Mythology portal. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 22 December The Dynamics of Job's Intercession.
Load more. Try to launch the jump just before the meteor hits the ground. User Reviews. Behemoth Shearclaw. Charroggs like to move in circular motion for a few seconds and eject fire, so use this time to get in close and strike at their glowing underbelly. Crazy Credits.
Biblical Institute Press. Coogan A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament. London: Robson. Clark, Edinburgh, Part II, p. Retrieved Book of Job. Job In Islam In rabbinic literature. Jemima Keziah Keren-happuch. Bildad Elihu Zophar Eliphaz. Testament of Job. Answer to Job analysis God's Favorite play J. Tomb of Job. The rewards are solid as well. The Kulve Taroth siege, for example, encourages cooperation between an entire online session and challenges players to break monster parts. The Behemoth fight also encourages cooperation, as well as requiring strong spatial awareness and responsibility sharing.
I enjoy fighting enemies who are tough because of strong attacks, like the tempered elder dragons, but the Behemoth battle shows a new way to challenge players. The A. Heather Alexandra. Share This Story. Recommended Stories. About the author Heather Alexandra. Heather Alexandra Staff writer and critic at Kotaku. Neither should behemoth and leviathan be taken as mythological animals. After establishing their identities, I also consider to what degree they symbolize the power of evil, and whether they are connected with Satan who is mentioned in the first two chapters of the book.
The book of Job, presumably written in the second millennium BC , details the events of the patriarchal Job in the land of Uz. The first animal is described in ten verses —24 and the second in no less than 34 verses — Several English translations give the Hebrew names rather than a translation: behemoth and leviathan. In the course of history, people have often questioned whether these passages describe actual animals.
Various interpretations have moved between the extremes of mythical and realistic explanations. Apocalyptic and early rabbinic Judaism typically represented them from a mythical point of view, where the animals are to play a role in the future. Thomas Aquinas, on the other hand, equated behemoth with an elephant, and leviathan with a whale. Since Samuel Bochartus, in his Hierozoicon , identified behemoth with the hippopotamus and leviathan with the crocodile, this has become the current consensus.
This plural form is often used for beasts of the field or woods. Leviathan is mentioned once as denoting a normal sea creature Psa. While both words can be used in a variety of ways, several contextual factors in Job 40—41 favour interpreting behemoth and leviathan as two real animals that Job could have witnessed:. In chapter 40, God describes an impressive animal. Behemoth apparently is a masterpiece v. This description is about twice as long as that for the animals in chapter Job is asked to consider behemoth 4 that eats grass like an ox and is therefore some kind of herbivore v.
Job is urged to pay attention to the power of its loins and the strength of its belly muscles v. A problem with the idea that this description refers to a hippopotamus is that in this animal the loins are not individually visible and neither are the muscles.
The hippopotamus is a very thickset animal. Behemoth can stretch its tail like a cedar. The tail thus should be strong and long. The tail of the hippopotamus has no resemblance to a mighty cedar or cedar branch at all. The short and thick tail is only 35 to 50 cm long; it is broad at its base and has a pointed end.
Furthermore, the hippopotamus does not stretch its tail, but lets it hang down and wiggles it.
The cedar has very long branches of some 10 to 20 m, so restricting the comparison to a cedar branch does not provide a solution. Although the hippopotamus is impressive, the elephant and the rhinoceros are nevertheless larger. These animals are, together with the hippopotamus, depicted and mentioned on the so-called Black Obelisk. The remainder of verse 19 can be interpreted in two ways: the creature has been given a sword by God, or it is a creature against whom only God can draw His sword. If this is the right explanation, it seems strange that the word is used in the singular form.
The possibility that the Maker approaches this animal with his sword, because people do not dare to do this, is more in line with verse 24 and with the impossibility for attacking this animal. The trees it lies down under and provide it with shade vv. However, this tree grows in a dry climate and therefore cannot be meant here.
In ancient Egypt, there were two famous water plants, the blue and the white lotus. But do the plants really give the animal shade? Marshes occur in the Near East in many places, not just in Egypt. The trees by the stream or wadi are willows or poplars. Willow, in particular Salix babylonica , originally did not occur in the Near East and came to this area from China during Medieval times. The trees that bring shadow probably represent a species of poplar Populus euphratica Olivier or several kinds of reed that can be several metres tall.
Even if the current in the water is very strong, this does not hold it back. It is secure, even though the Jordan should surge against its mouth v.
The mention of the Jordan indicates that we are biased if we only look to Egypt for the identification of behemoth. The animal is here seen as invincible v. A favourite tactic was to pierce the nose, forcing the animal to breathe through its opened mouth figure 1.
Following this the fatal blow could be inflicted in the mouth. Egyptian pharaohs were proud of being able to kill a hippopotamus, since this contributed to the praise of their power as an incarnated god. In the myth of the battle between Horus and Seth, harpoons are used to kill hippopotamuses.
During this festival a hippopotamus, a symbol of the enemies of the king, was killed ritually figure 2. Based on all these arguments, it is impossible that behemoth is a hippopotamus. Some authors think that an author in Israel would not have had enough knowledge of an animal living in Egypt to describe this animal accurately, and that confusion with other animals arose from this situation. However, this is an ad hoc solution. Remains of hippopotamuses have been found in Tel Dor in Israel and it is likely that they were present in large parts of Israel through to the Iron Age.
