In Hebrews , Paul says that Timothy was "set at liberty," or, more probably, "sent away" see notes on that verse , but to what place he had gone is not mentioned. Nothing would be more natural, however, than that he should visit Ephesus again, and it is not improbable that Paul would leave him there when he again visited Rome. Section 3. The Occasion on Which the Epistle Was Written The Epistle was evidently written when the apostle was expecting soon to be put to death; 2 Timothy The main object of writing it seems to have been to request Timothy to come to him as speedily as possible; 2 Timothy But, in doing this, it was natural that Paul should accompany the request with such counsel as Timothy needed, and such as it was proper for Paul to give in probably the last letter that he would write to him.
The particular reason why the apostle desired the presence of Timothy seems to have been, that nearly all the others on whom he might have supposed he could rely in a time of trial, had left him. Thus, he says that Demas had forsaken him; Crescens had gone to Galatia; Titus to Dalmatia, and Tychicus he had himself sent to Ephesus; 2 Timothy No one remained with him but Luke 2 Timothy Luke , and he was, therefore, desirous that Timothy and Mark should be with him; 2 Timothy He did not ask their presence merely that they might sustain him in his trials, but that they might aid him in the work of the ministry 2 Timothy , for it would seem that all hope of doing good in Rome was not closed.
If the view of the time when this Epistle was written which has been taken in this introduction, is correct, and if this is the last Epistle which was written by the apostle Paul before his martyrdom, then it occupies a very important place in sacred canon, and is invested with great interest. It may be regarded as the dying counsels of the most eminent of the apostles to one who had just entered on the ministerial life.
We should read it with the interest with which we do the last words of the great and the good. Then we feel that every word which they utter has a weight which demands attention. We feel that, whatever a man might do at other times, he will not trifle then. We feel that, having little time to express his wishes, he will select topics that lie nearest his heart, and that he deems most important. There is no more interesting position in which we can be placed, than when we sit down at such a man's feet, and listen to his parting counsels.
To a young minister of the gospel, therefore, this Epistle is invaluable; to any and every Christian, it cannot fail to be a matter of interest to listen to the last words of the great apostle of the Gentiles, and to ponder his last written testimony in favour of that religion to the promulgation of which he had devoted his talents and his life. The principal design of 2 Timothy 1 is to exhort Timothy to steadfastness and fidelity as a Christian and a minister; and to entreat him to adhere to the truth, and live as became a Christian, in the midst of all the temptations by which he was surrounded, and while so many were turning away from the Christian faith.
Timothy was young; he was exposed, like others, to trials; he could not be unaware that not a few had apostatized; he knew that his father in Christ was in bonds, and he was liable to become disheartened, or to be led astray. In these circumstances, the apostle seems to have resolved to place before him strong reasons to induce him to devote himself steadfastly to the cause of religion, and not to allow those things which might tend to alienate him from Christianity to have any effect on his mind.
After the usual salutations, therefore 2 Timothy , he proceeds to present these considerations to the mind of Timothy: 1 He commences the chapter with "delicate praise" of his young friend - one of the most happy methods of inducing him to persevere in the course of life on which he had entered; 2 Timothy We naturally desire to perfect that in which we already excel; we feel encouraged for future efforts in a cause in which we have already been successful. The apostle, therefore, reminds Timothy of the manner in which he had been trained; of the piety of his mother and grandmother, and assures him of his belief that their efforts to train him up in the ways of religion had not been in vain.
The considerations which he urges, are these: a he had been solemnly consecrated to the work of preaching the gospel, 2 Timothy ; b God had imparted to him, as to others, a spirit of love and power, and a sound mind, 2 Timothy ; c the grace of God had called him to his great work, and he possessed that gospel by which life and immortality are brought to light, 2 Timothy ; d Paul urges his own example, and says that, amidst all his own trials, he had never seen occasion to be ashamed of the gospel, 2 Timothy ; and, e he reminds Timothy that all his other friends in Asia had turned away from him, specifying two of them, and urges him, therefore, to maintain a steadfast attachment to the principles which he had professed, 2 Timothy Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, according to the promise of life which is in Christ Jesus,.
