In every Taluk there will be an extension officer post to carry out the activities. Training will be fiven to self-help groups about cattle development and also about nutrition for cattle. Also the Department activities are discussed in gram sabhas. This programme is sponsored by Central Government. The census is carried out on major livestock products like milk, eggs wool and meat. Also the farmers are made aware of the raring of animals, which in the main intension are model Census and are carried out since Also this programme mainly shows the economical status of the farmers.
Under this Programme the schedule tribe beneficiaries are selected in gram sabhas. The selected beneficiaries caste certificate Photo and ration card is to given to the taluk Assistant Director. Under this scheme buffaloes are given to beneficiaries. The unit cost is Rs. The loan amount of Rs.
Then beneficiarier will be given two upgraded she buffaloes covered with insurance. Under this programme beneficiaries belonging to schedule caste are selected in grama Sabha. The selected beneficiaries will have to produce caste certificate passport size photo and ration card copy and residential certificate. There are 2 units in this programme. Pura have Buffalo units. Courses in applied research, scientific research methods and project management form an integral part of this Bachelor programme.
In addition, you will acquire scientific knowledge of the main species within the husbandry system: cattle, horses, pigs and poultry. Upon graduation, you will qualify for a wide array of jobs throughout the industry - ranging from entrepreneur or manager of your own business to consultant or supplier. Within the Bachelor of Animal Husbandry, you can specialise in the following professional fields:. We also have the programme Animal Husbandry in Leeuwarden, this programme is taught in Dutch. You can read everything about the regulations and examinations in the: Education and Examination Regulations of Animal Husbandry.
For some individuals, general anaesthesia may be necessary — this should be judged on a case-by-case basis. Alternatively the animal may be tattooed when anaesthetised for another purpose. Image: Wendy Gomez. Cradling the animal and talking softly provides some comfort during handling. This macaque is habituated to human contact and remains calm enough to be handled with light gloves.
The tense mouth indicates some tension, so handling time is minimised. Being handled and restrained is stressful for macaques as they perceive it as an aggressive act. Aggressive, fearful or resistant animals are more difficult and dangerous to work with. Stress also results in physiological responses that increase unwanted data variability. Forcibly removing animals from an enclosure can cause injury, stress and take more time. Where possible, perform procedures in the home area and training animals to cooperate with them using positive reinforcement.
Because the animals have some control over the situation, by retaining relative freedom of movement, they show reduced stress responses. Animals of unknown health status should be handled with gauntlets for protection from scratches, bites and infections. If animals need to be moved out of the home area, this is best done by training to enter a transport or capture cage see the Transport tab above.
Whilst not completely stress free for the animal, this method is usually more humane than use of the pole-and-collar. Young macaques, and animals of known, safe health status, may be hand-caught and held if they are well habituated. Lightweight gloves provide greater sensitivity to pressure applied than thick gauntlets.
Handling macaques is an advanced skill which should be an essential part of staff training with ongoing competency assessments. Restraint chairs are used for prolonged restraint in a sitting position. If chair restraint is required, then it should be refined: Chairs need to be well-designed and suitable in size and operation for the individual animals in order to prevent injury and discomfort.
Useful design features include:. Captive feeding regimes should aim to emulate natural foraging and dietary requirements.
Foraging in substrate from NC3Rs on Vimeo. Sunflower seeds from NC3Rs on Vimeo. Video: BFC. Eating whole banana from NC3Rs on Vimeo. Primates require a varied nutritional content in their diet see the Diet tab under Behaviour. Energy requirements may differ between individuals based on species, age, sex, body weight, health, reproductive status and environment i. For recommendations on the general nutritional requirements for non-human primates, and macaques in particular, see the following references.
You can also consult a primate nutrition specialist.
Predictability of general husbandry procedures has been shown to be important for animal welfare. For example, whilst feeding times at a macaque facility typically occur within a given time frame, this event can sometimes be delayed e. This causes a semi-predictable event to become unpredictable, resulting in a significant, negative behavioural and physiological changes in the animals i. Predictability is invariably linked with the concept of control; control can be gained by animals in a predictable environment, and providing an element of control can make an environment more predictable.
