the Nigerian government. Mohammed Yusuf and other members who survived the barrage of attack from the government fled Mohammed 12 Although this stage though involved an intensification in its ideological stance and accumulation of resources. The political entrepreneur Mohammed Yusuf through his charismatic preaching and provision of selective incentives such as micro-financing, attracted supporters to Boko Haram.

Yusuf also condemned local Muslims leaders who engaged with the corrupt regime of the Borno state government, through such messages, he was able to increase the membership base of the group Mohammed 14 — 19 Comoli 51 - The third period began in June , a month that would be defining in the metamorphosis and capricious transformation of a local sect into a lethal organisation. Some Boko Haram members disputed wearing motorcyclist helmets, this instigated clashes between Boko Haram members and the government.

Around 20 Boko Haram members were killed during this quarrel with the government. Yusuf and other members angered by the attacks carried out retaliation assaults on July , against the police force in Borno, Bauchi and Yobe State, leading to a fierce confrontation over 3 days between the government forces and Boko Haram members. Yusuf and other key members were executed by the government, overall Boko Haram combatants were killed. During August — April , the group were believed by the government to have been eliminated following the crackdown and its members were arrested.

Abubakar Shekau, Yusuf second in command, took over the group Mustapha Comoli 53 - Prior to attacks on the government involved local guns and knives; however its armoury now comprised of improvised explosive device IEDs , grenades and suicide bombs. Prominent attacks included the suicide bombing of the UN base in Abuja in Mustapha Onuoha Furthermore the sect use of suicide attacks was a new emergence in Nigeria Montclos b: The transformation of Boko Haram from a local group engaged in minor skirmishes with the government to a violent virulent organisation, is partially due to the response of the Nigerian security forces.

They failed to respond broader issues raised by members, but rather chose to engage in a vicious attack towards Boko Haram members. This ineffective response combined with the execution of the Yusuf created a deep rooted vengeance and radicalisation within the group.

Secondly, the Nigerian state was incompetent in halting the immediate reprisal attacks by Boko Haram members, even members of the security forces are reported to have defected in battle. This provided Boko Haram members with a renewed confidence to pursue its wave of violence Mohammed Boko Haram is not a unified group. The International Crisis Groups claims that there are at least six groups which have fragmented from Boko Haram, it is difficult to verify such assertions due to unreliable evidence.

Ansaru is the most well-known splinter group of Boko Haram, formed in Ansaru emerged following a divergence in tactics, such as Boko Haram killing of Muslims and disputes over rank and file duties amongst Boko Haram members Kanuri vs Hausa members. Ansaru has become prominent for its kidnapping of foreign citizens Montclos 11 Comoli 65 — Boko Haram has been able to sustain its modus operandi through participating in criminal enterprises, such as bank robberies, co-operation with local gangs and weapon sales.

The attacks it undertakes requires little finance because it raids the Nigerian Army weapons. In , the town of Baga was the centre of a massacre, following the refusal of local sellers to be extorted by Boko Haram members. Boko Haram replied with brutal attacks to civilians, and security forces also exacerbated the situation through carrying out further attacks Montclos The extent of the links between both groups still remains subject to uncertainty, nevertheless pledging allegiance raised the publicity of both groups Blanchard : 6. The timing of Boko Haram allegiance to ISIL indicated a weakened group, it announcement occurred after it experienced territorial losses to the Nigerian government.

Boko Haram could argue that its Salafi-jihad doctrine is gaining global credence following the declaration, however it is improbable that this will result in fighters, finance or weapons from ISIL. Boko Haram still remains a regional sect and is reacting to its local environment Thurston Also a state of emergency was announced in January , in 16 Local Government Areas.

These response nonetheless failed to halt the daily occurrence of violence and Boko Haram even managed to place its flags on Mosques in certain regions. On May , another state of emergency was announced, covering the larger territories of Borno, Yobe and Adamawa states. The JTF nevertheless have been responsible for human right abuses towards civilians and extrajudicial executions Comoli : Mustapha Falode Currently, the Nigerian government under the leadership of Muhammad Buhari has achieved major successes against Boko Haram.