I thank God, whom I serve from my forefathers with pure conscience, that without ceasing I have remembrance of thee in my prayers night and day;. Greatly desiring to see thee, being mindful of thy tears, that I may be filled with joy;. When I call to remembrance the unfeigned faith that is in thee, which dwelt first in thy grandmother Lois, and thy mother Eunice; and I am persuaded that in thee also. Wherefore I put thee in remembrance that thou stir up the gift of God, which is in thee by the putting on of my hands. For God hath not given us the spirit of fear; but of power, and of love, and of a sound mind.
Be not thou therefore ashamed of the testimony of our Lord, nor of me his prisoner: but be thou partaker of the afflictions of the gospel according to the power of God;. Who hath saved us, and called us with an holy calling, not according to our works, but according to his own purpose and grace, which was given us in Christ Jesus before the world began,. But is now made manifest by the appearing of our Saviour Jesus Christ, who hath abolished death, and hath brought life and immortality to light through the gospel:.
Whereunto I am appointed a preacher, and an apostle, and a teacher of the Gentiles. For the which cause I also suffer these things: nevertheless I am not ashamed: for I know whom I have believed, and am persuaded that he is able to keep that which I have committed unto him against that day.
Hold fast the form of sound words, which thou hast heard of me, in faith and love which is in Christ Jesus. That good thing which was committed unto thee keep by the Holy Ghost which dwelleth in us. This thou knowest, that all they which are in Asia be turned away from me; of whom are Phygellus and Hermogenes. The Lord give mercy unto the house of Onesiphorus; for he oft refreshed me, and was not ashamed of my chain:.
The Lord grant unto him that he may find mercy of the Lord in that day: and in how many things he ministered unto me at Ephesus, thou knowest very well. Notes on the Bible by Albert Barnes . Bible Hub. Barnes' Notes Introduction to 2Timothy Section 1. By the will of God - Called to be an apostle in accordance with the divine will and purpose; see the notes at Galatians According to the promise of life which is in Christ Jesus - In accordance with the great promise of eternal life through the Saviour; that is, he was called to be an apostle to carry out the great purpose of human salvation; compare Ephesians God has made a promise of life to mankind through faith in the Lord Jesus, and it was with reference to this that he was called to the apostleship.
To Timothy, my dearly beloved son; - See the notes at 1 Timothy Grace, mercy, and peace - see the notes at Romans His own parents, it is certain, took care that he should be trained up in the ways of religion; compare the Philippians notes; Acts The phrase "from my forefathers," probably means, after the example of my ancestors. He worshipped the same God; he held substantially the same truths; he had the same hope of the resurrection and of immortality; he trusted to the same Saviour having come, on whom they relied as about to come.
His was not, therefore, a different religion from theirs; it was the same religion carried out and perfected. The religion of the Old Testament and the New is essentially the same; see the notes at Acts With pure conscience - see the notes at Acts That without ceasing - compare the Romans note; 1 Thessalonians note. I have remembrance of thee in my prayers night and day - see the notes at Philippians It was probably on, account of this earnest desire that this Epistle was written. He wished to see him, not only on account of the warm friendship which he had for him, but because he would be useful to him in his present circumstances; see the introduction, Section 3.
Being mindful of thy tears - Alluding probably to the tears which he shed at parting from him. The occasion to which he refers is not mentioned; but nothing is more probable than that Timothy would weep when separated from such a father and friend. It is not wrong thus to weep, for religion is not intended to make us stoics or savages.
That I may be filled with joy - By seeing you again. It is easy to imagine what joy it would give Paul, then a prisoner, and forsaken by nearly all his friends, and about to die, to see a friend whom he loved as he did this young man. Learn hence, that there may be very pure and warm friendship between an old and young man, and that the warmth of true friendship is not diminished by the near prospect of death.
When I call to remembrance the unfeigned faith that is in thee; - notes, 1 Timothy On the faith of Timothy, see the notes at 1 Timothy Which dwelt first in thy grandmother Lois - That is, the same faith dwelt in her; or, she was a sincere believer in Christ. It would seem probable, from this, that she was the first of the family who had been converted.