If we were to start from this knowledge and try to describe the hippopotamus, the description would focus on its squat appearance, its large mouth and deadly incisors, the strong legs that can crush and the gigantic strength of the animal. It is therefore likely that another animal is described. If we take extinct animals into consideration, a herbivorous dinosaur seems a more likely candidate. The apatosaur had a large tail, lived on green plants and weighed about 30 tonnes. The ultrasaur could reach a height of 18 m and a length of 30 m, with a weight of tonnes. It also was a herbivore with an enormous tail.
The brachiosaur was 12 m tall, 23 m long and 60 to 70 tonnes in weight. Its tail could reach a length of nearly 6 m and a breadth of nearly 1. In the sauropods, large bundles of muscles are visible on the outside of the body of the animal. Behemoth is not only a herbivore, but more specifically it is a grass-eater.
An animal that does fit this aspect is the 15 m long nigersaur, found in the Republic of Niger in Africa. Because new kinds of extinct animals continue to be found in our time, and because the description in Job 40 is not specific enough, we cannot identify precisely which animal is described.
Neither do we know whether the above-mentioned animals still lived in the time of Job, but it is useful for our exegesis to include such examples.
After the description of behemoth, God calls Job to observe another impressive animal he has made. In this case, the description is extremely long and detailed. The animal concerned is leviathan, an animal that over the last centuries usually has been equated with a crocodile. This time the description immediately starts with all kinds of questions.
Can Job pull in leviathan with a fishhook, or tie down its tongue with a rope? One could push the tongue of an animal down by tying a rope around the lower jaw, preventing the tongue from moving upwards, or by piercing the tongue with a hook. A crocodile does not have a clear tongue. Because the lower jaw usually flatly rests on the ground and the crocodile lifts its head with its upper jaw, its lower jaw appears to be immobile. The question posed to Job is a rhetorical question, and we should assume that a man cannot do this.
Already, in answering this first question, it is unlikely that the animal referred to is a crocodile, because the tongue of this animal is hardly noticeable and also because crocodiles were caught and killed in Egypt. Papyrus Cha ca. He threatens to kill the crocodile with a knife that he holds in his hand, ready to strike.
The next question to Job is: can he put a cord through its nose or pierce its jaw with a hook? This image derives from fishing, which used sharp thorns and tough reeds. The fish was taken home or preserved in the river, with the hook in its mouth, attached to the reed. This does not work with leviathan. After this God mocks the idea that leviathan would speak from the position of a prisoner of war. Will it speak with gentle words, begging for mercy?
Will it make an agreement to serve as a slave for life? Is it possible to make a pet of it like a bird and can it be put on a leash and serve as a toy for girls? According to Herodotus a crocodile can be tamed:.
The people that inhabit the surroundings of Thebai and the Moiris lake consider them to be especially sacred and both groups keep one special crocodile, which they tamed; they put glass and golden ear decorations on it and bracelets on its front legs and they present it with especially prepared holy food and treat them as very important creatures.
The next question is: is it possible that fishermen barter for it and divide it up among the merchants? Can Job fill its hide with harpoons or its head with fishing spears? A crocodile can be killed figure 2 with a spear or harpoon to the neck, where the hard scales are absent see figure 3. A hunter can have no hope of subduing the animal. The mere sight of it is enough to overpower a man v.
No one is fierce enough to rouse the animal v. The animal may sleep or seem to sleep, as is often the case with reptiles. This part of the description does not focus so much on the appearance of the animal, but mainly on its invincibility. If no one dares to rouse the animal, then who is able to stand against God? Who will walk towards Him and be unharmed? Everything under heaven belongs to Him v. This intends to show that it is more dangerous to stand against God than it is to stand against leviathan.
After these questions the reader expects Job to answer, but there is no answer, and God continues his exposition on leviathan. God does not fail to describe the limbs of the animal, nor its great strength and graceful form v. Who can strip off its outer coat? Who can pierce through its double armour?
This can be taken to mean a double jaw or a double row of teeth. Who opens the doors of its mouth? These teeth are fearsome v. Does this describe the scaly skin of a crocodile, which is fairly smooth? Or does this extended description refer to a more conspicuous feature: the scales that cover one another like roof tiles?
Such scales can move and stand up. God then describes a special and fearsome phenomenon regarding the head: when the animal sneezes, it gives off flashes of light v. Crocodiles like to lie in the sun and to open their mouth towards the sun. According to many, they sneeze as a reaction to the sunlight, because the light of the sun irritates them. The lungs and the windpipe are closed off when they swim below the water surface and sneezing is therefore superfluous. Saltwater crocodiles in South Asia and Australia regulate their salt levels in a different way.
Furthermore, in that case the phenomenon is not dependent on whether the sun shines at that moment or not. Interpreters who think this describes a crocodile take these words as a poetic portrayal of the snorting and hissing when the animal emerges from the water and the sparkling of the light in the water vapour. However, in these last four verses a distinction is made between the snorting of the nostrils v.
The snorting could indeed be light reflected in the water drops, although it could be questioned whether the sun always shines when the animal emerges from the water. Both the other verses, though, speak of torches or flames coming from the mouth of the animal.