The lowest-priced item that has been used or worn previously. The item may have some signs of cosmetic wear, but is fully operational and functions as intended. This item may be a floor model or store return that has been used. See details for description of any imperfections.
Skip to main content. We're sorry, something went wrong. Please try again.
About this product. Stock photo. Pre-owned: lowest price The lowest-priced item that has been used or worn previously. See details. See all 2 pre-owned listings. Buy It Now. Add to cart. Be the first to write a review About this product.
Many religious and philosophical traditions support the view that the soul is the ethereal substance — a spirit; a non material spark — particular to a unique living being. Such traditions often consider the soul both immortal and innately aware of its immortal nature, as well as the true basis for sentience in each living being.
The concept of the soul has strong links with notions of an afterlife, but opinions may vary wildly even within a given religion as to what happens to the soul after death. Many within these religions and philosophies see the soul as immaterial, while others consider it possibly material. In theological reference to the soul, the terms "life" and "death" are viewed as emphatically more definitive than the common concepts of " biological life " and "biological death".
Because the soul is said to be transcendent of the material existence, and is said to have potentially eternal life , the death of the soul is likewise said to be an eternal death.
Thus, in the concept of divine judgment , God is commonly said to have options with regard to the dispensation of souls, ranging from Heaven i. Typically both Heaven and hell are said to be eternal, or at least far beyond a typical human concept of lifespan and time. According to Louis Ginzberg , soul of Adam is the image of God. In Brahma Kumaris , human souls are believed to be incorporeal and eternal. God is considered to be the Supreme Soul, with maximum degrees of spiritual qualities, such as peace, love and purity.
In Helena Blavatsky 's Theosophy , the soul is the field of our psychological activity thinking, emotions, memory, desires, will, and so on as well as of the so-called paranormal or psychic phenomena extrasensory perception, out-of-body experiences, etc. However, the soul is not the highest, but a middle dimension of human beings. Higher than the soul is the spirit, which is considered to be the real self; the source of everything we call "good"—happiness, wisdom, love, compassion, harmony, peace, etc. While the spirit is eternal and incorruptible, the soul is not.
The soul acts as a link between the material body and the spiritual self, and therefore shares some characteristics of both. The soul can be attracted either towards the spiritual or towards the material realm, being thus the "battlefield" of good and evil. It is only when the soul is attracted towards the spiritual and merges with the Self that it becomes eternal and divine.
Rudolf Steiner claimed classical trichotomic stages of soul development, which interpenetrated one another in consciousness: . In Surat Shabda Yoga , the soul is considered to be an exact replica and spark of the Divine. Similarly, the spiritual teacher Meher Baba held that "Atma, or the soul, is in reality identical with Paramatma the Oversoul — which is one, infinite, and eternal Eckankar , founded by Paul Twitchell in , defines Soul as the true self; the inner, most sacred part of each person.
The ancient Greeks used the word " ensouled " to represent the concept of being "alive", indicating that the earliest surviving western philosophical view believed that the soul was that which gave the body life. Francis M. Cornford quotes Pindar by saying that the soul sleeps while the limbs are active, but when one is sleeping, the soul is active and reveals "an award of joy or sorrow drawing near" in dreams.
Erwin Rohde writes that an early pre- Pythagorean belief presented the soul as lifeless when it departed the body, and that it retired into Hades with no hope of returning to a body. Drawing on the words of his teacher Socrates, Plato considered the psyche to be the essence of a person, being that which decides how we behave. He considered this essence to be an incorporeal, eternal occupant of our being. Plato says that even after death, the soul exists and is able to think.
He believed that as bodies die, the soul is continually reborn in subsequent bodies. However, Aristotle believed that only one part of the soul was immortal namely the intellect logos. The Platonic soul consists of three parts: . Plato also compares the three parts of the soul or psyche to a societal caste system.
According to Plato's theory, the three-part soul is essentially the same thing as a state's class system because, to function well, each part must contribute so that the whole functions well. Logos keeps the other functions of the soul regulated. In Aristotle's view, the primary activity, or full actualization, of a living thing constitutes its soul.
For example, the full actualization of an eye, as an independent organism, is to see its purpose or final cause. This organization between form and matter is necessary for any activity, or functionality, to be possible in a natural being. Using an artifact non-natural being as an example, a house is a building for human habituation, but for a house to be actualized requires the material wood, nails, bricks, etc. However, this does not imply that a house has a soul.