In the Acts of the Apostles Act , we have an account of the family of Timothy: - "Then came he to Derbe and Lystra; and behold a certain disciple was there, named Timotheus, the son of a certain woman which was a Jewess, and believed; but his father was a Greek. There is, at any rate, no contradiction between the two accounts; but the one confirms the other, and the "undesigned coincidence" furnishes an argument for the authenticity of both.
See Paley's Horae Paulinae, in loc. As the mother of Timothy was a Hebrew, it is clear that his grandmother was also. Nothing more is known of her than is mentioned here. And in thy mother Eunice - In Acts , it is said that the mother of Timothy was "a Jewess, and believed;" but her name is not mentioned. This shows that Paul was acquainted with the family, and that the statement in the Epistle to Timothy was not forged from the account in the Acts.
Here is another "undesigned coincidence. In the Epistle before us, nothing whatever is said of him. But the piety of his mother alone is commended, and it is fairly implied that his father was not a believer. This is one of those coincidences on which Paley has constructed his beautiful argument in the Horae Paulinae in favor of the genuineness of the New Testament. That thou stir up the gift of God - Greek, That thou "kindle up" as a fire. The original word used here denotes the kindling of a fire, as by bellows, etc. It is not uncommon to compare piety to a flame or a fire, and the image is one that is obvious when we speak of causing that to burn more brightly.
The idea is, that Timothy was to use all proper means to keep the flame of pure religion in the soul burning, and more particularly his zeal in the great cause to which he had been set apart. The agency of man himself is needful to keep the religion of the heart warm and glowing.
However rich the gifts which God has bestowed upon us, they do not grow of their own accord, but need to be cultivated by our own personal care. Which is in thee by the putting on of my hands - In connection with the presbytery; see the notes at 1 Timothy This proves that Paul took part in the ordination of Timothy; but it does not prove either that he performed the duty alone, or that the "ordaining virtue," whatever that was, was imparted by him only; because: 1 it is expressly said 1 Timothy , that he was ordained by the laying on of the hands of the presbytery, of which Paul was doubtless one; and, 2 the language here used, "by the putting on of my hands," is just such as Paul, or any other one of the presbytery, would use in referring to the ordination of Timothy, though they were all regarded as on a level.
It is such an expression as an aged Presbyterian, or Congregational, or Baptist minister would address to a son whom he had assisted to ordain. Nothing would be more natural than to remind him that his own hands had been laid on him when he was set apart to the work of the ministry. It would be in the nature of a tender, pathetic, and solemn appeal, bringing all that there was in his own character, age, and relation to the other, to bear on him, in order to induce him to be faithful to his trust.
On other occasions, he would naturally remind him that others had united with him in the act, and that he had derived his authority through the presbytery, just as Paul appeals to Timothy, 1 Timothy Theologian William Robertson Nicoll states that "everything that was written before" refers to "the whole Old Testament".
Anglican Bishop Handley Moule , writing in the Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges , suggests that Paul develops here "a great principle, namely, that the Old Testament was throughout designed for the instruction and establishment of New Testament believers".
In verse 8, Paul refers to Jesus Christ as having become the servant of the circumcision i. Theologian Albert Barnes says that Jesus "exercised his office — the office of the Messiah — among the Jews, or with respect to the Jews He was born a Jew; was circumcised; came "to" that nation; and died in their midst, without having gone himself to any other people", but with three objectives in mind:. Citation from Isaiah In verse 19, Paul refers to the Roman province of Illyricum as the easternmost point of his missionary travels so far, Paul having "fully preached" the gospel from Jerusalem to this point.
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Matthew Mark Luke John. Jesus Christ. Jesus in Christianity Virgin birth Crucifixion Resurrection appearances. Bible Foundations.
History Tradition. Related topics. Denominations Groups. Main article: Canonical gospels. Main article: Pauline epistles. Further information: Authorship of the Johannine works. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. See also: Canon of the New Testament. A possible exception here to canonical exclusivity is the Second Apostolic Canons, which share a common source—the Apostolic Constitutions —with certain parts of the Orthodox Tewahedo New Testament broader canon.