Previous areas under the dominance of Boko Haram have been retrieved by the government forces, its members have retreated to the remote mountainous region of the Sambisa Forest. Boko Haram is certainly not defeated. It remains a highly resilient group and while its operational capacity has declined, the geographic area makes complete defeat challenging, borders are porous and the topography is mountainous. Furthermore the roots of Boko Haram lie in systemic changes in Nigeria, such as intra-Muslim disputes over Sharia Law, corruption and sub-national inequalities.

In comparison to other African rebel movements, which have varyingly adopted ruthless strategies, the LRA has continuous and systemically perpetrated atrocities towards it civilian constituency Sage During — , it was responsible for a campaign of widespread abduction, with to 80, young people abducted by the LRA. The violence exhibited by the LRA is barbaric, but it is not illogical. Violence towards civilians has been carried out to allow the group to continue functioning, through raids, abduction, and to eliminate government support Branch The LRA has committed mutilation acts such as cutting off the ears, lips, noses and legs of civilians.

Actions such as this are often viewed as madness in the West, but this violence has a symbolic meaning. The disfigurement of civilians allows the LRA to inflict fear on the population and send a message to the population. For example, cutting of lips sends a message against the population not to pass information about the LRA to the government. Vinci Colonial rule under the British contributed to the polarisation between North and South.

Under the colonial regime, Northerners served as a labour pool for military activities, whilst Southerners dominated government roles such as the civil service. This contributed to national inequalities, with the South becoming more affluent than the North. Disagreements in government were resolved through military power, leading to unpopular regimes such as Idi Amin overthrown militarily. The NRA was a Southern movement which represented a campaign against the Northern dominance in Ugandan politics, and managed to harness a significant amount of public support.

After a coup, which ousted Obote in , the NRA were later able to successful capture the capital, Kampala and were now in power. Following the ascension of Yoweri Museveni to power, the remainder of the Northern political elite attempted to recapture power militarily. The army previously dominated by Northerners, now comprised of Southerners. The history of Uganda has produced brutal ethnic reprisals, therefore the Acholi and Northerners feared that a retaliation attack would occur from the new Southern government.

Such as the killing of at least 40 people from Namu-Okra in , these violent operations intensified resentment against the new government within the North Branch 10 Branch The UPDA managed to harness support from the Acholi community, as they represented a means to halt the government violence. However the movement however did not survive for long, and its fragmentation contributed to the HSM.

The HSM founded by Alice Auma Lakwena in , incorporated a mixture of Christian doctrine and local customs to create distinctive military group. HSM members had to undergo a process of purification through rituals such as singing songs before combat and they use oils to protect themselves from weapons. Through its cleansing and purification rituals, the HSM became a magnet for members, who regarded themselves as invincible. Whilst the HSM had some moderate success against the government, they were eventually defeated in The LRA also never managed to harness the same support from the population as the HSM, as the Acholi were fatigued from the ongoing spate of violence; therefore the LRA used violence to mobilise support Branch - 14 Vinci — Cline They were provided with weapons such machetes, bows and arrows it proved to be a successful mission in mobilising a significant number of people against the LRA.

The LRA retaliated brutally to diminished public support, viciously attacking locals who co-operated with the government. The government were hesitant to provide security to civilians, leaving them helpless to LRA attacks. There was a temporary cease fire from the LRA but the peace process was short-lived. Kony requested for at least 6 months to engage in negotiations, the government were impatient with this time frame, and argued that they had obtained military report that the LRA was using peace talks to enlarge their military ability.

During the s, two significant factors occurred which impacted the transformation of the LRA. The Sudanese government provided support for Kony, which included ammunition and a military base in Sudan. Secondly, Kony began to assert that the Acholi people were disloyal to him. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 13 3. Greenwood, Christopher The law of weaponry at the start of the new millenium.

In: Schmitt, M. International law studies blue book series. In: Tissot, S. Les Reconversions Militantes. Presses Universitaires de Limoges, Limoges, France.

Crisis States Research Centre working papers series 2 Penerbit Universiti, Bangi, Malaysia, pp. Democratic Audit UK 02 Sep Hannoush, Raneem Egyptian for a week. Hartley, Dilys Statelessness and the Syrian conflict. Hedman, Eva-Lotta E. Intelligence and National Security, 14 4. In: Aldrich, Richard J. Studies in intelligence. Frank Cass, Oxon, UK, pp. In: Alagappa, Muthiah , ed. Henry, Marsha Peacexploitation? Globalizations, 9 1. Neil and Woodward, Rachel Militarization, stigma, and resistance: negotiating military reservist identity in the civilian workplace.