In regards to artifacts, the source of motion that is required for their full actualization is outside of themselves for example, a builder builds a house. In natural beings, this source of motion is contained within the being itself. The various faculties of the soul , such as nutrition, movement peculiar to animals , reason peculiar to humans , sensation special, common, and incidental and so forth, when exercised, constitute the "second" actuality, or fulfillment, of the capacity to be alive. For example, someone who falls asleep, as opposed to someone who falls dead, can wake up and live their life, while the latter can no longer do so.
Aristotle's discussion of the soul is in his work, De Anima On the Soul. Although mostly seen as opposing Plato in regard to the immortality of the soul, a controversy can be found in relation to the fifth chapter of the third book: In this text both interpretations can be argued for, soul as a whole can be deemed mortal, and a part called "active intellect" or "active mind" is immortal and eternal.
Following Aristotle, Avicenna Ibn Sina and Ibn al-Nafis , an Arab physician, further elaborated upon the Aristotelian understanding of the soul and developed their own theories on the soul. They both made a distinction between the soul and the spirit, and the Avicennian doctrine on the nature of the soul was influential among the Scholastics. Some of Avicenna's views on the soul include the idea that the immortality of the soul is a consequence of its nature, and not a purpose for it to fulfill.
In his theory of "The Ten Intellects", he viewed the human soul as the tenth and final intellect. While he was imprisoned, Avicenna wrote his famous "Floating Man" thought experiment to demonstrate human self-awareness and the substantial nature of the soul. He argues that in this scenario one would still have self-consciousness.
He thus concludes that the idea of the self is not logically dependent on any physical thing , and that the soul should not be seen in relative terms , but as a primary given, a substance. Avicenna generally supported Aristotle's idea of the soul originating from the heart , whereas Ibn al-Nafis rejected this idea and instead argued that the soul "is related to the entirety and not to one or a few organs ".
He further criticized Aristotle's idea whereby every unique soul requires the existence of a unique source, in this case the heart. Following Aristotle whom he referred to as "the Philosopher" and Avicenna, Thomas Aquinas —74 understood the soul to be the first actuality of the living body. Consequent to this, he distinguished three orders of life: plants, which feed and grow; animals, which add sensation to the operations of plants; and humans, which add intellect to the operations of animals.
Concerning the human soul, his epistemological theory required that, since the knower becomes what he knows, the soul is definitely not corporeal—if it is corporeal when it knows what some corporeal thing is, that thing would come to be within it. Furthermore, since the rational soul of human beings is a subsistent form and not something made of matter and form, it cannot be destroyed in any natural process. In his discussions of rational psychology, Immanuel Kant — identified the soul as the "I" in the strictest sense, and argued that the existence of inner experience can neither be proved nor disproved.
We cannot prove a priori the immateriality of the soul, but rather only so much: that all properties and actions of the soul cannot be recognized from materiality. It is from the "I", or soul, that Kant proposes transcendental rationalization, but cautions that such rationalization can only determine the limits of knowledge if it is to remain practical.
Psychologist James Hillman's archetypal psychology is an attempt to restore the concept of the soul, which Hillman viewed as the "self-sustaining and imagining substrate" upon which consciousness rests. Hillman described the soul as that "which makes meaning possible, [deepens] events into experiences, is communicated in love, and has a religious concern", as well as "a special relation with death".
The current scientific consensus across all fields is that there is no evidence for the existence of any kind of soul in the traditional sense.
Many modern scientists, such as Julien Musolino, hold that the mind is merely a complex machine that operates on the same physical laws as all other objects in the universe. Neuroscience as an interdisciplinary field, and its branch of cognitive neuroscience particularly, operates under the ontological assumption of physicalism. In other words, it assumes—in order to perform its science—that only the fundamental phenomena studied by physics exist. Thus, neuroscience seeks to understand mental phenomena within the framework according to which human thought and behavior are caused solely by physical processes taking place inside the brain, and it operates by the way of reductionism by seeking an explanation for the mind in terms of brain activity.
To study the mind in terms of the brain several methods of functional neuroimaging are used to study the neuroanatomical correlates of various cognitive processes that constitute the mind. The evidence from brain imaging indicates that all processes of the mind have physical correlates in brain function. Identification of causation , and of necessary and sufficient conditions requires explicit experimental manipulation of that activity. If manipulation of brain activity changes consciousness, then a causal role for that brain activity can be inferred.
In a loss-of-function also called "necessity" experiment, a part of the nervous system is diminished or removed in an attempt to determine if it is necessary for a certain process to occur, and in a gain-of-function also called "sufficiency" experiment, an aspect of the nervous system is increased relative to normal. In addition, neuroscientists are also investigating how the mind develops with the development of the brain. Physicist Sean M. Carroll has written that the idea of a soul is incompatible with quantum field theory QFT.