The Prayer of Euthalius and the Repose of St. John the Evangelist appear in the appendix of the Armenian Zohrab Bible; [ citation needed ] however, some of the aforementioned books, though they are found within canon lists, have nonetheless never been discovered to be part of any Armenian biblical manuscript. To varying degrees, arguments for the authenticity of these passages—especially for the one from the Gospel of John—have occasionally been made. The epistle is nonetheless widely rejected by the vast majority of Protestants.
Main article: New Testament apocrypha. Main article: Authorship of the Bible. Main article: Synoptic Gospels. Main article: Authorship of Luke—Acts. Main article: Authorship of the Pauline epistles. Main article: Authorship of the Johannine works. Main article: Language of the New Testament. Main article: Development of the New Testament canon. Main article: New Testament manuscripts. Main article: Biblical criticism. Further information: Non-canonical books referenced in the Bible. Main article: Syriac versions of the Bible.
Main articles: Vetus Latina and Vulgate. Main article: Coptic versions of the Bible. Main article: Bible translations. Main article: Biblical authority. Further information: Nativity of Jesus in art and Passion play. The text of the famous "Hallelujah" chorus in G. Acts provides information that makes it possible to identify Luke, the author of the Gospel, as the doctor who travels with Paul and to identify Mark as someone close to Peter and Paul. This 'canon consciousness' suggests that the book of Acts was composed at a later date than is typically thought; this theory is supported by the first attestation of the book around CE.
From the time when letters began to be forged in his name 2 Thess. In the present case he writes a whole paragraph, summing up the main lessons of the epistle in terse, eager, disjointed sentences. He writes it, too, in large, bold characters Gr. Brown agrees that the references to the Jerusalem temple's destruction are seen as evidence of a post date.
A Brief History of Christianity. Blackwell Publishing. Werner Georg Kummel. Abingdon Press. Redating the New Testament. Baker Encyclopedia of Christian Apologetics. Baker Reference Library. Ada, Michigan: Baker. See excerpt at: "The Dating of the New Testament". Retrieved 17 February The Book of Revelation revised ed. Cambridge, UK: Eerdmans. Free Inquiry. The First Edition of the New Testament. New York: Oxford University Press. In Kloppenberg, John S. Resources for Biblical Study.
Against Marcion, Book IV. Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 10 May The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. Schaff, Philip [c. Eerdmans Publishing Company. The Gospel according to Luke, Vol. Anchor Bible Commentary series. New York: Doubleday. St Paul's Epistle to the Galatians 2nd ed. In Aune, David E. The Blackwell Companion to the New Testament. The Letters of Paul: Conversations in Context 5th ed. Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster John Knox. Philadelphia: Fortress. Hebrews 1—8. Word Biblical Commentary series, Vol. Dallas, Texas: Word Books.
Church History, Book VI. Oxford University Press. They looked to see whether the ideas and writing style of a piece conformed with those used by the author in other writings, and they examined the text for any blatant anachronisms, that is, statements about things that could not have existed at the time the alleged author was writing like the letter reputedly from an early seventeenth-century American colonist that mentions "the United States" - Arguments of this kind were used by some Christian scholars of the third century to show that Hebrews was not written by Paul or the Book of Revelation by John the son of Zebedee.
Modern scholars, as we will see, concur with these judgments. To be sure, neither of these books can be considered a forgery. Hebrews does not claim to be written by Paul it is anonymous , and the John who wrote Revelation does not claim to be the son of Zebedee it is therefore homonymous.
Are there other books in the New Testament, though, that can be considered forgeries? Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Academic. Coniectanea Biblica, New Testament Series 9. Lund: Gleerup. Revelation , 3 volumes. Word Biblical Commentary series. Nashville, Tennessee: Thomas Nelson. Hugoye: Journal of Syriac Studies 5 2 : — Conflict and Community in the Corinthian Church. Archived from the original on 28 November Robert Carter and Brothers.
Bible Research. In Aune, David. New York: Wiley-Blackwell. The Controversy Stories in the Gospel of Matthew. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell. The four Gospels that eventually made it into the New Testament, for example, are all anonymous, written in the third person about Jesus and his companions. None of them contains a first-person narrative 'One day, when Jesus and I went into Capernaum Most scholars today have abandoned these identifications, and recognize that the books were written by otherwise unknown but relatively well-educated Greek-speaking and writing Christians during the second half of the first century.