Critical Military Studies. Himmrich, Julia Book review: Changing norms though actions: the evolution of sovereignty. The challenges of donor-supported bottom-up security provision in Ituri DR Congo. Holmqvist, Caroline Undoing war: war ontologies and the materiality of drone warfare.

Millennium: Journal of International Studies, 41 3. Howell, Jude and Lind, Jeremy Civil society in crisis: state-building and civil-military relations in Afghanistan. Hughes, Christopher R. Guardian, Octobe. Hughes, James State violence in the origins of nationalism: British counterinsurgency and the rebirth of Irish nationalism, In: Hall, John A. Nationalism and War. Hutchings, Kimberly Making sense of masculinity and war. Men and Masculinities, 10 4.

JJFForest on Twitter

Hutchinson, John Nationalism and war: a review of the literature. Studies on National Movements, 4. Hye, Daniel Protected category or target: the civilian in global conflict and warfare. Ibreck, Rachel , Pendle, Naomi and de Waal, Alex South Sudan: for every corrupt general, there are thousands who wish only for peace.

Measuring Business and Human Rights 04 Dec Democratic Audit UK 15 Oct Iyengar, Radha Open debate will prompt reaction from insurgents. Times 26 Feb Iyengar, Radha and Monten, Jonathan Is there an 'emboldenment' effect? Johnson, Gaynor Book review: embassies in armed conflict. Jones, Ed Long read review: the impossible grammar of civil war by Ed Jones. Jones, Heather Blockades.

In: Martel, Gordon , ed. The Encyclopedia of War.

Advisor in Counterterrorism, Hostage Negotiations and Kidnap Survival

Studies in the social and cultural history of modern warfare. Jones, Heather A missing paradigm? In: Winter, Jay , ed.

Cambridge history. Fayard, Paris, France, pp. Jones, Matthew Prelude to the Skybolt crisis: U. Journal of Cold War Studies, 21 2. Jones, Matthew The official history of the UK strategic nuclear deterrent.

  • Cordyceps (Cordyceps Trilogy Book 1)?
  • New Releases;
  • The Lord's Resistance Army by Lawrence E. Cline - Praeger - ABC-CLIO.
  • Prof Adam Dolnik;

Government Official History Series. Routledge, London, UK. The Government Official History Series. Kaldor, Mary From just war to just peace. In: Reed, C and Ryall, D , eds. Kaldor, Mary New and old wars : organized violence in a global era. Polity, Cambridge. Kaldor, Mary New and old wars: organized violence in a global era. Polity Press. Kaldor, Mary Principles for the use of the military in human security operations.

In: McIvor, Anthony D. Rethinking the Principles of War. Kaldor, Mary Stability, war and human security in the 21st century: addendum to Desai. Global Policy, 2 2. Kalinovsky, Artemy Afghanistan: more echoes of the Soviet experience. Kalinovsky, Artemy A long goodbye. Kaplan, Molly Reporting war — why do they do it? Kaplan, Molly Unseen Gaza: the debate continues. Kaplan, Molly War reporting: the view from the frontline.

  • Stronger than Pain!
  • The Lord's Resistance Army by Lawrence E. Cline - Praeger - ABC-CLIO!
  • Contact Us.
  • The Lord’s Resistance Army: An Abomination in Africa | National Review!
  • Just So Stories (Aladdin Classics).

Middle East Policy, 24 1. Obeikan Publishing, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Keen, David Demobilising Guatemala. Keen, David Endless war? Hidden functions of the "War on Terror". Pluto Press, London, UK. Keen, David Peace as an incentive for war. Peacebuilding, Power, and Politics in Africa. Cambridge Centre of African Studies Series. Keen, David War: what is it good for? Contemporary Politics, 2 1.

The Lord's Resistance Army : Lawrence E. Cline :

War, Ethnicity and the Media. Keranen, Outi Book review: Can peace research make peace? Lessons inacademic diplomacy. King, William A brief history of chemical warfare: from Sparta to Syria. International History 25 Apr Kippin, Sean Democratic round-up: Parliament and Syria. Democratic Audit UK 30 Aug Kirk, Thomas The challenge of theorising security and justice provision in conflict-affected places. Kiss, Yudit New trends in weapons production in East Central Europe reflect major changes in the global arms industry. Kissane, Bill Victory in defeat? Kitchen, Nicholas The power of pictures.