Predictability of an event can be both temporal the event occurring consistently at the same time of the day and signalled the event preceded by a reliable signal. Giving animals a signal that an event, whether positive or negative, is about to take place can reduce their long-term anticipation of it. Signals can be used for husbandry procedures, such as feeding or cleaning, animal-human interactions e.
Husbandry definition is - the cultivation or production of plants or animals: agriculture. How to use husbandry in a sentence. Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised for meat, fibre, milk, eggs, or other products. It includes day-to-day care.
Something as simple as a specific sound or coloured card can be used to signify a given event; animals will quickly associate the two. So in the above example, if feeding time is kept as consistent as possible and always combined with a signal, then the effect of any delay in temporal predictability could be mitigated by the use of signalled predictability. Floor substrate, such as soft wood shavings, improve cleaning regimes, as they absorb urine and faeces and avoid the need for wet cleaning daily.
It is important that enclosures are clean and hygienic to maintain the health of captive macaques.
However, cleaning procedures can be an acutely stressful experience for the animals, leading to increased heart rate 28 and stress-related behaviour. Macaques should be removed from the enclosure before wet cleaning with hoses. A semi-outdoor enclosure is enriched with brightly coloured environmental enrichment items.
The slatted base allows faecal waste to be cleaned from under the enclosure with limited disruption to the animals. Transport can be a stressful experience for macaques, whether it be between rooms, facilities or countries. Minimising the reaction to stressors, using desensitisation see the Habituation and training tab above , is important for animal welfare reasons.
These recently weaned macaques are learning to enter a baited transport container adjoined to the home enclosure Image: MRC Centre for Macaques. Macaques can be trained using positive reinforcement techniques to enter a transport container on request: Flexible caging from NC3Rs on Vimeo. This macaque is trained to voluntarily enter a transport container on request.
Journeys between establishments should be planned in advance. A journey plan should be agreed between the provider and recipient. This should list the responsibilities of the individuals involved and the events at each stage of transport. The following factors should be taken into consideration. Most forms of quarantine are intended to protect human health through screening and treatment of the animals, or to detect disease in the animals, but the process can have a considerable impact on animal welfare.
On arrival, imported macaques are likely to be disoriented and fearful of their new surroundings, and stressed by isolation from former social companions, coupled with fear of unfamiliar animals and humans in close proximity. Some exporting and importing centres, set up to deal with large batches of macaques, house the animals singly in small cages with little or no enrichment.
Negative experiences and behavioural pathologies that develop during quarantine periods can have long-term effects and may counter the value of refinement and enrichment efforts applied subsequently. Opportunities to refine quarantine Habituating animals to research, veterinary and husbandry procedures will help to reduce the fear and distress such activities may cause. Macaques should be habituated to humans and procedures as early in life as possible, while still in their family group. The presence of habituated adults will help to reassure younger individuals. Strategies for habituating animals include: When habituating animals to procedures, develop a slow build up to the complete procedure.
For example, prior to injecting an unrestrained animal, training should first take place to accustom the macaque to:. These steps should be progressive and always positively rewarded. Also reward after the completion of the entire procedure, in order to ensure that the training session finishes on a positive note.
It is helpful to developing a plan in advance, showing the steps for shaping the behaviour to the desired end goal successive approximation. Hand feeding from NC3Rs on Vimeo. Training weaned animals to take food from the hand with provide a foundation for later, more complex training efforts. It can also help the juvenile animals to establish their own hierarchy in a non-confrontational manner.
Hand feeding weaned infants from NC3Rs on Vimeo. Socialising breeding group from NC3Rs on Vimeo. The aim of training is to shape a behaviour so that the animal actively responds in a way that is desired by the trainer for the purpose of an activity.
Training macaques to cooperate with scientific, husbandry and veterinary procedures can have significant benefits for animal welfare , research and staff, especially when combined with socialisation, habituation and desensitisation. The key points for developing a successful training program include: Chicken training camp from NC3Rs on Vimeo.
This video on training chickens demonstrates how a training goal can be broken down into manageable behaviours. Have realistic expectations of training time and likely outcomes. Here we present examples of training in macaques for a variety of purposes and the length of time taken to achieve the goal. The length of time holding the peg was increased using constant access to a juice bottle. Breaking position resulted in the loss of the reward.