Oxford University Press, US. In fact, contrary to what you might think, these Gospels don't even claim to be written by eyewitnesses. The Gospels of the New Testament are therefore our earliest accounts. These do not claim to be written by eyewitnesses to the life of Jesus, and historians have long recognized that they were produced by second- or third-generation Christians living in different countries than Jesus and Judas did, speaking a different language Greek instead of Aramaic , experiencing different situations, and addressing different audiences. Jesus, Interrupted.
New York: Harper Collins. Jesus: Apocalyptic Prophet of the New Millennium. The Historical Figure of Jesus. The Synoptic Gospels: An Introduction. Westminster John Knox Press. InterVarsity Press. The Gospels in Context. Barnes' Notes on the New Testament. Kregel Publications. The Johannine Literature. Sheffield Academic Press. Emmaus Road Publishing. Early Christian Writings. Retrieved 15 January The Anchor Bible Dictionary. Easton's Bible Dictionary.
Oak Harbor, Washington: Logos Research. A Marginal Jew. Who Wrote the Gospels? Altadena, California: Millennium Press. Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto, California: Mayfield. New Testament Introduction. Leicester, UK: Apollos. Marshall, Acts , pp. Bruce, The Acts of the Apostles , pp. Michaelis, Einleitung , pp. Filson, Three Crucial Decades , p.
Dibelius, Studies in the Acts of the Apostles ; [ full citation needed ] R. Knox, Sources of the Synoptic Gospels ; [ full citation needed ] R. Williams, The Acts of the Apostles ; [ full citation needed ] E. Grundmann, Das Evangelium nach Lukas , p. Joseph Barnabas. Collegeville, Minnesota: Liturgical Press. New Bible Dictionary. Church History. Our Greek Gospel of Matthew was certainly in existence at the time Papias wrote, for it is quoted in the epistle of Barnabas.
The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved 19 November Introduction to the New Testament. New York: Anchor Bible. An Introduction to the Study of Paul. The Acts of the Apostles. A Stylometric Study of the New Testament. Paulist Press. Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society. Zahn, S. Introduction to the New Testament, Vol.
International Critical Commentary. Green, E. Word Biblical Commentary, Vol. Word UK Ltd. Dialogue with Trypho. Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia of the Bible, Vol. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan. Cambridge University Press. Ancient Christian Gospels. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: Trinity Press International. Fortress Press. Retrieved 16 August The Eerdmans Bible Dictionary. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. It is generally agreed that Aramaic was the common language of Israel in the 1st century AD. Jesus and his disciples spoke the Galilean dialect, which was distinguished from that of Jerusalem Matt.
The Text of the New Testament. Eerdmans Publishing. Introduction to the New Testament, Volume 2. Guides to Biblical Scholarship. Gamble: " 1 Marcion's collection that begins with Galatians and ends with Philemon; 2 Papyrus 46, dated about , that follows the order that became established except for reversing Ephesians and Galatians; and 3 the letters to seven churches, treating those to the same church as one letter and basing the order on length, so that Corinthians is first and Colossians perhaps including Philemon is last. Origin of the New Testament. Christian Classics Ethereal Library.
Chicago: Chicago University Press. First Apology. Chapter In McDonald, L. The Canon Debate. Section 8. M; Sanders, J. Turning Points. Baker Academic. In de Jonge, H. M eds. The Biblical Canons. Leuven University Press.
The Cambridge History of the Bible, Vol. Social Science Research Network. In Perrone, L. Bibliotheca Ephemeridum Theologicarum Lovaniensium Leuven: Leuven University Press. Harvard Theological Review 87 4 : — The Canon of Scripture. Intervarsity Press.
De Civitate Dei. Oxford: Clarendon. The Formation of the Christian Biblical Canon. Peabody, Massachusetts: Hendrickson. Idris; Skeat, T. London: Trustees of the British Museum. Though see now Nongbri, Brent In Bagnall, Roger S.
The Oxford Handbook of Papyrology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. The Case for Christ. Chapter Three, when quoting biblical scholar Bruce Metzger. Christian Century. Archived from the original on 4 June A Feminist Companion to John, Vol. Retrieved 17 October