Kjaernested, Bjork War stories — how to bring the battle to the book. Knox, MacGregor Hitler's Italian allies: royal armed forces, fascist regime, and the war of — Knox, MacGregor Thinking war - history lite? Journal of Strategic Studies, 34 4. Krisch, Nico Selbstverteidigung und kollektive Sicherheit. Kroll, Stefan Humanitarian intervention: religion as a reason for intervention. Religion and the public Sphere 21 Oct Kuecken, Maria Book review: illuminating the dark arts of war: terrorism, sabotage, and subversion in homeland security and the new conflict. Kuper, Jenny Military training and children: law, policy and practice.

Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Leiden; Boston. Kwon, Heonik Co so cach mang and the social network of war. Reinterpreting history. Kwon, Heonik Excavating the history of collaboration. Asia Pacific Journal: Japan Focus. Kwon, Heonik Ghosts of war in Vietnam. Kwon, Heonik The Korean war mass graves. Kwon, Heonik Korean war traumas. Kwon, Heonik The ghosts of the American war in Vietnam. History News Network 24 Jan Kwon, Heonik The ghosts of the American war.

Asia Times. Kwon, Heonik The ghosts of war and the spirit of cosmopolitanism. History of Religions, 48 1.

The Lord’s Resistance Army: An Abomination in Africa

Kwon, Heonik The other cold war. Columbia studies in international and global history. Kwon, Heonik The power of family feelings. H-Diplo Roundtable Review 01 Oct Africa at LSE 24 Apr Lebow, Richard N. International Affairs, 87 1. Lentzos, Filippa Codes of conduct as a tool for managing biorisks.

Posts navigation

The Lord's Resistance Army (Praeger Security International) [Lawrence E. Cline] on rapyzure.tk *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. A noted expert provides. Buy The Lord's Resistance Army (Praeger Security International) by Lawrence Cline (ISBN: ) from Amazon's Book Store. Everyday low prices.

Nonproliferation Review, 13 2. Disarmament Diplomacy Leveringhaus, Alexander Book review: the ethics of armed conflict: a cosmopolitan just war theory by John W. Lieven, Dominic Tolstoy on war, Russia, and empire. Africa at LSE 14 Apr Longinotti, Edward An alternative strategic defence and security review: reconstituting a shrinking force. Economic Affairs, 31 3. Ludlow, N. Piers Transatlantic relations in the Johnson and Nixon eras: the crisis that didn't happen - and what it suggests about the one that did.

Journal of Transatlantic Studies, 8 1. Macdonald, Anna and Porter, Holly E. Mahaseth, Harsh Nepal in conflict: the war for justice continues. Marhia, Natasha Some humans are more human than others: troubling the 'human' in human security from a critical feminist perspective. Security Dialogue, 44 1.

Martin, Kenneth Book review: adapting to win: how insurgents fight and defeat foreign states in war by Noriyuki Katagiri. McDoom, Omar Rwanda's exit pathway from violence: a strategic assessment. World development report: background case study World Bank.

McDoom, Omar The psychology of security threats in ethnic warfare: evidence from Rwanda's genocide. PSPE working papers 5, Micro-space, social influence and individual participation in intergroup violence. Journal of Peace Research, 50 4. Democratic Audit UK 04 Jan Meltzer, Merrin Syria in crisis: the harrowing case of Aleppo.

Millar, Katharine Gendered representations of soldier deaths. In: Duncanson, Claire and Woodward, Rachel , eds. Palgrave Handbook on Gender and the Military. Millar, Katharine M. In: Bliesemann de Guevara, Berit , ed. Critical Military Studies, 3 2. Moran, Matthew Big data brings new power to open-source intelligence. Moten, Matthew Book review: presidents and their generals: an American history of command in war by Matthew Moten. Mueller, Ben Book review: War, Clausewitz and the trinity. Munshey, Menaal An incoherent push for peace in Afghanistan. Muravska, Julia Book review: Cyber war will not take place.

Nelson, Kim The doctrine of humanitarian intervention: lessons from the Chilcot Report. Neumayer, Eric A new moral hazard? Military intervention, peacekeeping and the International Criminal Court.