But it is actually changing over long periods of time. That is changing between-- and these are rough numbers-- it is changing between But that gives a rough estimate of what it's changing between. But I want to make it clear, this is not happening overnight. And this long-term change in the tilt, this might play into some of the long-term climactic change. Maybe it might contribute, on some level, to some of the ice ages that have formed over Earth's past.
But for the sake of thinking about our annual seasons you don't have to worry too much, or you don't have to worry at all really about this variation. You really just have to know that it is tilted. And right now it is tilted at an angle of Now you might say OK, I understand what the tilt is.
But how does that change the seasons in either the Northern or that Southern Hemisphere? And to do that, I'm going to imagine the earth when the Northern Hemisphere is most tilted away from the sun, and when it is most tilted towards the sun.
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So remember this tilt, the direction this arrow points into relative to the rest of the universe, if we assume that this tilt is at But depending on where it is in the orbit it's either going to be tilting away from the sun, as it is in this example right over here. Or it will be tilting towards the sun.
I'll do the towards the sun in this magenta color, or it would be tilting towards the sun. So six months later when the earth is over here, it's going to, relative to the rest of the universe, it will be tilted in that same direction, up out of this page and to the right. Just like it was over here. But now that it's on the other side of the sun that makes it tilt a little bit more towards the sun. If I were to draw it right over here, it is now tilted towards the sun. And what I want to think about is how much sunlight will different parts of the planet receive.
And I'll focus on the Northern Hemisphere. But you can make a similar argument for the Southern Hemisphere. I want to think about how much sunlight they receive when it's tilted away or tilted towards the sun. And so let's think about those two situations. So first of all, let's think about this situation here where we are tilted away from the sun.
So let me zoom in a little bit. So this is the situation, where we're tilted away from the sun. So if this is the vertical, so let me draw it. I could actually just use this diagram. But let me make it. So we're tilted away from the sun like this. I'm going to do this in a different color. So if we have an arrow coming straight out of the North Pole it would look like this.
And we are rotating around like that. So we're out of the page on the left-hand side, and then into the page on the right-hand side. And so we're rotating towards the east, constantly. So this arrow is in the direction of the east. So when we're at this point in Earth's orbit, and actually let me copy and paste this.
And I'm going to use the same exact diagram for the different seasons. So let me copy.
And then let me paste this exact diagram. I'll do it over here for two different points. So when we are here in Earth's orbit where is the sunlight coming from? Well, it's going to be coming from the left, at least the way I've drawn the diagram right over here. So the sunlight is coming from the left in this situation. And so if you think about it, what part of the earth is being lit by sunlight? Or what part of the earth is in daylight, the way I've drawn it right over here?
Well, the part that is facing the sun. So all of this right over here is going to be in daylight. As we rotate whatever part of the surface of the earth enters into this yellow part right over here will be in daylight. But let's think about what's happening at different parts of the earth.
So let me draw the equator, which separates our Northern and Southern Hemispheres. So this is the equator. And then let me go into the Northern Hemisphere. And I want to show you why when the North Pole is pointed away from the sun why this is our winter. So when we're pointed away from the sun-- Well, if we go to the Arctic Circle-- so let me go right over here. Let me go to some point in the Arctic Circle. As it goes, as the earth rotates every 24 hours, this point on the globe will just rotate around just like that. It will just keep rotating around just like that. And so my question is, that point in the Arctic Circle, as it rotates will it ever see sunlight?
Well, no, it will never see sunlight. Because the North Pole is tilted away from the sun. So what I'm drawing, what I'm shading here in purple, that part of the earth, when it's completely tilted away, will never see sunlight. Or at least it won't see sunlight while it's tilted away, while it's in this position, or in this position in the orbit.
I won't say never, because once it becomes summer they will be able to see it. So no sunlight, no day, I guess you could say, no daylight. If you go to slightly more southern latitudes, so let's say you go over here. So maybe that's the latitude of something like, I don't know, New York or San Francisco or something like that. Let's think about what it would see as the earth rotates every 24 hours. So this would be daylight, daylight, daylight, daylight, then nighttime, nighttime, nighttime, nighttime, nighttime. This is now going behind the globe nighttime, nighttime, nighttime, nighttime, nighttime, daylight, daylight, daylight, daylight.
So if you just compare this. So let me do the daylight in orange. And then nighttime I will do in this bluish purplish color. So night time over here. So if you go to really northern latitudes, like the Arctic Circle, they don't get any daylight when we are tilted away from the earth. And if we go to slightly still northern latitudes, but not as north as the Arctic Circle, it does get daylight. But it gets a lot less daylight.
It spends a lot less time in the daylight than in the night time. So notice if you say that this circumference represents the positions over 24 hours, it spends much less time in the daylight than it does in the nighttime. So because, while the Northern Hemisphere is tilted away from the earth, the latitudes in the northern hemisphere are getting less daylight. They are also getting less energy from the sun. And so that's what leads to winter, or just being generally colder. For several reasons, work requirements in Medicaid will likely have equally or more disappointing results.
Sixty percent of adult Medicaid enrollees potentially subject to work requirements already work, and more than 80 percent of the remainder are students or report that they are unable to work due to a disability, serious illness, or caregiving responsibilities. This suggests limited scope for work requirements to increase work participation. Meanwhile, cash assistance programs generally provide at least some albeit inadequate resources for the supportive services that many low-income adults need in order to work, such as child care, job training, and transportation assistance.
The more successful experimental programs described above coupled work requirements with robust work supports. Moreover, it makes no sense to target people who can work but are between jobs, because they will likely find work on their own and move out of the target group. Beneficiaries themselves confirm the connection between coverage and work.
Majorities of non-working adults gaining coverage through the Medicaid expansion in Ohio and Michigan said having health care made it easier to look for work, while majorities of working adults said coverage made it easier to work or made them better at their jobs. Finally, most jobs that Medicaid beneficiaries already have or are likely to get are low wage, neither paying enough for them to shift into subsidized individual market coverage nor offering employer-based coverage, so they would still need Medicaid. Among workers with earnings in the bottom fourth of the wage distribution, only 37 percent are offered health coverage by their employer, according to Labor Department data.
And less than a quarter of the overall wage group actually obtain coverage, presumably in large part because required employee premium contributions are often higher than low-wage workers can afford. After evaluating the initial data from Arkansas, the non-partisan Medicaid and CHIP Payment and Access Commission recommended that the Administration immediately pause on allowing any more people to lose coverage in Arkansas as well as on approving work requirements in other states.
Goold, and John Z. Unintended Consequences Are Inevitable Result.
January 10, Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PDF of this report 11 pp. More on this topic June 28, November 14, March 14, April 11,