He writes that for a soul to exist: "Not only is new physics required, but dramatically new physics. Within QFT, there can't be a new collection of 'spirit particles' and 'spirit forces' that interact with our regular atoms, because we would have detected them in existing experiments. Some parapsychologists have attempted to establish, by scientific experiment, whether a soul separate from the brain exists, as is more commonly defined in religion rather than as a synonym of psyche or mind.
Milbourne Christopher and Mary Roach have argued that none of the attempts by parapsychologists have yet succeeded. In Duncan MacDougall conducted an experiment in which he made weight measurements of patients as they died. He claimed that there was weight loss of varying amounts at the time of death; he concluded the soul weighed 21 grams.
Park has written that MacDougall's experiments "are not regarded today as having any scientific merit" and the psychologist Bruce Hood wrote that "because the weight loss was not reliable or replicable, his findings were unscientific. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The incorporeal essence of a living being. For other uses, see Soul disambiguation. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. October Learn how and when to remove this template message.
See also: Spirit. See also: Soul in the Bible and Christian mortalism. Main articles: Immortality of the soul , Christian conditionalism , Christian mortalism , and Annihilationism. Further information: Jain philosophy and Jainism and non-creationism. This article relies too much on references to primary sources. Please improve this by adding secondary or tertiary sources. April Learn how and when to remove this template message.
Main article: Zoroastrianism. Main article: Plato's tripartite theory of soul. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Main article: Philosophy of mind. Retrieved 1 December Archived from the original on 20 December Retrieved 14 December Retrieved 12 November The New York Times. Archived from the original on 24 April Retrieved 18 November In a mountainous kingdom in what is now southeastern Turkey, there lived in the eighth century B.
The words instructed mourners to commemorate his life and afterlife with feasts "for my soul that is in this stele. Archived from the original on 3 March Retrieved 23 February Archived from the original on 4 March Oxford: George Ronald. A Short History of Buddhism. Archived from the original on 13 March Retrieved 13 November Archived from the original on 9 October Archived from the original on 21 November Archived from the original on 30 December Alan Wallace , Contemplative Science. University of Columbia Press, , p. Doctrine and Covenants.
Archived from the original on 28 November In St. Paul we find a more technical phraseology employed with great consistency. Psyche is now appropriated to the purely natural life; pneuma to the life of supernatural religion, the principle of which is the Holy Spirit, dwelling and operating in the heart. The opposition of flesh and spirit is accentuated afresh Romans , etc. This Pauline system, presented to a world already prepossessed in favour of a quasi-Platonic Dualism, occasioned one of the earliest widespread forms of error among Christian writers — the doctrine of the Trichotomy.
According to this, man, perfect man teleios consists of three parts: body, soul, spirit soma, psyche, pneuma. Archived from the original on 29 June What nonsense". The Times. Archived from the original on 18 September Archived from the original on 16 November The Watchtower : 3—5. Archived from the original on 31 December Archived from the original on 12 March Archived from the original on 8 April Retrieved 7 April Dao Companion to Japanese Confucian Philosophy. Dao Companions to Chinese Philosophy. Dordrecht: Springer.
Retrieved 27 April The Philosophy of the Upanishads. Cosimo Classics June 1, Thus we can see in the Upanishads, a tendency towards a convergence of microcosm and macrocosm, culminating in the equating of atman with Brahman".
Put very briefly, this is the [Buddhist] doctrine that human beings have no soul, no self, no unchanging essence. Plants as Persons: A Philosophical Botany. State University of New York Press. Outlines Of Jainism. Cambridge University Press. Buddhism and Jainism. Encyclopedia of Indian Religions. Springer Netherlands. Yoga and the Hindu Tradition. Motilal Banarsidass. Brahman: A Comparative Theology.
The International Medical Journal. Islam In Perspective revised ed. Author House. Retrieved 15 July — via Google Books. All Famous Quotes. Archived from the original on 21 September See Leibowitz, Aryeh Feldheim Publishers. Reb Chaim HaQoton. Archived from the original on 9 November Retrieved 11 July Judaism Archived from the original on 22 August Archived from the original on 8 March Revisiting Usog, Pasma, Kulam. University of the Philippines Press. In James J. Fox ed. Expressions of Austronesian Thought and Emotions. ANU Press. Inculturation of Filipino-Chinese Culture Mentality.
Interreligious and Intercultural Investigations.