Islam , major world religion promulgated by the Prophet Muhammad in Arabia in the 7th century ce.
Allah is viewed as the sole God—creator, sustainer, and restorer of the world. Retaining its emphasis on an uncompromising monotheism and a strict adherence to certain essential religious practices, the religion taught by Muhammad to a small group of followers spread rapidly through the Middle East to Africa, Europe , the Indian subcontinent, the Malay Peninsula , and China. By the early 21st century there were more than 1. Although many sectarian movements have arisen within Islam, all Muslims are bound by a common faith and a sense of belonging to a single community.
This article deals with the fundamental beliefs and practices of Islam and with the connection of religion and society in the Islamic world. The history of the various peoples who embraced Islam is covered in the article Islamic world. From the very beginning of Islam, Muhammad had inculcated a sense of brotherhood and a bond of faith among his followers, both of which helped to develop among them a feeling of close relationship that was accentuated by their experiences of persecution as a nascent community in Mecca. In ce , when the Prophet migrated to Medina , his preaching was soon accepted, and the community-state of Islam emerged.
Thus, there is not only an Islamic religious institution but also an Islamic law , state, and other institutions governing society.
Not until the 20th century were the religious private and the secular public distinguished by some Muslim thinkers and separated formally in certain places such as Turkey. The period of Islamic conquests and empire building marks the first phase of the expansion of Islam as a religion. They were, however, required to pay a per capita tax called jizyah , as opposed to pagans, who were required to either accept Islam or die.
A much more massive expansion of Islam after the 12th century was inaugurated by the Sufis Muslim mystics , who were mainly responsible for the spread of Islam in India , Central Asia, Turkey, and sub-Saharan Africa see below.
Beside the jihad and Sufi missionary activity, another factor in the spread of Islam was the far-ranging influence of Muslim traders, who not only introduced Islam quite early to the Indian east coast and South India but also proved to be the main catalytic agents beside the Sufis in converting people to Islam in Indonesia , Malaya, and China. Islam was introduced to Indonesia in the 14th century, hardly having time to consolidate itself there politically before the region came under Dutch hegemony. The vast variety of races and cultures embraced by Islam an estimated total of more than 1.
All segments of Muslim society, however, are bound by a common faith and a sense of belonging to a single community.
Using a remarkable set of sources that record the voices of men and women who want to dissolve their marriages, Engel enters the most intimate dimensions of human relationships. We learn that, as in the United States, married women could not dispose of their own persons. But they could and did own and control property. And that made all the difference when it came to questions of male honor, of child custody, of domestic violence, and of romantic love. This book illuminates the social history of family everywhere.
In a context of rigid laws and changing attitudes toward marital, family, and personal life, conservative state officials felt compelled to respond to petitions from distressed wives by providing them with a means of escaping broken marriages and living independently. The personal stories of Title Breaking the Ties That Bound.
Edition First Edition. Author Barbara Alpern Engel.
The coma patient screamed her inaudible words: Who am I? Who is this man crying over me in my bed? Answer me! Why can't you hear me? So begins the final. Find helpful customer reviews and review ratings for Bound To Tradition Book 3 - The Separation at rapyzure.tk Read honest and unbiased product reviews.
Publisher Cornell University Press. BIC time period qualifier 3JH c to c Title First Published 04 February Format Hardcover.
ISBN Publication Ithaca, United States. Main content page count Illustrations 22 Illustrations. Dimensions 6. Weight 19 oz.
Onix Version 2. Format Paperback. Weight 15 oz. Also of interest.
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